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Information Systems development

There a wide range of definitions of Information Systems (IS) because of this paper I have chosen to use a Laudon and Laudon classification. "An Information system is a couple of interrelated components that collect, process, store and deliver information to aid decision making within an organisation". Laudon and Laudon (2004)

The development of such systems is done by using a group of methodologies and procedures that can be used in order to build up and make use of the info system (IS) to the best of their potential. Over time IS has progressed immensely with many different types of computer systems such as Basic data control systems, Integrated data handling systems, Decision Support Systems and Management Information Systems. With each system the has grown in regards to what could be achieved with such systems. IS is rolling out from one of the oldest development tools: Flow charting in the 1920s, to later in the 1960s when software development technique emerged. About the 1970s business journals began to publish articles on IS whose characteristics and features differed from these of previous systems. These systems effected the management of many different organisations and managers began to be familiar with their functions, characteristics, design school of thought, elements and structure. Corresponding to Elliott (2004) the Systems development life circuit is considered to be the oldest formalized methodology for building information systems, and can be found today. Information technology departments that are in greater organisations tend to strongly influence the information technology growth such as the decision support tools using the Web because of their examination and their use of visual consumer interfaces that allow decision manufacturers to be versatile, efficient, and also to easily view and process the info and models by using familiar Web browsers.

From a managerial possible many of the failures of information systems development have been caused by traditional methods, due to the way in which the organisations have interacted with the technology and exactly how technology caused the organization's business processes. Mintzberg's (1980) common study of top professionals suggests that professionals perform 10 major tasks that can be categorized into three major categories, Interpersonal, Informational and Decisional. Each of which consists of subcategories, Interpersonal contains Figurehead: which engaged the manager carrying out jobs such as ceremonial and symbolic duties as the top of the company. Leader: involving an effective work atmosphere of exterior contacts to assemble information. Liaison: develops and sustains a network of external contacts to assemble information.

Informational involves the following; Screen: gathering inner and exterior information relevant to the company. Disseminator that transmits factual and value founded information to subordinates. Spokesperson: that communicates to the outside world on performance and polices. And the final category Decisional this calls for Entrepreneur: which designs and initiates change in the company. Disturbance: whereby the handler handles unexpected occurrences and operational malfunction. The Reference Allocator: that settings and authorises the use of organisational resources. And lastly the Negotiator: which participates in the negotiation of activities with

other organisations and individuals. To execute these roles professionals need their

information to be provided accurately, proficiently and reliability. As well as the information they might need the managers also need to utilize the computers right to support and improve decision making.

Nichols (1969) Information and the management hierarchy reading, tells of the amount or quantity of information that is provided to each decision maker is a function of the status of the arts and the individual decision manufacturer as determined by the use of the tailoring concept. The managerial hierarchy and the degree of conclusion of information by where there is a top, middle and lower degree of management. It's the information that exists in the inner environment and the environment where the organisation prevails is the exterior environment.

This means the level of information is summarized more and more as the levels of management increase on the hierarchy composition, with top level management getting the most summarized information.

The amount of framework is also central, Gorry and Scott-Morton's traditional framework which is dependant on Simon (1977) reading, the recommendation that decision making operations show up along a continuum that ranges from highly organised to highly unstructured decisions. The composition processes being the daily habit and repetitive problems that standard solution methods can be found. Semi organised problems are ones that fall season between organized and unstructured and also that contain components of both. Unstructured operations are complicated and where there is no simple solution. The steps of control; Cleverness, Design, Choice and Execution where later added by Simon (1977). This involved searching for conditions that demand decisions, Inventing, developing and studying possible alternative courses of action, selecting a course of action from among those available and going back phase to change the selected plan of action for your choice situation.

A system designer's job is to specify the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for something to satisfy given requirements. In Mason's reading (1969) what sort of designer answers the next questions will rely upon the way the system is created. 1. What's the best point of articulation between your information system and the decision maker? That is, where should the information system end and your choice maker get started? 2. What is the nature of the assumptions which are incorporated in the information system and which therefore affect the user's decision making. 3. Are they steady with the decision makers needs?

It is up to the custom made how he right answers these questions. The designer's choice centres on the collection of activities which commences with the status of the business enterprise itself and ends with the real decision. The collection of activities are summarised by Mason (1969) the following:

  • A source consisting of the activities and objects that happen to be relevant to the business enterprise.
  • The observation, dimension and recording of data from the source.
  • The pulling of inferences and predictions from the data.
  • The evaluation of inferences in regards to to the beliefs of the business and the choosing of a plan of action.
  • The taking of the course of action.

The first point of articulation between the information system and your choice manufacturer occurs when they are separated between the procedure for collecting data which of attracting inferences. That is sometimes referred to as a databank or data source approach.

In addition to this point Nichols's (1969) classification and Information, whereby he suggests that many people decrease the diversity with their environment to manageable order by resorting to the classification and the forming of basic ideas about sets of things. Simply put people use it as an aid to comprehend the information. That is called Information technology, and this requires four steps if it's to be useful beyond as soon as of observation or beneficial to individuals and groups other than the observer is also important. The classification of data, establishment of steps for recording data that facilitates recall and also sufficiently simplifies the procedure, summarisation of data that is grouped and saved and the specs of the collection process of the machine.

The Classification reduces the complexity of the materials, provides a method of identification by grouping similar things collectively, provides a record of experience and orders and relates classes of incidents. Three characteristics are: The classes should never overlap and must be mutually exclusive. The things in the classification system must maintain distinct categories. The basis of the classification must be related for some specific goal.

Ackoffs (1967) reading shows that there can be an abundance of irrelevant information leading to the biggest problem for managers as apposed to too little relevant information. For any manager to do his/her job properly they do not have to understand how an IS works just learn how to use it. The manager's dependence on the info that he/she requires are hardly ever satisfied, therefore the better the communication between professionals means the improvement in the organisations performance. With out a construction the Management Information System (MIS) would tend to provide the strongest director and therefore fail to do its process, and this subsequently brings unnecessary charge to the organisation. It is an essential part of looking at a management information system if the organisation is to plan effectively. I came across that Rappaport's (1968) reading somewhat will abide by Ackoffs theory, that professionals should learn and learn how to do their job. Professionals should develop better techniques and suggestions for example using exception reporting for discovering systems costs and also to create a more reliable method for selecting systems designers.

The design of a MIS corresponding to H. Van der Heijden (2009) is the shaping of data from purchase systems into management information systems, for the purpose of managerial decision making. The info is designed by structuring, querying, aggregation and visualization. Then it must be judged concerning its suitability by the managers who will make the decisions.

Gorry (1971) will take the view a framework developed here's one for managerial activities and not for information systems. It is away of looking at decisions that are made in an business. Information systems should exist and then support decisions and therefore we are searching for a characterisation of organisational activity in terms of the sort of decisions involved. Keens (1980) newspaper on Translating analytic techniques

into useful tools agrees with Gorry on the available technology that becomes an opportunity for managers for taking advantage of and help them in their own jobs and independently terms. Different types of Frameworks can be found from the traditional Waterfall model right through to new models such as Fast request design.

Decision Support Systems are manufactured to help people make decisions by giving usage of information and analytical tools. A DSS allows the users to present what-if questions and by changing a number of variables will uncover what the final results would be. The classification of any DSS can be done in several ways as don't assume all DSS will fit into one category, there is generally a mix of two or more architectures in a single. Holsapple and Whinston grouped DSS into six frameworks; Text-oriented, Database-oriented, Spreadsheet-oriented, Solver-oriented, Rule-oriented and Compound DSS. Typically the most popular is the classification of the hybrid system which includes two or more of the five basic structures. The support given by DSS can be separated into three parts Personal, Group and Organizational support. The components could be labeled as Inputs: factors, quantities and characteristics to investigate. End user knowledge and Expertise: inputs needing manual analysis by an individual. Outputs: changed data from which decisions are generated. Decisions: the results generated by the DSS predicated on user standards.

DSS facilitates the manager's decisions somewhat than replaces their judgement. It really is a simple managerial activity. An example from the newspaper: a branding administrator must determine prices, promotion and advertising finances and sales team allocation for a product. Up to now, he has established advertising expenses as a percent of the sales forecast. That is a convenient guideline but naturally not the best way, since advertising should surely effect sales. The manager has computer accounts and forecasts available, but the majority of his research is completed informally. He has many years of experience in his job and seems he has a good sense of this market.

He makes his decision sequentially: he establishes price first, forecasts sales, and then perhaps adjusts the price and makes a new forecast. Next, he sets the advertising budget. As he lacks enough time for a details research, he only talks about a few combinations. However this system does little to aid this decision process for the supervisor if he's unwilling to make use of the DDS. Keens (1980) advises the managers attention to this approach could be organised better and with some work the parameters, constraints and romantic relationships could be discovered and a single solution derived, but it is up to the supervisor to connect to the system to achieve the optimum article. Also the manager must be engaged in every design aspects of the machine.

As the design of the system must be completely understood, I came across Huber's (1981) description useful as he has outlined the following set of four conceptual models for portraying and interpreting organisations decision surroundings. They are the Rational Model, the Political/Competitive Model, the Garbage Can Model and the Program Model. These four models serve the procedure in three various ways. They offer a platform of interpreting your choice making in organisations. The DSS are generally more useful if they're custom designed for the decision maker's environment and the model suggests the type of information and decision aids which may be useful in specific types of organizational environments.

Uma V Devi article on the Role of your choice system for decision making process in global environment clarifies clearly what's required of the DSS. The main aspects of the DSS are simplicity, its ability to allow non technical people to deal with the machine directly. Problems that may appear with the DSS is not allowing the individual who needs the systems data the most, package with the machine directly. These details should not be restricted to specific users of the system. The resources should be distributed between all and then no data will go unused as it did so before.

The ideal Decision Support System in distinct contrast to earlier methods of planning applications shouldn't be a system at all in the rigid sense of the word. Instead it ought to be a system with a higher decision support generator that can be used by specialists that can design prototypes to suit the specific needs of the tasks. This adaptive tool must allow quick design changes if the initial design will not closely match a person's information gathering style or needs. To effectively support the human being element, this highly adaptive support capability must be able to provide usage of operational data and the concerning summarise data that already has been processed by software programs suitable for other specific functional tasks. Similarly important this tool must definitely provide the professional with access to an organization's raw data and it must also allow the usage of be accomplished in a single step utilizing a single uncomplicated treatment or command, without having to re-key non summation data.

Conclusion

The overall views of Information System development is rolling out immensely over time and its continued expansion with new systems are emerging on a regular basis.

For data to be produced meaningful it will need to have a purpose. The purpose of the stored data should reveal the purpose and kind of the info system. The improvement of organisations and the information systems in them is not really a matter of earning more information available, but to limit the real human attention such that it can give attention to the info that is most significant and most relevant to the decisions which may have to be made.

References

Ackoff, R. L. (1967). "Management Misinformation Systems. " Management Knowledge.

Gorry, G. A. and M. S. S. Morton (1971). "Framework for Management Information Systems. " Sloan Management Review.

Huber, G. P. (1981). "The Nature of Organizational Decision Making and the look of Decision Support Systems. " MIS Quarterly.

Keen, P. G. W. (1980). "Decision Support Systems - Translating Analytic Techniques into Useful Tools. " Sloan Management Review.

Mason, R. (1969). "Basic Ideas for Planning Management Information Systems. " AIS Research Newspaper No. 8.

Mintzberg, H. and F. Westley (2001). "Decision making: It's not what you think. " MIT Sloan Management Review.

Nichols, G. E. (1969). "On THE TYPE of Management Information. " Management Accounting.

Rappaport, A. (1968). "Management misinformation systems - another point of view. " Management Knowledge.

Sprague Jr. , R. H. (1980). "A Construction for the Development of Decision Support Systems. " MIS Quarterly.

Sprague Jr. , R. H. and H. J. Watson (1979). "Piece by piece: Toward Decision Support Systems. "California Management Review.

Simon

Web references

http://ezinearticles. com/?Role-of-Decision-Support-System-For-Decision-Making-Process-in-Global-Business-Environment&identification=2315787

http://www. provenmodels. com/88/ten-managerial-roles/henry-mintzberg/

H. Van der Heijden (2009)

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