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Informal Careers in Nicaragua

  • Freddy Espinoza

Nicaragua is a under-developed nation situated in Central America. The administrative centre of Nicaragua is Managua. It's the biggest country of the region with an expansion of 129, 442 km2. Nevertheless its human population is small in comparison with its size, only 6, 071, 042 habitants, although some cities like the administrative centre, Managua, and Leon are overpopulated.

Nicaragua has had hard knocks in its economical history, but also has had good times. In the 60's the economy of the country was good and increasing as a result of industrialization but it began to reduce when people started to feel the oppression of the dictatorship. Also the market was losing ability because only the federal government and its own allies possessed all the money; they were the most significant owners of the industries while the rest of the human population was poor. Then in 1972 the overall economy got worst because of the earthquake of this year which destroyed almost complete the downtown of the capital; many business and factories were damaged so the development of the united states decreased. In 1979 started out the trend (civil war) from the dictatorship Anastacio Somoza, causing an extremely low monetary performance.

During the revolution people were struggling with in the rural areas therefore most of the croplands were destroyed. This brought on the creation of food to decrease and due to the shortage between the demand and the supply the prices were compelled to increase in order to written agreement the demand. Also the revolutionaries were recruiting men to be able to have significantly more power and fight against the National Shield, that was the president's personal army. The reclusion induced a lack of labor for the development of goods because they had almost all their people working in their guard. With this low creation the inflation rate come to a percentage of 70% in 1979. The communist authorities of Daniel Ortega overthrew Somoza nonetheless they didn't do something best for the market. They stayed in the power by imposing durability and controlling the imports and exports, therefore the other countries with different thinking couldn't export to Nicaragua because the government wouldn't normally let their products come into the united states.

Due the political and economical crises in those times, Nicaragua's external debt increased too much, even more than its gross domestic product; being your debt impossible to pay. Since that time, federal government companies have been privatizing in order to reduce the external credit debt. Nowadays the economy has improved upon but there are still delimited works and unemployment setting up a social-economic problem because many people have opted for casual jobs.

Informal careers are a kind of work occurring mostly in developing countries, they are characterized by employments that don't adhere to legal formalities. They are divided in two: income work and self-employment. In Nicaragua casual jobs are believed as people's works which are not in the formal sector of the market. These jobs are not recognized by the INSS (Instituto Nicaraguense de Seguridad Friendly) which control the requirements and privileges of personnel, or are people who decides to work independently and they don't inscribe their business in the corresponded institution.

In Nicaragua 63% of the population is considered poor, of this 63% the 43% is known as extremely poor and the 20% is known as poor. The education and sanitary conditions have increase but no too much, and almost the 1 / 2 of the population is unemployed. 50 % of the population doesn't finish off their studies. The amount of education sometimes is until 6th class but in rural areas it hardily gets to 4th grade

Every company needs the best for its overall economy so they try to look for the best degree of workers that they can have, that's why everybody requires a curriculum is they want employment in a formal company and have a good salary. The relation of the whit informal jobs is the fact in Nicaragua many people don't possess a good quality of education and if indeed they don't study a major they are not going to be able to compete once and for all works because their lack of knowledge is going to impede them get a work that someone else with a major for the reason that work recognizes how to do it. We see that whenever it is more important for a person to review a major and get levels in it because by doing so they can win the competition against others and get a better job.

Unfortunately unemployment is everywhere and Nicaragua does not offer too many good works and they're many university graduates who are buying job or working in a different part of what they examined. When people don't even find a job in another area, sometimes they are really forced to work in the informal sector and it get most severe for folks who don't have a major that's why we see a whole lot of immigrants employed in our neighbor country of Costa Rica and The United States. Sometimes the companies get benefit of this situation paying less or disrespecting the privileges of workers. However they are people who look these problems plus they decide to have self-employment because they would prefer to earn their own money and work hard for a better future than feel their selves disrespected by someone else. In 2003 the INEC (Instituto Nicaraguense de Estadisticas y Censo) calculated that the total amount of people working in informal Jobs relating to their education was: 4% from university graduates, 27% from senior high school, 46% from most important and 23% from any quality of education.

Nowadays 79. 2% of homes in Nicaragua have people employed in the informal sector; and in many they are the primary income for the family. This information was given by the recent review prepared by the organization M & R, which by face to face interviews consulted 1, 600 people over 16 years in all regions of the united states. The rural people forms the biggest amount of people working in this sector; the cause of this is nearly in its totality due the training because in rural areas the training is difficult because the teachers have to travel through difficult paths where in fact the communication is difficult and in some places it generally does not even can be found yet, the students have to walk large distances sometimes confronting dangerous streams to be able to get education but it is sometimes impossible to enter some days because in winter because having less communication routes and the river stream increases don't allow the learner go to his future.

Informal careers in urban areas:

Urban areas like Managua are characterized because you can find people from all the areas of the country that have come to the urban areas buying a best future and good opportunities of work. Usually people from rural areas will be the principal ones who emigrates to the urban areas buying a best income but sometimes what they find is not what they thought. Because of their lack of education people employ the service of them exactly like gardeners, guards, and mates getting a minimal salary and sometimes they don't know their rights and are overexploited or they just do not denounced their bosses in order to don't lose their careers.

In urban areas the largest amount of casual jobs have emerged in their local markets. Managua has 8 market segments, being 'el Mercado oriental' the biggest market in the country and in Central America the new public data of the Corporacion de Mercados de Managua (Commema) implies that 'el Mercado oriental' is officially made up of 91 blocks. In these market segments are believed 35 thousand fixed traders and a similar amount of informal workers who works together with baskets, wagons, and some ones who carry their products; these people are called itinerant individuals. Meanwhile the itinerant personnel work independently they are other people who prefers to help somebody else in the business of the marketplaces, but the situation is that in addition they get in the informal sector because almost in all the cases they don't get a formal deal and they're not inscribe in the INSS. These marketplaces have a committee named CONMEMA which collect leases nonetheless they don't collect hardly any money from itinerant individuals.

Also they are simply many people who made a decision to create their own business at home plus they make a "pulperia", this is actually a minimarket where you can find basic things that you forgot to buy in the supermarket commonly normal goods and substandard goods. In Managua and Masaya you usually are heading to find "fritangas" at night, fritangas are small restaurants where you can find typical food and their food is characterized for being unhealthy but delicious; the fritangas are not registered or managed by the ministry of health in almost all because they may have emerged spontaneously and they are not famous enough to get the interest of the organization, even though these are many others which comply with all certain requirements and licenses. Actually fritangas have taken part in our culture in case you are a foreign you should try it when you visit Nicaragua.

In the semaphores you will see different products that the itinerant personnel sell to the autos since fruits of the growing season until masks for cellphones and spectacular animals like bird. Government organizations like the MARENA (Ministerio de Ambiente y Recursos Naturales) have taken rules resistant to the sale of incredible animals nevertheless they remain people selling. They are also individuals who are wine glass cleaners, so they wait the semaphore to turn red in order to start working but sometimes they don't really get even a Cordoba. In these places we can even see the impact of child exploitation in informal careers and homeless. Actually they have appeared women taking newborn children plus they require money to the autos and pedestrians, they actually each one of these under the glowing and hot sunshine of the tropic. They may be other parents who was included with their children to work and their children wait around in the boulevard as the parents work, or they help their parents. The kid exploitation also is mirrored with parents that wait watching their children since the boulevard, observing they are working constantly either offering a product or begging.

Child exploitation is common in informal jobs since it is the only place where children could work. Corresponding to Nicaraguan laws their age don't let them work even they would like to work because it is considered child exploitation so if they get a job in a formal business or company this can be demanded, meanwhile the informal sector is not manipulated or regulated by any company to allow them to work there with any problem since there is not an investigation. The problem in the semaphores is unhappy to see. Though it has being show in nationwide tv programs and tv set reports, it is still seeing clearly they are not changes and the problem continues.

Informal careers in rural areas:

Rural areas have the largest rate of casual jobs the complexities are their degree of education and the developed of the spot. Because of the limited accessibility and having less infrastructure the economy activities are limited and it is located in agriculture and animal husbandry. Within the most distant rural areas, people usually harvest for their own ingestion and the pet husbandry is scarce. Their income is merely from the tiny amount of product that is still left after they save enough products for utilization. The little money that they earn is utilized to buy clothes or an instrument to improve their harvest. Commonly these folks have only a cow and two hens; though it is hard to trust they have learned to subsist just start limitations many people continue doing it plus they have family and have the ability to raise their children.

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