We accept

Industrial disputes in English Airways

Industrial disputes has become the order of your day lately at British Airways which has impacted adversely on the organisation as a whole in conditions of profit making and in its stride to get self-confidence from its customers in the highly competitive aviation industry.

This dissertation focuses on assessing the existing external and interior environment at Uk Airways. It identifies those factors that are accountable for the problems of personnel demotivation and disengagement and how they may have impacted adversely on the entire company goals and objectives. The external environment addresses the political, economic, social, technical, environmental and legal factors( PESTEL) that have impacted English Airways to the level that management is been compelled to undertake cost reduction regulations with adverse effects on the pay and advantage of employees and eventual personnel redundancies, thereby leading to employee disengagement and demotivation. The internal environment addresses the control and management style which on top of that has further worsened the situation at Uk Airways in conditions of employee disengagement and demotivation. Based on these findings, tips have been manufactured in order to handle these external and inner problems so that employees at Uk Airways can once more become fully focused on the company's long term goals and objectives as well as upgraded customer support.


British Airways is a significant UK structured company with strong brand popularity worldwide. In recent years, English Airways has been regularly ranked among the best air travel service businesses and has constantly expanded its operations all over the world. The airline industry is however faced with enormous competition, making English Airways to use in a highly competitive environment. This has had adverse effects on the company in conditions of cost lowering on flights. What this means is that British Airways has been compelled to implement cost decrease strategies so as to remain competitive, in that way handling cost and efficiency advancements by laying off employees and driving for labour efficiency raises. This move by management has created negative industrial relations and has resulted to ongoing personnel disengagement by means of protests and reach actions.

In effect, English has found itself in an exceedingly difficult situation, kept between two contradictory plan of action with cost cutting and an autocratic management style similarly and high quality and staff involvement strategies on the other. It really is however a high risk move, which has been apparent by recent occurrences, in implementing an expense clipping strategy which does not take employees and their staff up to speed. What would be a perfect situation is a high employee involvement in the management of restructuring and above all, a participative management style so that they too can be highly involved with how the company is been run.

The whole reason behind the protests and strike actions is basically because the employees aren't motivated. External environmental factors such as politics, economic, social, technical, environmental and legal( PESTEL), have impacted British Airways adversely to the level that it forced management of British Airways to employ cost reduction strategies with a spill over negative effect on employees pay, benefits and redundancies. These exterior factors can be analysed by using PESTEL, Porter's Five Makes, SWOT Examination and Burke-Litwin evaluation. Additionally, the internal factors clearly explain the control and management style at Uk Airways which can be tackled using the Adair's Action-Centred Management process and John & Scholes' Cultural Web Research. That is against the backdrop that the current CEO, Willie Walsh and his team have pursued an autocratic form of leadership that has brought on demotivation amongst staff and has further heightened personnel disengagement. However, the application of certain leadership theories and models such as the Fielder's Contingency Command theory, the Hackman & Oldham's Job Characteristic Model can all bring out suitable answers concerning how this situation can be rectified. Also, a management arrange for improvement can be advised and with the use of Beer, Eisenstat and Spector's Organisational Change Model, a bottom-up change can be created that could improve employee drive and customer service at Uk Airways.

1. 1 Track record to Uk Airways

British Airways is a English owned or operated company, with the principal business of providing international and home air traveler services. The company is also involved with cargo services, airplane maintenance, airplane ancillary services, repair and overhaul and non air travel businesses. English Airways procedures cover over 550 global spots and as early as the 2007/2008 fiscal season, carried more than 33 million travellers, with a worker strength in those days standing at 42, 000 people (Data keep an eye on 2008, p. 4).

British Airways main office is Heathrow Airport terminal, with founded alliances with the Australian flight Qantas and the Spanish air travel Iberia. It is moreover an integral part of the one world alliances which include American Airlines and Cathy Pacific.

British Airways has received several recognitions before in the aviation industry. One particular recognition was in 2008 when in the Commercial Airline rank of aviation week; Uk Airways was placed at 9th position globally, behind Lufthansa and Aer Lingus (Aviation Week 2008, p. 1).

The problems at United kingdom airways emanated in the early 1980s where period the company regularly incurred big loss, its reputation for service consistency very poor and its cost exceeding those of its competition. The problem was in a way that, the then conservative government thought that the simplest way out was to privatise the business. To be able to prepare for this, a new management team was appointed in order to go after value-added business strategy with goal on customer service and which depended in part on the introduction of human source of information management practices such as employee development programmes, income related pay plan and team working. Another essential requirement of this reorientation engaged a sustained cost-cutting programme usually known as the "survival plan". The business attempted to improve relationships with the trade unions, through an open up communication system, though however, collective bargaining had not been used as an instrument for change.

In the next one half of the 1980s, British Airways financial position improved upon in the framework of favourable product market conditions. During this period, the company possessed significantly near monopoly of domestic routes and a duopoly position in almost all of its international routes into and from the United Kingdom. The employee platform between 1984 and 1990 rose from 35, 000 to around 50, 000. A predominant feature of professional relations at Uk Airways was that of professional disputes and infrequent professional action, with at least one dispute every year between 1982 and 1990.

The early on 1990s was characterised by deregulation, which opened up competition within Europe coupled with a general market downturn because of the tough economy and the Gulf warfare. This situation drastically changed the surroundings at English Airways. The federal government cannot subsidies to company's operations and as such the management pressed ahead with extreme cost- slicing strategy thereby moving its approach away from value-added and high quality service. There is substantial pressure therefore on the business units to provide improved performance, assisting to erode the company's corporate ethos of available management style. Risks of franchising operations than through assessment and discussions resulted to a stress or an escape in relationship between management and employees. Between 1990 and 1993, about 5, 400 jobs, that have been about 10% of the labor force, were lost. Employee morale reduced greatly and commercial disputes became very consistent with at least one bargaining group in dispute every year in the first 1990s.

The middle 1990s observed the development of Bob Ayling as the company's Chief Executive Officer. In 1996 specifically, the company announced a pre-tax earnings of GBP 474 million with a potential outlook of any potential alliance with North american Airlines. Management wished to increase profit further by projecting GBP 1 billion cost-cutting in a three season period, in that which was known as the Business Efficiency Programme. The whole idea of the Business Efficiency Program was a permanent strategy, in response for an anticipated tough economy, which also became very much useful in the increased deregulated market.

In its cost-cutting stride, management also searched for to reduce labour costs. There were efforts to restructure allowances and salary scales for cabin team, which eventually prompted a punch action in 1997. The management's position going by Bob Ayling implemented a very challenging position in this dispute by concluding the Heathrow office of the cabin staff union with dangers of sacking and suing for breach of deals. This move was however counter-productive as staff observed this as bullying and flipped moderate staff view against the company. A three day punch resulted, including 300 cabin team, with an increase of than 2, 000 happening sick leave therefore resulting to long run disruptions in flight timetable throughout the month of August for the reason that year. This hit action cost the company about GBP 125 million. Personnel morale was further reduced, service and company reputation also further broken by the advantages of a fresh baggage-handling system which lead to record levels of lost baggage.

To add to the industrial relationships problems, the alliance with American Airlines led to regulatory problems, with a controversial GBP 60 million rebranding of the company's aircraft been forgotten. Notwithstanding the success of the business enterprise Efficiency Programme in attaining its cost lowering target, the company's budget plunged into deficit and by 2000 the business was at risk of losses of about GBP 200 million and hence the eventual resignation of Bob Ayling on 10th March 2000. His resignation came at a time of when professional relations were uncertain, with the business declaring a renewed cost-cutting policy relating around 6, 000 redundancies and at exactly the same time exploring the possibilities of enhanced collaboration contracts with the trade unions. This feature translates itself in the recent record of industrial relationships and their possible future guidelines.

British Airways has thus steered a difficult and frequently contradictory course between cost-cutting and a macho management on the other palm and a high quality and staff engagement strategies on the other. The mid 2000 witnessed another time in the business's management by the advent of William Willie Walsh as the Chief Executive Official. Walsh became the Chief Executive in 2005, an Irish pilot who was in charge of the turnaround of Aer Lingus after 2001, when the Irish Airline was troubled heavy deficits. Walsh's tactics in doing this was ruthless: losing a third of Air Lingus staff and repositioning it as a low-cost carrier. The response he acquired consequently of this methodology was a series of attacks and protests by the Irish Flight unions. Walsh's reply was that "we make no apologies for focusing on revenue"( BBC Information Online 2007).

Thus Walsh's getting into Uk Airways with an autocratic attitude and a hardline management style only worsened the problem at the business with a history of adverse industrial relations. Walsh considers himself as brutally genuine, an authoritarian amount who is able to face hard truths at once (Management Today 2008). His first noteworthy activities was to sort out the company's GBP 2. 1 billion pension deficit by negotiating tough new contribution handles all the unions (Management Today, 2008). This resulted in trade union discontent with serious dangers against his action and was forced to hold discussions with trade union market leaders to avert a reach action (Khicha 2008, p. 46). Industrial dispute during Walsh's period seem to be to took a different dimension and has been ongoing currently. Unto December 2009, cabin staff wanted to go on strike which would have impacted the company greatly as the punch must have coincided with the Holiday holiday which would have induced disruptions to an incredible number of passengers soaring within that period. The legal system however overruled the hit action. There was another risk of strike action during the Easter holiday of the calendar year and quite recently a punch action actually became a reality when a conflict of words broke out between management and trade union unite, after negotiations between your two fell aside, signalling that Uk Airways customers will confront 15 days and nights of disruptions. The primary reason behind this punch action is the removal of staff travel incentives by management. The union through its general secretary, Tony Woodley, called on management to drop the drawback of full travel benefits for dazzling cabin team and said that the strike would be cancelled if the flight met its desires. This latest industrial action performed cost the company about GBP 7 million each day which indeed is not a healthy situation for Uk Airways.

In view of all these innovations at Uk Airways, management seem to be to be obtaining a lot of exterior pressure from anywhere that is in charge of these hard lined decisions and insurance policies that have impacted on the employees. The employees feel de-motivated and really the only tool in venting out their grievances is in the form of protest and affect actions and in working with this management too has resulted in adopting a authority/management style which has not produced good results. Nevertheless, despite each one of these problems, there's a possibility of constructive relationships between the company and the unions. The exterior factors impacting on the business needs to be addressed combined with the management style for all of us to better realize why these problems are so eminent so that ideas can be produced about the way onward for English Airways.

1. 2 Seeks and Objectives

The seeks and objectives of the research are:

An evaluation of the exterior environmental factors that have impacted on English Airways and exactly how it has impacted negatively on employees.

An research of the internal environmental factors which may have impacted on Uk Airways and exactly how it has further worsened the employer and employee relationship.

The impact of extended commercial dispute on the organisation

Based on these findings, suitable recommendations and action plan for improvement to be executed so as to alleviate the existing trend at English Airways.

Literature Review

Employees are the most valued property in virtually any business company, as it is through them that things can be carried out. Therefore, the work of the director at work is to get things done through employees. The main factor that can determine the success of the manager by doing this will depend on how well he is able to encourage the employees.

However, drive practice and theory are difficult things that touch on several disciplines. What makes it more difficult is against the background that to understand motivation, there should be a thorough knowledge of human character itself, which unavoidably is a prerequisite for a powerful employee motivation at work and thus an efficient management and authority. It really is thus a very complex subject matter. It is necessary for professionals to consider the value of motivation since it stimulates employee behavior in order to achieve organisational goals. Inspiration sustains human behavior and helps to keep it systematic and centered, directing our replies for the goals we value. Without understanding of motivation, managers can make critical mistakes in guiding the behavior of their subordinates towards outcomes that are desired by the organisation. Several theories have been submit regarding human characteristics in general and motivation in particular. These theories have been split into content theories and process ideas of inspiration.

2. 1Content Theory of Motivation

A content theory of inspiration is specific to the people factors in individuals which activate, direct, sustain and stop behaviour. It right answers the question: "What specific needs cause desire"? Two major pioneers of the approach are Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg.

2. 1. 1 Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

According to Abraham Maslow, human needs can be put into five levels in order to better make clear drive. The formulation of his inspiration theory addresses individual behaviour in all settings and which was quickly put on the narrower range of human behavior in organisational options. The five degrees of Maslow's hierarchy are:

Physiological Needs: They are the cheapest order needs of air, normal water, food, shelter and creation. These needs corresponding to Maslow are basic to our biological survival and are thus dominating over internal needs.

Safety Needs: These are in other words security needs relating to protection against danger, threat or deprivation. Once physiological needs are satisfied, people want to move up to another level to guarantee satisfaction of their safety needs. Safety needs relating to Maslow are linked very strongly to physiological needs, as assembly protection needs ensures continuity and predictability for fulfilment of the basic needs.

Social Needs: This is the third level in the needs hierarchy with models of needs that is due to the desire to provide and receive devotion, acts of camaraderie, the desire for group popularity and presenting and receiving mental support. These needs relating to Maslow are higher order needs that can never be completely satisfied. Humans develop these needs through sustained contact with their communal environment.

Ego/Esteem Needs: this presents the fourth level in the needs hierarchy that deals with social status, which is thought as popularity, prestige and gratitude from others. It is at this level that employees want to face with obstacles, autonomy and self reliance in their jobs so when work is not enriched to meet these needs, then the employee feels like the work is monotonous and could lead to job dissatisfaction and low performance.

Self Actualization: This is actually the last level in the needs hierarchy. This needs arises out of wish to fulfil one's fullest probable or by using abilities and experience. However, many jobs do not provide employees with much possibility to self actualise frequently. Managers should thus take note of this inclination and address them appropriately in order to improve on the look of work in order to provide more opportunities for employees to self actualise.

Several other things are worth noting in the needs hierarchy; a satisfied need ceases to inspire at that need level. When needs aren't satisfied, undesirable benefits may occur at work such as an experienced state of job dissatisfaction which may lead to reduced performance, lateness, absenteeism and resignation. In the job place, people are assumed to have a need to increase and develop their full probable and would therefore make an effort to move up the hierarchy so as to fulfill higher order needs. In organisations however, lower order needs are satisfied typically by monetary rewards unlike higher order needs which can be satisfied simply by social interactions and by the look of meaningful careers. A lot of the employees job satisfaction is dependant on the belief that future job situations have great potential for interacting with higher order needs and for that reason managers need to seek in guiding and directing staff behaviour that matches organisational needs and specific needs simultaneously. The quality of an organisation's reward system can be improved by clarity of pathways between worker performance and rewards which fulfill lower and higher order needs.

2. 1. 2 Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory of Drive is another content theory of motivation which is somehow related to Maslow's hierarchy. His theory is otherwise known as the motivator-hygiene theory. The motivators are factors like advertising, challenges, accomplishments, professional progress, responsibility and identification whereas the health factors are factors such as company car, company insurance policy, working conditions, salary and benefits, social relations and security. The hygiene factors are those adjoining the job. Their absence causes job impoverishment and could lead to absenteeism, low performance, job drawback, alienation and kinds of sabotage. Moreover, frustrations might occur if a job has little hygiene. Short-term positive feelings may occur as management tends to improve health factors in a job though these advancements may not lead to a sustained job satisfaction and performance. Situations might occur within an company wherein health factors may be removed due to business restructuring or in the case of for example a takeover or a merger. At these times, there is a natural propensity for job satisfaction to plunge which is in fact for this reason that health factors are referred to as maintenance factors.

Motivators relating to Herzberg on the other palm are those factors which in the long run raises job satisfaction and efficiency. These motivators are related to the employee's job interaction and are therefore job centred. When present and with an acceptable level of hygiene factors, employees have a tendency to achieve satisfaction of higher order needs. On the other hand, when absent, careers can become uninteresting and not challenging and can therefore lead to apathy and alienation, meaning that the employees self actualisation and ego needs at work are not satisfied.

Frederick Herzberg's theory has been of great assist in organisational behavior and management. Its main target is on the effects of company systems and job design on employee's job satisfaction and performance. The more mature idea that performance was only a function of pay was contradicted by Herzberg. Regarding to him, the origins of job satisfaction and performance were much more complicated, against the background that a higher level of cleanliness factors can't ever ensure that an organisation has productive, creative, highly involved and determined employees.

2. 2 Process Theory of Motivation

A process theory of determination is all about how precisely behaviour is stimulated, directed, sustained or stopped. As such, this theory actually points out how inspiration occurs. One of the main contenders of this school of thought is Victor Vroom who put forward the Expectancy theory which in modern times has become the leading description of employee behavior at work such as turnover, absenteeism, job choice, performance and the potency of leadership. Human behavior according to this theory is actually purposeful and goal directed, based on the probability that one behavior will lead to respected benefits to the staff.

This expectancy theory is based on three components:

Valence: That is described as the non-public attractiveness of different results. If say for example a worker views the results of heading a fresh branch as possessing a positive valence, the worker will be firmly pulled to those behaviours that can make this results highly likely. Undesired outcomes thus hold negative valence. These results is often as either first level outcomes or second level effects. First level final results can be namely, job performance, lateness, departing or accepting a posture etc. These results are very important in the organisation and can have huge influence on the staff. Second level end result always do arise after first level final results which are the direct result of reaching or not attaining first level final results, examples of that are, obtaining a pay rise, advertising, receiving recognition, participating in a training programme etc. It is well worth noting that employees attach valence to each kind of final result.

Instrumentality: When there is a personal idea that first level outcomes brings about second level effects then we could discussing instrumentality. If it's positive, then the employee is convinced that with some degree of performance, another level of final result is bound to take place. When instrumentality is negative, it means that the employee feels a second degree of outcome won't occur after confirmed first level. Professionals thus should put high high quality on instrumentality. If they address staff performance issues, they would like to see a clear pathway from performance excellence to second level outcomes which may have positive valence. With an equitable syndication of rewards based on excellent performance, employees are destined to experience increasing instrumentalities and increased job satisfaction. It is therefore imperative on managers to remove any replies or systems within the organisation that may hold the tendencies to cloud instrumentalities as these may lower employee's effort and performance.

Expectancy: This is actually the subjective belief that a given degree of work will lead to a first level outcome on the job. It actually bears the partnership between given degrees of effort and different levels of effects. If in employment an employee determines to put forth his energy in a specific job but the expectancy is zero, then he is going to have the belief that there surely is no connection between effort and first level outcomes. It really is like the feeling of stating "no subject how hard i try, i am going to never reach be a pilot".

The Expectancy Theory is thus an extremely powerful analytical tool for managers in organisations. It helps managers have a much better knowledge of their subordinates and the organisational environment where they work. There is certainly however various other important factors that managers need to fully understand under the expectancy theory. Firstly, they should comprehend that the employees dependence on achievement is an individual trait which in ways systematically influences degree of effort, instrumentality and expectancy. The attaining employee believes that his performance can and really should be high, and he is eager to expend mush work on the job if it presents challenging to his skills and talents. If the obtaining employee believes the organisation will not pay back performance equitably, then he will probably leave. It is worth noting that every frustrated worker with a high need for achievements is a potential appreciated property to the organisation. Secondly, managers should comprehend that lots of organisational factors do influence staff motivation. One such has to do with role ambiguity. This occurs when there is lack of comprehension of a job. Manager who delegate employment and give feedback about performance are highly more likely to remove ambiguity and start to see the connection between initiatives, performance and second level results or otherwise, they will inhibit expectancies and instrumentalities about performance and its connection to rewards. Moreover, role conflict can lead to inconsistent work expectations. For instance in English Airways, management's decision on cost lowering whilst maintaining confirmed degree of service quality can be conflicting. When role issue and role ambiguity are high, the accuracy and reliability of worker perceptions about expectancy and instrumentality deteriorates. Wider fluctuations in instrumentality are thus experienced by employees.

British Airways for a very long time now has didn't address the key factors which have caused worker demotivation. A few of these are salary, a wholesome working environment, achievements, responsibilities etc. Because of this, we've been able to see a lot of professional disputes in the form of disengagement and strikes. Almost every other companies have been able to conquer this situation by providing the essential necessities for their employees such nearly as good benefit and reimbursement system and the right strategies which permit employees to self actualise. Continental Airlines for example through its Chief Executive Officer in 1994 was able to change the framework of the company by utilizing company policies in favour of employee concerns. Some of these policies were, a change in the pay system for pilots, restored income to employees that were previously cut, establishing of toll free figures for employees to call if indeed they had complaints or problems, created committees to respond to every call within 48 time and gave about USD100 per staff per month if the business achieved the top three. This got a positive impact on Continental Airlines in being amidst the best 100 companies.

British Airways with the motive of cutting cost, embarked on a whole lot of regulations unlike everything we just talked about with Continental Airlines. Much of their cost trimming measures as soon as 1997, came from staff savings, including voluntary redundancies with personnel to be substituted by newly chosen employees on lower pay (Blyton and Turnbull, 1998), a change in the composition of repayments to cabin team, a cut in a few basic allowances such as petrol, over night stay etc. Predicated on the theories of motivation, this kind of a predicament will create discontent and demotivation with serious repercussions. This was visible by staff disengagement and a threatened affect action and management taking a macho management style of taking disciplinary action in the form of demotion lose of both pension rights and staff discount rates on flights for 3 years on any one who stayed away from work. For anybody taking commercial action would be confronted with brief summary dismissal or be sued for injuries. The action by management didn't produce good effect based on the actual fact that the punch went in advance with about 300 workers officially declaring it and over 2000 more contacting in sick. They are basically the results of your demotivated staff who are able to vent out their grievances through attacks and protests, absenteeism etc.

The basic problem with this type of prevailing condition is the fact that management of Uk Airways aren't been effective enough to comprehend that employees have their own drives, aspirations and needs as humans. They neglect to recognise these needs to be able to encourage employees in order to work to the best of their capabilities. It is because of this that the efficiency of the company has been influenced overall. Job satisfaction isn't only about making employees are better but also preventing them from not carrying out well which is exactly what management does. This essentially means that management lacks the shortcoming in utilizing tactical management systems in terms of employee relationships which over time has cost the business a lot of money.

Based on this, is a continued issue between employees and the Uk Airways management. Management has always responded with an autocratic management style wherein decisions are taken on the top-down basis with little assessment of employees. This simply means that employees don not participate in any form as far as decision making can be involved and which may be highly de-motivating which was highly manifested having less real leadership, drive and manager impact with staff in regards to The Terminal 5 blunder ( Corkindale 2008). There was no type of communication between personnel and management as personnel complained of the experiences been overlooked. Terminal 5 was opened up without proper training and staff reported being completely been not really acquainted with the systems and techniques (Corkindale 2008). The autocratic leadership is being reinforced by a rigid and militaristic organisational culture with the result of an inflexible management being accountable for the annals of commercial disputes. The underlying problem has been the break down in communication between management and employees particularly the skilled staff such as pilots, mechanics, engineers and cabin staff and this has been because of the fact that there is no middle management through which lower level employees could vent out their grievances. Management has been quite definitely arrogant and complacent and bent on trying to breakdown union vitality rather than them endeavoring to tackle the problems and regain worker self confidence in them. As such, the work local climate has been in a way that employees haven't any choice but to resist the autocratic pressure from management which includes been obvious in the series of disengagement and hit actions.

British Airways labour output is very high because of its continued cost lowering plan and top managerial pressure. However, the morale is sadly not, and results in repetitive affect action and other forms of subversive protests, such as complaining about customers on Facebook. In the long run, having high efficiency but low personnel morale and drive can only undermine English Airways image as a quality influenced carrier.


Research methodology is basically a plan for the collection, organising and integrating data with the purpose of achieving a desired end result (Meriam 1994). In such a section, issues regarding the research strategy, different research methods, techniques, collection and different ways by which data is analysed are been tackled.

3. 1 Research Strategy

The research strategy performed would depend on the study problems, how these problems have impacted and what tips could dwelling address these problems. A research study way has been carried out against the backdrop that the problems relating to the study question are highly obvious in the organisation chosen as a case study.

Case studies can be a very good way in answering "how and just why" questions, way more when the key focus is on the contemporary occurrence with true to life framework (Yin 1999). They are very much perfect for practical issues with the advantage of having the ability in drawing information from numerous sources, namely interviews, observations and historical data. There is certainly however problems from the case study procedure. Firstly, it can be designed to meet up with the researcher's goals and purpose. Secondly, it generally does not provide a good basis for evaluations on the grounds that no two business organisations will be the same and therefore results changes.

For the purpose of this research however, an individual case study methodology has been used accordance with Meriam (1994), who stipulates that case studies are complete, fact centered, empirically grounded and exploratory which is precisely what this research intends to justify.

3. 2 Research Method

Research technique can be categorised in to the positivist procedure and the phenomenological strategy.

The positivist methodology handles the testing of hypothesis that is produced from theory, mainly quantitative data and statistical analysis. It provides a basis of whether results deduced do confirm or refute a theory. The quantitative approach provides a statistical comparability of data (Andersson and Nylander 1999).

The phenomenological approach derives its final result based on thorough investigative studies, qualitative data and letting the research guide the job. This approach however gives a much better understanding of a case study as it delves deeper into issues into issues relating to the research work.

My research study depends on both qualitative and quantitative resources. The issues about the external and inner factors which may have impacted on Uk Airways that contain induced serious strains on the staff relationship with management will be analysed using the qualitative way so that predicated on the results of the studies, ideal summary can be come to and recommendations made. The impact of the factors on the company as a whole in conditions of how badly they have affected the money of the company will be analysed using a qualitative procedure.

3. 3 Data Collection

Data collection may be accomplished through varied sources such as interviews, documents, archival data, immediate observations, participant observation, and physical artefacts (Yin 1994). They are basically evidences and can maintain the form of either most important or supplementary data. The foundation for the collection of key data is to satisfy the specific reason for the study whereas extra data is dependant on published findings from previous research work, which normally provides background and basic information about this issue under research. Both of these resources of data combined can give a very good and detailed knowledge of the qualitative data.

My main data is based on interviews which is been generally accepted to be the best form of facts collection in times wherein facts can't be obtained based on observation. My interview tries to focus on management, customers and a reasonable variety of the employees, though this may well not be representative of the whole organisation. The interviews should be semi-structured though at exactly the same time focusing on major issues to be able to get complete results. These interviews will be an opportunity to obtain the views of both management and the low level of employees and also to will make me better positioned to draw up conclusions predicated on my conclusions.


More than 7 000 students trust us to do their work
90% of customers place more than 5 orders with us
Special price $5 /page
Check the price
for your assignment