The contaminants of the atmosphere by any harmful or radioactive gases and particulate subject as a result of human activity defines air pollution. (EMA Status of the Environment Report 2000)
Over the years Trinidad and Tobago has give attention to industrialization producing several commercial estates but better focus was designed to the energy industries. They current have three major energy based industrial sites. The Point Lisas industrial property, Point a Pierre petroleum refinery and Liquefied Natural Gas plant (LNG) situated in Point Fortin. Trinidad and Tobago is considered to be one of the very most industrialized countries in the Commonwealth Caribbean region. We have been blessed with a vast array of natural resources ranging from oil, gas and asphalt to manufactured petrochemicals. Despite the fact that oil production and refining is one of the main industry, petrochemicals and also to a lesser level steel performs great importance in the company economic growth. Trinidad & Tobago is world's leading exporter of both methanol and ammonia, currently they supply the greatest way to obtain LNG is exported to the United States.
To everyone polluting of the environment was regarded as chemical emissions which suspension and secondary contaminants will just dissipate with the aid of the breeze and rainfall. As the country moves into a second wave of industrialization with several suggested plans of building the next monetary hotspot in the Caribbean (Invest in T&T Downstream Energy), concerns has been made toward the quality of air what we should live and inhale. It had been only years later when technology began that can be played an important part in inspecting pollutants and air quality that it was recognized that polluting of the environment was just as important as water pollution.
The commercial sector in Trinidad &Tobago is one of the most dynamitic in the Caribbean and this is mirrored in the diverse dynamics of its contaminants. Stand 1 illustrates the numerous industry classes, commodities produced, development process and leading to air contaminants.
Map 1: Existing & Proposed Energy Bottom part Industrial Estates in Trinidad
Menthol, ammonia, urea, ethanol, liquefied natural gas
Fossil fuel processing, industrial processes
Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, Carbon Monoxide
Metals, cements, consumer products
Manufacturing and extraction process, stock piling of raw materials, fossil gas burning
Carbon Dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate subject PM (soot, dust, asbestos fibers, pesticides and metals). Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC)
Carbon Monoxide, particulate matter
Refined oil, petrol basic products and sulfur /acids production
Fossil fuel using up, extraction process, transport process, storage space process,
Carbon Dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, methane, particulate matter (soot, dust, asbestos fibres, pesticides and metals)
Animal waste, seed waste
Animal waste disposal/processing, grain paddies and wetlands, vegetable metabolism, land clearing
Methane, Carbon monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, particulate subject (dust particles), VOC
Electrical Power generation
Fossil fuel getting rid of,
Particulate concerns, Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, VOC
Mining & Quarrying
Blasting, mining, cleaning, extraction process
Suspended Particulates Matters (SPM); Total suspended contaminants (TSP); Particulate matters.
Wholesale and Retail
All consumer products
Service station functions, truck filling stations
With industrialization comes a need for individuals to profit with the advanced of job in these areas. The demographic change pattern in Trinidad and Tobago is rather predictive with many of the populated areas following a same paths over the industrialized map. (Map 2)In the initial stages of industrial development target was made on establishing sectors in sparsely filled areas. The intention was also to have advantage of the favorable wind course which would point most of air pollutant western ward over (for the most part) approximately 5 miles of uninhabited land space and then to the Gulf, with the intension that the vegetation would be damaged in a way through the dried out season and would be aided by elope through the rainy season.
This idea inadvertently leads to another air pollution problem. This proved to be a short term imitative, as these areas soon became a stunning alternative to the long commute thus motivating the establishment of make- transfer villages and shanty towns. This was also fueled by the fact that the southern and eastern main highway were in close proximity to these estates.
Over time these villages soon became establish resistances acquiring basic resources and recognized mailing addresses. The market sectors were now confronted with a fresh obstacle. They now experienced to target their attention to both environment and the neighboring society. Table 2 recognizes the primary industrial pollutants within Trinidad and Tobago and its own effects on both the environment and humans.
EFFECTS ON HUMANS
EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT
Carbon Monoxide- CO
It is absorbed through the lungs lowering the blood's capacity to move available oxygen to the tissue. Depending on the publicity level it produces flu like symptoms usually not recognized and may leads to death
There is bare minimum effect on the surroundings.
Sulphur Dioxides - SO2
Depending on the coverage level it can cause: cause wheezing, torso tightness and shortness of breath, respiratory illness, modifications in the lungs, it aggravates existing cardiovascular disease.
When SO2 combines with water, it sorts sulfuric acid, which is the main component of acid rainfall. When acid rainwater falls it can cause deforestation, acidify waterways to the detriment of aquatic life. In addition, it corrodes building materials.
Acid rainfall changes the physical appearance of vegetation "plants metabolism impaired"
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)/Oxides of Nitrogen NOx
At low levels they have minimum amount or no results on human health. However high levels NO2 can cause respiratory problem, increase a person's susceptibility to, and intensity of infections and asthma. It can also have an impact on the sensory system.
It is bad for vegetation, can fade and discolor materials, reduce presence.
Vegetation contact with high degrees of NOx can be discovered by damage to foliage, decreased expansion or reduced crop yield.
Volatile Organic Carbon -VOC
There are no health and wellness ramifications of VOC because other gases constitute VOC's however some gases may be dangerous and/or carcinogen.
Levels of visibility and time uncovered can damage the liver organ, kidney and central anxious system.
It may cause malignancy in family pets.
Suspended Particulates Concerns (SPM); Total suspended allergens (TSP); Particulate matters.
Health effects on SPM in humans rely upon the particle size and awareness can cause long-term exposure escalates the rates of breathing disorder and symptoms.
Particulates can accelerate deterioration of surface and materials.
It has the potential to cause adjustment of the local climate and plays a part in acid deposition.
The visionaries of the early market sectors focus little on health protection and the surroundings and this was mirrored in the amount of controls initiated by the companies. Adjustments were mainly one dimensional and fail to give attention to the holistic views of health safeness and environment. Open public thoughts and opinions and outburst caused by the increasing amount of medical claims and the decrease quality of agriculture produce with allegations pointing for the emission from these companies, prompted management to utilize technology to assist in the establishment of more strict adjustments. This technology was also instrumental in pinpointing the genuine adverse effects consequently of these emissions.
The physical control signifies the processes accountable for acquisition of fresh material, storage, production and distribution functions.
The numerous pollutants that emit daily, through smokestacks petrochemical and petroleum companies as well as major health effects, force industries to lessen the pollutant at the source. Among the proven ways of reducing these pollutants is putting in scrubbers and in other situations bagging residences in the emission system.
The use of end -of- pipe technology has been adapted by some business, it can be used to eliminate already formed pollutants in the air however it is proven to be very costly and many establishments internationally would prefer to pay the fines for higher emission levels than utilize this technique. In other words it is regarded as "the less of two evils". These techniques push industries to look at generic protection strategies and alternatives, only resorting to the more costly techniques when face with dire implications.
With increasing pressure from environmental activists dialling for industries to be more sensitive towards the surroundings, many market sectors have restructured their functions whereby recycling waste as a fresh raw material to make a second product. This process has been designed by Methanol Positioning Trinidad Small (MHTL) were they have got made an AUM place. This flower is the to begin its kind in Trinidad and Tobago being the most environmental friendly of the MHTL family. This plant comprises a varied petrochemical complex to make Urea Ammonia Nitrate (UAN) and Melamine using feedstock from involved urea and ammonia plant life. (MHTL)
The local cement factory adopted several controls strategies to deal with the polluting of the environment problem within its developing process. A differ from blasting to stripping of the key raw material (limestone) aided in the reduced amount of particles emissions that was affecting the neighboring community at their quarrying central Trinidad. The travel of the limestone was also differ from dry to wet thus also reducing the potential particles particles going into the atmosphere during transportation from quarrying to the process plant. With the out skirts of the handling vegetable itself major landscaping was done to create hillsides around the manufacturer adorned by buffer trees with sole intension is to reduce the amount of dust contact with the neighboring community.
These controls contain guidelines, systems and standards that govern and manage the organization. The organizations of the main element Performance Indications (KPI) help management keep concentration to be able to sustain founded targets. Company regulations and procedures serves as guidelines to keep order and composition within the organization. The introduction of ISO standards advertises the business's techniques to the industrial world thus ensuring that whatever measures initially introduced are sustained by the certification audits conducted on a yearly basis by an international process auditors.
Currently in T&T there is absolutely no legislation that refers directly to controlling of air pollutant emitted by business. This is merely because of the fact that early monitoring system generally focus on water and land pollution the knowledge of air pollution did not produce tangible visible because of technological short falls. The prevailing legislation addresses non specific air pollutants like the Petroleum Work (rev. 1980) section 29 (1) (j) elimination of air pollution and the Public health ordinance (1950), section 70 (1) (m) prohibits blacks smoking from chimneys. Despite the fact that the EMA was establish and is the country's lone environmental body accountable for managing, regulating and coordinating environmental concerns. The EMA has only managed to draft the POLLUTING OF THE ENVIRONMENT Rules 2001 however thus far 2010 these guidelines have never been made rules.
Trinidad and Tobago being truly a person in the Commonwealth and the US has benefited from the study and technological improvement from these more developed countries (MDC). Initiatives like the Montreal Standard protocol (1989 the control of CFC's) and the Kyoto Protocol (1997 the reduction of Greenhouse Gases) assisted the legislative procedure for T&T by connection. The only way legislative was establish was by piggy support on the success of a lot more developed countries it appears that this was the only way the law maker could experienced any impact on defaulters of polluting of the environment in Trinidad. Only when legislation is pass the united states can reap the benefits of some effective control steps where polluters are prosecuted and emission limits are set for many industries.
Trinidad and Tobago historically is a land of followers there were very few situations where we were not promoted or assisted in some way or the other in reaching established goals and the topic of pollution is not any exclusion. Have we ever wonder why the one establish air pollution laws is due to a diplomatic relationships within the commonwealth and the United Nations or why we had to wait before advent of OSHA to enforce existing safe practices laws in our country. The response is easy we are still waiting to check out no question legislation spear going by locals are treated with scan courtesy. Got these regulations been establish in a few first world convention they might have been rooted in the seams in our judicial system years ago? Many of the existing pollution regulations governing the greater develop countries were mainly therefore of international pressure, sadly Trinidad and Tobago is not view as a major polluting nation because of its geographical location and size. Evidence of pollution awareness is principally observed in the new establish creation countries whose father or mother companies originate abroad. It is only amongst of fellow less evolves countries and Caribbean customers that Trinidad and Tobago is recognize as a polluting nation sadly these countries have little effect on global view.
Despite our shortcomings, internally there's been an intensified effort to effectively keep an eye on record, control and enforce pollution reducing systems and strategies. Internationally the over site of Trinidad and Tobago (a country that can simply fit into the Orinoco River with a people that barely exceeds large town in the United States) has not deterred local efforts to manage the levels of air emissions.