In today's world, photography plays an important role to your visual heads and it has always been considered to have a special status for truthfully documenting the world and making people perceive images as something real. (all these kind of pictures can handle acquiring and conveying to our sight the distinctive features that our brains need in order to be able to find out what we are looking at) "(p. 151, persuasion in the multimedia era, timothy a Borchers). Picture taking has been developed from television, films, eye-catching publications and the world-wide web which will make up the mass media.
Bill Niffenegger, known for his computer images and for speaking about photography special effects, claims that people nowadays who use mass media should be aware of the fact that almost everything they see is naive, whether it's a commercial, a film, a publication, an image: "It's like going online in a chat room. There will always be 300-pound hairy folks contacting themselves 'Mary'. We just have to increase up"(DeMocker, 1998:HREF). This declaration rises up the following question: is exactly what we see in these images, always the reality? "The wildlife photography we see in movies, catalogs, and periodicals is often stunning in its design, transfer, and aesthetics. It could also be imitation, enhanced or made by appearing digital technologies that have transformed-some say contaminated-the photography landscaping" (KENMTII BROWER, Atlantic Regular Co. , 1998).
Control skillfully, exerting shrewd or devious effect? This could be the words that define the definition for this imposing phrase, "manipulation". But when this term touches Mass Media, then it forms into digital manipulation (fa legatura cu digital, grotesc, tehnologie, manipulare).
Photo manipulation is the procedure that alters images, aesthetically enhancing the picture or changing this content of an image, in order to make a unique image which can provoke illusion or deception. Nowadays technology has advanced very much that anyone possessing a computer and an image-manipulation software can digitally retouch pictures which can create a visual impact, deceive, effect or offer benefits. Manipulating photographs is nothing new, however and we've got the possibility to see digital manipulation of images all over the place like in the news, advertising, music and film culture etc: "All images that appear in the press are manipulated in a single way, shape, or form, whether they're by choice- by that image being chosen over another - or by cropping, or by digital manipulation. You're being manipulated a thousand various ways, and so long as you are somewhat alert to the fact, then there's not really much to be afraid of. But if you feel that what you're witnessing is the reality, then you're set for big trouble(David Byrne, 1994)" (dezvolta in ce domenii se fol photo manipulation; ajungi cumva la subiect-efectul in beauty industry)
In fact, photographs have been retouched a long time before the technology of imaging software. The entire year 1980 was the moment when news picture taking travelled digital and the digital imaging technology started. Historically, photographic images have been considered to provide a truthful visible representation of the world having attributed sentences like: "Photographs don't lie", "A picture is worth a thousand words" and "Seeing is believing". Furthermore, in the judiciary system surely got to be called "The silent See" and "courtrooms have adored photographs as proof without collateral testimony to incriminate or verify someone's innocence "(Guilshan, 1992: 368)
It is announced on some way or another the loss of life of the photographic image and that "the honest or fractual problem of computer alteration occurs with the best urgency" (Ritchin, 1990: 29). William J Mitchell who investigates about aesthetic fact in the post-photographic period, in his book The Reconfigured Eyes says that "From the moment of its sesquicentennial in 1989 photography was dead - or, more accurately, radically and forever displaced - as was painting 150 years back" (Mitchell, 1992: 20).
"If photography is usually to be discussed on a serious level, it must be detailed in relation to death. It's true a picture is a witness, but a witness of something that is no more. Even if the individual in the picture is still alive, it's a moment of this subject's life that was photographed, which moment is fully gone. This is an enormous trauma for mankind, a stress endlessly restored. Each reading of the photo and there are billions worldwide in a day, each understanding and reading of your picture is implicitly, in a repressed manner, a contract which what has ceased to can be found, a contract with loss of life" (Barthes, 1985: 356).
Nowadays, in multimedia the utilization of image manipulation has been developed increasingly more, but there is certainly one domain where is had been exhibiting his negative influences. The image of beauty offered today to ladies in advertisements and photographs, in media, especially in periodicals, put them in the positioning where they engage in the evaluation between themselves and the ideal that they understand to be real, however in fact is digitally manipulated: "The digitized picture has destroyed the relationship between picture and certainty once and for all. We are getting into a time when no person will be able to say whether an image is true or false. They are all becoming beautiful and amazing and with each moving day they belong significantly to the World of advertising. Their beauty, like their reality is slipping away from us. Soon they will really conclude making us blind". ( Wim Wenders pag 87)
The undeniable fact that fashion and beauty industry promote the idea of perfection and requirements of beauty that are impossible to accomplish supplies the digital manipulation an important position and is to be considered an important tool for the success in selling of fashion and entertainment mags. Today's problemââ. .
Digital manipulation is the building blocks of the fashion and beauty industry, where air-brushed and digitally increased portrayals of ideal guy and female beauty promote specifications of elegance that are impossible to achieve.
Cap. II Photoshop etc
Nowadays, there are a wide range of bits of software employed by photographers to enhance their work, but the most commonly used in retouching photos is the digital artifice called Adobe Photoshop. Regarding to Gordon Baldwin retouching can be defined as "the careful manual alteration of the appearance of a print or negative" that is "most often used in portraiture to make plastic improvement to a sitter's appearance, such as getting rid of minor facial blemishes, softening outlines or lines and wrinkles, or 'powdering' shining noses" (Baldwin, 1991: 74). Although Adobe promotes its Photoshop software within an innocent way: "Create, coloring, accurate, and retouch with the 'camera for your head', the many techniques this software uses, could control and modify appearances in the most remarkable way: "Clean up complexion, soften eyesight lines, soften giggle series, add color to lip area, lean chin, remove neck of the guitar lines, soften range under hearing lobe, add highlights to earrings, add blush co cheeks, tidy up neck lines, remove stray locks, remove mane strands on dress, adjust color and add wild hair on top of head, add dress on side co create better brand, add dress on shoulder, dean up an smooch dress folds under arm and create one seam on image on right area. "(Esquire mag, 1990)
One of the very most popular tools found in Adobe Photoshop is cloning. There exists subject cloning and color cloning and a different one is opposite cropping. (dezvoltaâââââ. )
Jean Baudrillard defines in his publication Simulacra and Simulation that we now have different types of image manipulation, from the point where the image "it is the reflection of an profound reality" to the main point where the image "it is its pure simulacrum". You have the first kind of manipulation called "cosmetic manipulation" where only some basic retouching (like??) has been made ("it masks and denaturates a serious reality"), the main one where the reality is almost completely concealed ("it masks the absence of a serious reality"), the stage when "it has no regards to any simple fact whatsoever" and until "it is its own clean simulacrum". (Baudrilard, 1994:6)
Programs like Adobe Photoshop contain digital filtration systems that are being used in image enhancement, transformation or modification of the image. It could control the structure, the granularity, sharpness or softness, the distinction, the tonality and color balance of the image. This process could be applied to the whole image or maybe to some elements of it because of the cropping technique. (in The reconfigured eye:visual real truth in theâby willian john Mitchell. Pag 86). You can find one filter which is the most found in digital manipulations to darken or even to lighten an image, to enhance or reduce its distinction.
In the first category of manipulation Baudrillard mentions about (Baudrilard, 1994:6), retouchers include the erasing of lines and wrinkles, blemishes, scars and flows: "toning down or eliminating anything unattractive, like wrinkles, which might have been reproduced with too great accuracy" (in Gernsheim 1969: 466). These exact things are possible through the facilities that Adobe Photoshop provides to be able to manipulate a picture for a recognised purpose. There are several ways of doing the same thing, but using different tools. For example same effect of removing lines and wrinkles could be obtained either by using the cloning stamp tool, the spot healing clean tool or the smudge tool. Miracles could be obtained simply by using a brush: "the brush may be considered the instrument of softness, the palette blade of crispness and sharpness"(Sir Charles Eastlake within the reconfigured Eye)