Posted at 10.06.2018
Counseling is a growing process and it changes from one level to some other level. In counseling, there must be a beginning, progress to another level and must have an end. Corresponding to some scholars and theorist, there are no set phases in the counseling process. For instance, Gerald Egan (1975) declare that there are three periods to make clear the counseling process, whereby Mizan Adiliah et al. (1995) points out the counseling process in seven levels. However, they may have similar opinion among them from the aspect that counseling moves towards a route in an effective order at each level. In addition they arranged that 'building marriage stage' is present throughout the counseling process whatsoever levels.
Sometimes when counselors are in a level and handling a style for the discussion, some elements from the other levels also present at the same level. As said above, building relationship happens at all levels. Therefore, it is clearly seen that every degree of counseling process doesn't happen independently but it is continuous and sometimes elements from other level also overlaps. The length of time to complete each level will depend on the counselor himself.
As each level in the counseling should be developed right from the start to the end, the theme of talk at every level must be completed satisfactorily before moving to the next level of counseling process. If the discussion in the early level of counseling is not satisfactory or incomplete, it'll complicate the counseling process and the other levels won't go on effortlessly. In means that if the discussion at each stage is more streamlined and complete, the more successful the outcome of counseling process will be. Another thing that should be borne at heart by the counselor when talking about the topics at specific levels is that the counselor can transform or point the focus of conversation to any other levels to help energize the ongoing discourse. In addition to that, the counselors could also review the thoughts and feelings of your client, whether the customer is constant or not.
In order to carry out a powerful counseling treatment, physical environment is also essential. A counseling room should not be noisy or distracting. Erdman and Lampe (1996) believe that certain features of a counseling office will improve its standard appearance and probably assist in counseling by not distracting your client. These features include delicate lighting, quiet shades, and an lack of clutter, harmonious, comfortable furniture and diverse ethnical artifacts.
According to Hamdan (2009), the counselor should take effort to know some information about the client when your client comes to make session for a counseling time. He brings on by declaring this is in order to build the initial relationship with the client. Therefore, it's important that the background information of the client to be collected. Through this discussion, the counselor can determine if they're able to handle and handling the client's problems and the client could also make a decision if they're comfortable with and trust the counselor before they can type in the relationship wholeheartedly. The counselor should use close ended question through the initial this stage as it is an effective way to assemble information in that short time. Furthermore, the counselor must bring your client to a comfort by displaying that the counselor is genuine prepared to provide help your client and also screen a non-threatening feature. Through the pre-session, the counselors must clarify certain issues with your client (Burnard, 1996). Below are the important conditions that should be reviewed.
The occurrence with which they will meet
The times they will meet
When it is predicted that the partnership will end
Whether or not the two can speak confidentially
Before starting the counseling session, a counselor must build a strong counseling romance with the client. Within this level, the counselor must develop a conducive and therapeutic environment; determine the initial goal of counseling and structuring the counseling marriage. The counselor should lay down a basis for trust. At the beginning of the counseling process, clients aren't confident with themselves, the counselors and the impact of counseling process. Apart from that, there are clients who can't identify the precise problem they may be facing. Due to these factors, your client is unable to communicate with the counselor openly. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the counselor to set-up an environment that creates trust, respect; genuine and also an environment that makes the client feels anchored.
Clients must have the comfortableness to talk to the counselor, seems accepted which the client is understood correctly. So, the counselors should talk to your client with interest, understanding and respect the client's attitude, emotions and problems. He should give full attention to the client and consider the client as a well known and valued human being. According to Hamdan (2009), in this stage, counselor should also listen positively, consider the way the client feels and considers the problem and present response to your client. This involves displaying facial expressions that presents the interest of the counselor to talk about the challenge with the client, understand their emotions and to relate with the client's problem. Counselor should also be familiar with his / her body posture and movement skill. For example, the counselor needs to show a calm face posture, sit in the right position when counseling consumer, showing conviction in giving an answer to the customers and intonation that is smooth rather than threatening.
A client involves meet a counselor to be able to solve conflicts, problems or to seek for help become a more effective person. Some clients are obvious about the problems that there are facing and some will maintain a blur situation being unsure of the problem faced independently or the purpose of achieving a counselor. A client will express his / her problem to the counselor, nonetheless it is not essential that is the significant problem faced by your client and the inclination to solve the problem may be fragile, intermediate or high. Despite each one of these, the initial thing that should be talked about is the goals to be achieved at the end of the counseling treatment. Nevertheless, the exact goals could only be decided after listening to the problems and making your client understand the real problem he is facing.
A counseling marriage must be structured so that the client can clearly see the way she or he leading to and understanding the counseling process. In the beginning, customer will feel a little difficult in focusing on how the counseling process would help her or him (Burnard, 1996). He brings on by stating that the counselor and consumer should agree on few issues prior to starting a counseling process. Below are the issues that should be agreed beforehand.
Understanding of counseling process - Making the client understand the phases involved in counseling process and how counseling can help the client in solving the issue. Furthermore, the counselor should also clarify the role of an counselor and counseling. A counselor must get all the information as needed, review it by firmly taking into account the backdrop of your client and beliefs of counselor.
Clarification of things that get excited about the counseling process - The counselor must clarify to your client on the appointment date and timing, the length of time of the procedure, how repeated the conference would be and last but not least the duration for the whole process of counseling to end.
Confidentiality - The counselor should also state that the problems reviewed in the counseling program will remain confidential.
A counselor must show high moral behavior during the counseling sessions. In the initial phases of counseling, the counselor should explain of the confidentiality of the counseling trainings and the competencies of the counselor. This would lay a base for trust.
At this stage, the counselors should assist clients by attending to on checking out, understanding, analysing self applied understanding and client's notion about the situation. To understand the client and his / her thoughts, counselor must first explore generally the range of the client's problem in real life. Besides that, the counselor also needs to understand how the customers think, just how he changes and also understand the magnitude to which it is difficult for him to make changes. The counselor must understand the inner strength of the client and how do the client get external electric power.
In this level, the counselors can assist client to improve his or her awareness of the condition to a deeper understanding that shows the importance of counseling in solving the client's problems. The major function of a counselor at this stage is to comprehend the reasons the client searching for counseling. To ease the procedure of exploring, the client must identify if the situation expressed by the client is the real problem that he / she is facing. In addition to that, the counselor also must identify the framework and environment at that time and place the condition occurred. Counselor also needs to analyse if the problem is critical or not, the length of time has it been since the challenge happened, assess the degree of the challenge have involved other folks, especially the closest person to your client and the impact of the problem on the closest people in the client's life, if it has made any changes.
This exploration process could be more effective and successful if the counselors pay attention actively, gives reason to the issues raised, support and encourage the clients and also treat them as a respected person. The counselors should ask open up ended questions during this process to be able to gain more information as well as the counselor should be aware that your client is not demonstrating an excessive amount of dependency on the counselor. A counselor could actually probe information from the client by asking how the client solved prior issues that were very much like the situation that your client is facing presently. For an example, the counselor can buy information such as the approaches your client attempt when hoping to solve the previous problem, has the client discussed recently regarding his problem with someone that is near find solution, changing his / her environment, trying new procedure and etc.
This exploration process can make the client's refusal in addressing the problem, or problems that your client experienced through the process of solving the challenge. In this exploration stage, counselor confirms ways or short-term alternatives or tentative ideas or strategies to help clients at another level.
Many times the only path to solve a difficulty is to get to the root of it. This calls for determining when it began, how it started out and just why it still is still a problem. The counselor can help the client in solving the root base with their problems that will then eliminate the symptoms mounted on them. An excellent counselor can help change your individual problems from the root base on up. This requires time and persistence for the person seeking help.
According to Hamdan (2009), it is difficult to find the main grounds of sophisticated problems. He also said that may be anticipated to three main factors which include destiny, the cause of the problem could be a different individual but involves your client as well and last but not least will be the client's own weaknesses.
Once the thoughts have been expressed, the next level involves assisting the client to recognize ways to cope with or manage the problems. Not all problems can be sorted out and has a remedy. However, the counselor has aided the client to spot a situation that was unclear. The next phase is to acquire a plan to make the situation more exciting and clear. The counselor really helps to recognise the ability and resources and then discuss the alternatives if the situation could be fixed.
According to Burnard (1996), most counseling theorists concur that it's the customer who should identify answers to problems and this process can be motivated by the 'brainstorming' program. He says that in brainstorming, the client is encouraged to think diversely about possible means of resolving his or her present situation and nothing at all have to be excluded at this stage. The counselor must stimulate and encourage the client to be creative and spontaneous as well as thoughtful, reasonable and sensible. The idea is to generate as many solutions as you possibly can. Out of the usually comes an noticeable solution. There are few conditions that should be given importance in this technique. As suggested by Hamdan (2009), this technique involves:
Client is given the chance to make choices
Set aside adverse and unacceptable alternatives
The alternatives must be discussed and chosen by both consumer and counselor
Study advantages and disadvantages of every alternative
Out of the procedure of reaching a concept about how things might be resolved comes the necessity to identify a practical course of action. A plan of action recognizes a way and pathway for achieving a desired consequence. It specifies what the subordinate must do to attain agreed-upon goals set during the counseling session. The plan of action must be specific, exhibiting the subordinate how to change or maintain his or her behavior. It really is helpful if this course of action is focused on paper. However, many people prefer a more relaxed approach to such planning. The point is that the program should be both realistic and possible.
The counselor should ask if your client understands and will abide by the proposed plan of action. This stage of counseling is completed by your client almost independently of the counselor (Burnard, 1996). Within this level, the action that was planned before will be put in place. The main activity at this stage is to help clients solve problems and guide the client in order to operate effectively. Clients need emotional support, encouragement and reinforcement of what they have recently learned. Corresponding to Burnard (1996), change is very hard for many people; it often brings with it a degree of anxiety and it is the counselor's function to help the client to cope with that nervousness.
In this level, appropriate counseling methodology must be used. The approach to be used must be based on a specific strategy that targets increasing the level of client's mental, welfare, the emotions, or even boost the degree of client's potential to act with more appropriate behavior. When the counselor feels that his customer needs help get factual information, or clients need help to make a choice, or your client shows the thinking process that is not reasonable, then your emphasis in counseling should get to the cognitive emphasis (Carroll, 1996).
The length of time of the implementation of the activities should also be determined at this time. In addition to that, a leader always benefits from documenting the primary points of a counseling session, even the casual ones. Documentation serves as a ready guide for the agreed-upon plan of action and helps the leader trail the subordinate's accomplishments, improvements, personal personal preferences, or problems. An excellent record of counseling allows the leader to make proper advice for professional development, marketing promotions, and evaluation information.
Furthermore, with the client's occurrence, establish any follow-up methods necessary to support the successful execution of the program of action. Follow-up actions can include providing the subordinate with specific resources and time, periodic assessments of the plan, and additional recommendations. If possible, plan future conferences before dismissing the subordinate.
After implementing the first alternative, the client will discuss with the counselor if the goal has been achieved and the challenge has been fixed. If the problem has still not been solved, the counselor must suggest to your client to attempt to put into action the other alternatives which was discussed in the last stage. However, should the condition been resolved after applying the alternatives, the counselor can then continue to another level which is the termination of counseling session.
Once the problems have been fixed, hence, the counseling treatment can be terminated. Many fail to understand the importance of terminating the counseling romantic relationship and disregard this stage in a counseling process. It is stated by Gladdings (2004) that termination should be prepared because if the relationship is ended too early, clients may lose the ground they gained in counseling and regress to prior actions. He also added on that if termination is never addressed, clients may become reliant on counselor and neglect to resolve problems and increase as individuals. The three main aspects that needs to be completed at this time are explained below.
The development of the client throughout the counseling lessons must be formulated and the consequences must be examined.
Other conditions that must be resolved at the moment must be presented.
Ways to keep the progress of your client must be analysed after the termination of the counseling classes.
Both the customers and counselors must be prepared for these endings. A great way to facilitate this preparation is through the use if structure, such as time frames, and both verbal and nonverbal alerts (Gladdings, 2004). The customers must understand how to solve the problem by themselves so that they don't be based upon their counselors when they face difficult life situations in future. However, not absolutely all issues can be solved by clients if the goals that have been agreed-upon at the start of the counseling program have been achieved, then your counseling procedure can be terminated. Nevertheless, your client can be given permission to get hold of the counselor again if needed. Once the termination is completed, it is helpful to conduct some form of follow-up inside a year (Gladdings, 2004). The counselors can contact their clients to evaluate the client's performance and also to check if the situation has been solved completely.