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Impression Management (IM) features and effectiveness

Abstract-When a person intentionally changes or modifies his tendencies to raised suit himself in a specific situation; it is recognized as "Impression Management" - the process whereby people make an effort to change or affect the image others have in it. Some psychologists claim that personality change happens within the same specific all the time because people do not have a central personality. As a substitute, they have got multiple selves which they show different patterns during different situations. A successful person is the one who strategically presents these different behaviours to get good deeds from different audiences. This somewhat extreme evaluation is not generally held because there is a lot of data showing that all of us do have a main personality, and that our core personality remains regular most of our lives. Studies have proven that each interviewee will intend to use some form of Impression Management (IM) while joining to a set up interview session. This review examines interviewees' compassion to Impression Management (IM) during a prearranged interview program by determining the comparative significance that your interviewee is connected to. Both verbal and nonverbal Impression Management (IM) are assessed up to relatively significance it affixes to prearranged competencies predicated on cultural role theory.

Keywords - Job interviews, Impression Management (IM), Interviewee and Social Role Theory.


Impression Management (IM), based on Erving Goffman [6], the founder of the dramaturgical strategy, "life is like a play, and we each perform for others": once a person shows business as an element", his / her determinations unconditionally demands his / her spectators to take significantly the impression that is fostered before them.

Almost every corporation conducts at least one interview before making job decisions. Impression Management (IM) from interviewees' point of view is an extremely crucial factor that may impact interview scores. Interviewers are well alert to interviewees' who exploit Impression Management (IM). Interviewees make an effort to generate a constructive impression. [2] There are a few typical examples of Impression Management (IM) during interviews, which includes verbal self-promotion; "I am an extremely hard-working employee". [6] There are some types of typical non-verbal actions like, looking smart by wearing smart professional apparel and smiling gestures as well as inviting body posture. As yet, usage of self-focused IM is the very best method. Whenever an interviewee uses self-promoting statements, which demonstrate the interviewee has desired features for the post the interviewee attends interview for. [12] This is regarded as a 'self-focused strategies' that will evoke attributions of competence. This self-promoting strategies mainly will charm to interviewers as a shortcut method during information exchange process and attribute interviewee's tendencies towards internal causes. Further on, Impression Management (IM) with protective methods, example such as excuses and apologies will help with comparable results. [5] These self-protective practices express fundamental acknowledgments of unconstructive procedures from the interviewee or even change the magnitude of such important attributions. [2]


Every interviewee alters his or her behavior and personality in the presence of others so that they can create an explicit impression on the interviewer. [6] As a result, interviewee may create specific impressions on different band of interviewer ; example potential employer may seek a different self-presentation from the interviewee, compared to a human source administrator who will be enthusiastic to comprehend interviewee's Impression Management (IM) from behavioral perspective. [3] Because of this, during an interview time, interviewee has to determine his / her special objective for the conversation.

The most typical kind of Impression Management (IM) attempts is verbal self-promotions; the statements an interviewee makes concerning his or her skills and expertise. These kinds of statements are believed either assertive (interviewee initiated) or defensive (interviewee respond to interviewer assumptions). Assertive self-promotion is characterized as self-focused statement that reveals the interviewee has necessary skills, talents and positive characteristics. Both assertive and defensive IM are dominion of Impression Management (IM) which may be best described as 'the association ideas', where interviewee make an effort to proclaim with suitable images[10] but however disclaim any unwanted images. [5] Nevertheless, consumption of assertive Impression Management (IM) tactics are dramatically higher compared to defensive type of Impression Management (IM).

Impression Management (IM) Tactics

Impression Management (IM) is defined as a kind of 'mindful or unconscious try to control metaphors that are projected in any type of interpersonal interactions'. Consistently, Impression Management (IM) results in a few behaviors. This includes usage of verbal assertions, expressive actions, and nonverbal behavior and also in built in behavior patterns, jointly in adjustment of one's appearance. [12] Sooner or later in interview classes, most of the interviewees do not fluctuate greatly in their dress code and they likewise have limited ability to use benefit of included behavior blueprint. This example leaves verbal and nonverbal behaviors because so many ubiquitous means of managing impression. [7] Research workers mainly focused on verbal IM behavior, which can be put into two extensive categories of tactics; that happen to be assertive IM practices and protective IM methods. [16]

Assertive IM Tactics

Assertive Impression Management (IM) methods are used to 'assert' the illustration that is recommended at any particular time. [8] This management method can be used by interviewees to establish a particular identification however, not simply imprudent to situational requirements. [1] There are several type of assertive Impression Management (IM) projection, most notably, interviewees will trail Impression Management (IM) method by using a particular clothing or may make an effort to task a virtue affirmation to make an impression on the interviewer. [4] Assertive-strategic factor has been recognized as most straight linked with nonverbal communication. This aspect is frequently used by interviewee to make attraction, position, prestige, reliability or trust worthiness in the interviewer's eyes.

Assertive IM strategies are always used to attain a particular personal information by approving constructive impressions and hold self-promoting and ingratiation tactics. [12]

Self-promoting practices are behaviors intended to suggest attributions of competence alternatively than attractiveness. Normally, interviewee will promote perceptions of competence through the use of certain exact self-promoting utterances, improvements, overcoming obstructions and entitlements. All these are sub-categories of the complete self-promoting actions. [12] Throughout correct self-promoting utterances, the interviewee's effort to convince the interviewer that he / she has positive characteristics and conducts. [13] Self-promoting is very helpful for interviewee to reply on experience-based questions. [3]

Ingratiation methods are known as actions, designed to evoke interpersonal liking and appeal, which is significantly used at an increased ratio when interviewee answers situational questions. One of the types of ingratiation is 'impression conformity', whereby interviewee expresses his or her opinions, prices and beliefs. Second framework of ingratiation is 'enlargement', where interviewee expresses favorable evaluation.

Defensive IM Tactics

Defensive Impression Management (IM) techniques are 'backward-looking' and applied in certain condition, whereby interviewee is being acknowledged with negative manners or characteristics that happen to be linked with an idea they don't want to. [1] Thus, the interviewee can make effort to 'deny' the image. This might be considered a justification for any deprived quality of work the interviewee may did in his or her previous job. As a result, defensive technique can help interviewee to uphold an optimistic reputation. [4]

If assertive (IM) strategies are believed to enhance interviewee's image, defensive (IM) techniques are considered to task and revamp interviewee's image. [7] Experts, have identified a few types of protective tactics such as apologies, justifications and excuses. For example, for any kind of negative action, excuses are cases that interviewee is not in charge of the function. [9]

However, justifications require accepting responsibility for any type of negative final result but propose the negative results is not as bad as it seems.

On the other palm, apologies take it one step further by accepting responsibility for just about any negative habit, with acknowledgement that certain trial were intolerable and it must be penalized. [12]

When Impression Management (IM) works well?

IM usage and engagement during interview is very vital. Therefore, it's important to understand the correlation between these different aspects of an interview process which will be helpful for Man Resource administrators, to comprehend how Impression Management (IM) will need effect during career interviews. [8] This is important for the associated interviewer from Individuals Resource Division to be able to eliminate the negative effects of Impression Management (IM) usage. [8]

Whilst personality of the interviewee is measured prior to any interview processes, interviewer will be able to determine the degree of changes by using different personality qualities the interviewee portray. [13] For example, highly philanthropic individuals have a tendency to be less paying attention on themselves. Therefore, they will use Impression Management (IM) behaviors which will be only related to ingratiating themselves with others, alternatively than using IM for self-promoting or simply for protective excuses.

Correspondingly, many self-disciplined potential interviewees are more likely to plan interviews and contribute more time and effort about how they will respond in responding to credible questions during an interview session. [11]

(IM) Tactics software in Structured Interviews

It has been recommended by experts that interviews offer both interviewee and interviewer the best fixed opportunity to deal with their impressions because both teams will be wanting to fit the needs of the interview's offer. There are a number of experimental studies which uphold this affirmation by evidently indicating Impression Management (IM) techniques do, in simple fact, appear quite repeatedly during any kind of work interview situations. [17] Normally, IM methods are used in unstructured interviews. There are very few studies done to review the dynamics of IM strategies used throughout a organised interview. However, set up interviews include a quantity of components which may have the capacity to lessen any kind of IM methods. [1]

Social Role Theory

Human-being, both men and women absorb diverse jobs in the communal order (example, contributor, and caregiver) and through these jobs; they learn diverse skills and way of life that relate with communal behavior. Both men and women are together at the mercy of different normative anticipations for behavior. According to communal role, these theory causes different behaviors on the part of men and women. Men are expected to be more vigorous (example, assertive, managing, self-employed), and women are projected to become more shared and compassionate (example, worried for the welfare of others, interpersonally delicate, psychologically expressive). [13]

The implication of this hypothesis for Impression Management (IM) in organizations is the fact that women and men may both perform in different ways and be expected to perform in a diverse manner in a office (example, men may feel normative stress to be assertive, and women may feel normative stress to be fostering). Therefore, gender role possibility carry to the types of careers considered suitable for women and men as well regarding the perception of action of women and men in organizational situations. For an example, a nurse is seen as a feminine-typed job, and a health care provider sometimes appears as a manly- typed job. In addition, forcefulness in a man is detected as a gender 'fitting' action, while a forceful woman is seen as violating gender-based objectives for behavior which might indicate of as an unpleasant manner. [7]

Social assignments impact Impression Management (IM) because they create normative prospects for individual behavior. As a consequence, we would anticipate that normative expectations for patterns should range both by the organizational backdrop as well as the characteristics of the marketing communications. For instance, although self-promotion is known as suitable for employment interview, [12] a female who engages in self-promotion may be perceived as violating feminine gender role-custom since self-promotion is not a feminine feature. This observable simple fact has been termed 'the backlash outcome'.


Based on the analysis from existing articles, Impression Management (IM) can be an application applied by numerous type of community, especially those who has to grow to be interviewees, even when it is perfect for a very short period of the time. Impression Management (IM) has extended to operate as a essential part in interviewee's career growth whether the interviewee is a man or a lady. What actually makes the difference between your consumption of Impression Management (IM) between a guy and a woman is the way, the way the community the interviewee lives in, interprets it. Community used to think IM use should become more constructive for man when judged against a female. But in the present area of drastic changes in human-being's civilization, both male and female are treated far more equally compared to two decades before.

The principally significant breakthrough is the significance of IM tactics which is relatively small as assessed up to the importance of near to job-related competencies. Therefore, capability ratings tend to be important in identifying overall evaluations than interviewees' Impression Management (IM) strategies. Therefore, this is a vital discovery as it is comes from both illustrations. Nevertheless, it has placed emphasis on capability evaluations; these do not suggest the impact of IM is insignificant. As a substitute, results propose the impact of IM must be put in a broader notion as it appears to be comparatively smaller to other cues.

It should be renowned, even though, the high degree of interview formation may have reduced personality dissimilarities among interviewers and consequently the prospective effectiveness ramifications of familiarity. There's a saying that you need to not blow his own trumpet, but IM is actually an important avenue whereby, one can share the successes and contributions to world in large and business company on the close-up viewpoint. More often than not, this is performed by interviewee that has provided proof which is dependant on integrity and consistency. Interviewer on the tuning in aspect has sufficient usage of check the genuineness of each and every testimonial distributed by interviewee during an interview program. For an example, a knowledgeable interviewer can justify an interviewee's declaration while looking at the interviewee's body gestures and eye-contact as well as by validating both assertive and defensive amount of IM utilized by the interviewee. When there is an over use of Defensive IM, interviewers will have a higher potential for detecting the interviewee's insufficient honesty and this may tarnish the interviewee's image as well as his or her job possibility in other companies

Having said so, Impression Management (IM), sometimes called as proper communication, refers to the strategies utilized by organizations to set-up, maintain, or improve their public image. In this case, IM is a crucial strategy employed by both interviewer and interviewee during interview which at many occasions works as the ice-breaker between potential employer and his new potential new joiner. Impression Management (IM) strategies are characterized by their self-serving technique. A strategy that is self-serving is typified by one taking credit for positive results and putting blame on others for negative benefits. The utilization of Impression Management (IM) can actually deform the results of experimental research that depends on interviews and studies, a phenomenon significantly known as 'communal desirability bias'. Additionally, Impression Management (IM) hypothesis affirms that every individual from any type of organization must establish and maintain impressions that are very similar with the theory they show or exchange with the interviewer. Nevertheless, the thought of perception the truth is is the basis for this sociable psychology hypothesis. In conclusion, one must verify strongly the interviewer-interviewee conversation processes to be able to comprehend this IM tactics being used at any particular illustration.


This article is a conceptual research that utilizes literature review and evaluation approach to assess and interpret Impression Management (IM) functionality & performance in acing Job Interviews: A Qualitative Review predicated on Social Role Theory. [9] Throughout an extremely competitive business environment, a number of factors can contribute to one's success or failing; clearly a few of these factors involve gender distinctions in nonverbal communication. [15] The job interview is a defining point in an activity leading to a particular outcome; is either being chosen or being redundant. During such a pivotal situation, it is possible to evaluate the impact of gender nonverbal factors on the impressions created and the final employment image resolution. [7]

It is the challenge of organizational theory, research and practice to help expand improve the organization's ability to distinguish between desirable behavior and Impression Management (IM) action, and therefore to find improved ways to encourage one without promoting the other, through the look of organizational systems and authority. [3] The results help to broaden our knowledge of the behaviors in which organizational norms have an effect on working class actions at work, recommending that employees specifically try to impress their relevant reference groupings and create impressions that are consistent with organizational norms and expectations

To conclude, this newspaper is intended to further enhance theoretical knowledge of IM performance, knowing tendencies in IM, handling the impact of IM competencies and understanding how IM develops as time passes. Impression Management (IM) is a dynamic process that occurs continuously during social connections. [14] As individuals interact with one another, they frequently seek out cues or signals that reveal how others differentiate themselves from others, which includes the perception of the potential employer towards his / her most prospective new joiner into his / her organization. [5]


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