Posted at 10.15.2018
Keywords: education teaching styles, educating styles analysis
All people learn in various ways, hence, it is essential that educators try to combine as many different teaching styles as you possibly can into the delivery of what they are educating. Marshal ( Marzano 1992) shows that the idea of learning must include positive attitudes, the capability to acquire knowledge, allowing learners to extent their own knowledge and then making use of their knowledge to everyday life. Marshal (Marzano 1992) also feels that a professor must develop these concepts to be able to help learners develop, and make learners learn individually, so they may continue steadily to develop and accumulate knowledge for the rest of their lives.
There are many different techniques and theories on coaching styles. Most agree that for all pupils to have an equivalent experience in education, educators must conform their coaching styles so that everyone benefits within the class room. Marzano (1992) shows that lower capability pupils should be educated through 'shut down' jobs. A 'shut' activity has a particular structure and group of instructions to provide pupils a definite idea of how a task should be approached and completed. Marzano (1992) then shows that higher ability pupils should experience more 'open-ended' jobs, allowing pupils to develop their thinking skills. This style of teaching is very much indeed learner centred as the professor must adjust their style of teaching to match the needs of pupils in their school.
Mishra (2007) has another theory of coaching styles. Mirsha (2007) argues that there are three varieties of teaching; discipline centred, trainer centred and university student centred, although there are many more different coaching styles and ideas suggested by different writers. The self-discipline centred design of teaching is very structured, not enabling flexibility for what's taught so when it is educated. This style of coaching may be completely centred throughout the nationwide curriculum, without deviating from it. This form of teaching is really as inadequate as it is unpractical, as teaching must allow for overall flexibility to ensure that pupils are learning and attaining in schools. Teacher centred style of teaching targets the teacher to be the main source of knowledge for pupils. Everything that pupils learn will come from the tutor, without obtaining knowledge and information from other sources. Similar to the discipline centred design of teaching, the trainer centred style is not a lot of and does not help learners develop, as pupils do not have to seek ways of learning information themselves, but simply ask the teacher. Additionally it is very limited as the instructor can not be expected to be able to answer all the questions the pupils may have, and may have limited knowledge using areas of the curriculum. The third teaching style recommended by Mishra (2007) is the student centred style of teaching. This style is a lot more learner centred and is very much indeed focused on the cognitive development of students. Through this teaching style, pupils should learn through enquiry, and develop their own thinking skills obtain knowledge and solve problems. Unlike the other two styles recommended by Mirsha (2007), the scholar centred design of teaching also centers more on the needs of specific learners. This form of teaching allows for pupils to learn in different ways as the instructor adapts their coaching style to suite all learners, of most abilities.
However, the three coaching styles recommended by Mirsha (2007) are limited as they do not consider the versions between different classrooms and academic institutions. There are many different teaching styles, all of which must be centered on what best suites the learner (Relationship of Teachers and Lecturers 2011). Perhaps therefore, it is more important to concentrate on how pupils learn alternatively than just concentrating on coaching styles, as no style will suite all learners.
One of the most accepted types of learning styles is Fleming's Visible Auditory Kinaesthetic (VAK) model which includes been further produced by Grinder. The first types will be the visual learners. Aesthetic learners learn by seeing different kinds of information such as pictures, diagrams and models. They may also prefer to read a piece of word for themselves, somewhat than have someone read it to them. Visual learners often bear in mind information by picturing it (Cheminais 2008). To help visual learners, teachers must adapt their coaching style to include as much visual elements into their lessons. A good example of this may be to making sure the framework of the lesson is indicated on the whiteboard so that pupils can see what the lessons will focus on. Additionally it is important that the educator writes down key information from the lesson so that the learner can memorise the information visually.
Secondly there are auditory learners. These learners may favor to hear information such to be read a story, somewhat than read it themselves. They could also benefit more from group discussions normally, auditory learners keep in mind information by remembering what they have read (Cheminais 2008). To hep auditory learners, educators can combine group discussion, audio activities such as hearing music and reading a publication aloud so that auditory learners can keep in mind information that they have heard.
Thirdly there are kinaesthetic learners. These types of learners want to be engaged physically with the work through touching and doing. Kinaesthetic learners achieve best when lessons integrate 'hands on activities' which allows learners to be positively associated with the lesson (Grinder 1991). It is argued that the best coaching style is by using a multi sensory strategy. This will combine all learners of different talents as it helps learners keep knowledge and information in a way that best suites them. Studies from the National Institutes of Child Health and People Development have suggested that this style of teaching greatly benefits children who've dyslexia. A dyslexic child may experience problems with reading and writing, because they have got problems discovering and then processing words. However, in case a multi sensory style of teaching is used, it benefits dyslexic pupils greatly because they are in a position to use other senses such as touch (kinaesthetic). This form of teaching has been proven to help dyslexic children in particular as it accumulates kinaesthetic storage area to complicate visible and auditory ones (Bradford 2008).
A different model explaining how pupils learn is Piaget's Theory/ Model of Cognitive Development. Piaget's model is a Constructivist model, meaning that pupils continuously build upon earlier knowledge, this is also known as schema (Carrell 1984). Whilst studying the way pupils learn, Piaget focused on Assimilation and Accommodation. Regarding to Piaget, assimilation is the process whereby pupils acquire new information and experiences from their learning environment. Accommodation is the follow on impact from assimilation as the pupil adapts their mental views because of the new information and knowledge they may have attained (Atherton 2010). From his studies, Piaget figured as pupils matured, so these were in a position to understand and absorb more knowledge. Piaget assumed pupils weren't able to carry out certain tasks until they were adult enough to be able to do so (Atherton 2010). From his results, Piaget created a four level Style of Cognitive Development. The first stage is the Sensory Motor Stage and can last roughly from labor and birth to two years old. At this time, the child commences to differentiate themselves from other things in their environment as they commence to develop their senses. Also at this stage, the child is regarded as ego-centric, as they are struggling to consider others needs. They could also recognise that they need to do something, to make another thing happen e. g. they have to drive a toy car to make it move (Jardine 2006). The second stage is the Pre-operations Stage and lasts around from two to seven years old. During this stage the kid begins to build up terms and vocabulary. They then associate words with objects and words (Atherton 2010). The kid will usually classify objects jointly because of one common factor such as different patterns being classed alongside one another because they are the same shade, despite their differences in size and form. Piaget argues that children in this level are still ego-centric, but are starting to decentre their view of the world and other people. Piaget also argues that children in this stage have a certain amount of animism as children believe non living items such as automobiles, share the same thoughts as them (Jardine 2006). Stage three is the Concrete Operations Stage and lasts around from seven to eleven years old. During this level of development, the kid becomes older and animism and egocentric thought process begins to vanish in most people. Also during this stage, children get started to see things in several ways (Jardine 2006). For example, before this stage, children could see a spilt pint of dairy as being more than a pint of milk in a container. However, during the Concrete Operations Stage, children develop 'reversibility', or that things continue to be the same after they have changed. For example, children learn that the spilt pint of milk is actually the same as the dairy in the container even though it appears different. The ultimate level is the Formal Functions Stage and is maintained from eleven to sixteen years of age. During this level, the pupil produces to believe like an adult. If the pupil is confronted with a problem, they could seek out all the options to resolve it. Pupils are also able to evaluate different ideas without having to relate them back to something that already is accessible in real life (Bybee et al 1982). From a coaching perspective, it is important to use into Piaget's Theory/ Style of Cognitive Development when planning or teaching children. As Piaget advises, children develop different skills and features and different phases of their life. It is their fore unfair to create an activity that is ideal for a kid in the Concrete Operations Level when they are still in the Pre-operations Stage. Taking accounts Piaget's model, it is important for professors to adjust their style in order to match the pupils they are
Gardner offers another theory of learning. Over the last half century, suggestions have been made that folks have different types of intelligences. Perhaps one of the most well known is Gardner's Multiple Intellect Theory (Ginnis 2008). Gardner argued against past theories that folks were born intelligent, and instead recommended that all people are brilliant, but in several ways. In 1983, Gardner developed seven different kinds of intelligence (Ginnis 2008). More recently, Gardner has recommended that there are eight different kinds; linguistic, reasonable (mathematical), spatial, musical, kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic. In 1999 Gardner claimed " I now conceptualise an cleverness as a biopsychological potential to process information that can be turned on in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture" (Ginnis 2008). Gardner's Multiple Intellect Theory benefits both teacher and pupils. Gardner cases that many people are intelligent, just in different ways. This can help build pupil's self-confidence and self-assurance as they may struggle in some subjects but prosper in others. His theory also allows a far more prestigious status for several jobs in the school room, which in the past may not have been deemed as showing cleverness in a kid. Gardner's theory is also very good for educators and the style they use as it allows teachers to possess higher expectations of each child (Ginnis 2008) and for that reason push each child further. Gardner's theory also helps instructors differentiate their lessons planning to include all pupils equally. In the past, pupils may have been grouped by potential only using themes. However, using Gardner's theory, the professor can see which pupils progress better where subjects, and can therefore plan and group pupils together according to their ability in a range of different subjects. This does indeed however be based upon the overall style of the educator as they could deem mixed potential groups more appropriate for certain duties. Teachers may also use Gardner's theory to recognize which things or process pupils feel less comfortable carrying out, and then try to support them more when taking part in these.
Professor Anthony Gregorc again offers a new approach to learning styles. Gregorc advises that people understand (acquire) and order (organise/ store mentall) information in various ways. Out of this, Gregorc developed different scales for both Perceiving and Ordering. On the perception range, Gregorc argues that we now have Cement learners at one end of the size and Abstract learners at the other (Ginnis 2008). According to Gregorc, Cement learners need the physical aspect of learning, they are really kinaesthetic learners and have to be actively associated with a task in order for them to reap the benefits of it. Gregorc then argues that at the other end of the understanding range there are Abstract learners. These kinds of individuals use activities to help them memorise information. They also look for patterns in work and how things are similar or different (Jonassen et al 1993). It's important to highlight that almost all of people land somewhere in between the two ends of the belief scale. On the Ordering level, Gregorc argues that we now have Sequential people at one end, and Random people at the other. Sequential people are very logical, focused and are able to memorise facts easily. When conducting a task they follow a step by step plan to allow them to complete the duty effectively. Random people, Gregorc argues, are not so focused and find it hard to memorise facts. Random people may be able to answer a intricate question, however, not have the ability to say how they came with their answer (Jonassen et al 1993). Just like the Perception size, most people fall season between the two ends of the level.
From his research, Gregorc argues that we now have four types of learners; Cement Sequential, Abstract Sequential, Cement Random and Absract Random. With regard to teaching style, it's important for a instructor to realise what learning style/ styles pupils may be, in order to set duties that will be most beneficial to them. Cement Sequential learners need organised, practical activities. These kinds of learners have to be told exactly what to do and could need a checklist, like a success criteria, in order to complete an activity. They also require regular responses to ensure they are appropriately carrying out the duty. Abstract Sequential learners prefer to do their own research, however the research must be organised on their behalf, for example a worksheet where pupils have to complete the gaps. These types of learners also prefer to evaluate work and like different ideas and ideas. Cement Random learners choose to work with a degree of freedom without having to be anxious about deadlines. These types of learners do nothing like dealing with others, unless they chose who they use. They are wondering learners and like challenging work such as researching ideas for themselves. Finally, Abstract Random learners are extremely creative, and prefer to work in categories. They learn best through talk, either in small groups or with the complete class. They are incredibly adaptable learners, who don't head making mistakes. In addition they learn best when humour is employed when teaching information (Ginnis 2008).
Teachers can use Gregorc's work to help them plan and adjust their design of teaching to suit all learners. Though it is extremely hard to instruct in a method that will profit all learners atlanta divorce attorneys lesson, it is important to combine all learning styles over a series of lessons (Jonassen et al 1993). Teacher's can also use Gregorc's work to deal with teaching with a far more personal style. For instance, a Cement Sequential learner may like a task divided into small periods, so the professor may use this knowledge of learning style to plan effectively for the coffee lover. Also, an Abstract Sequential learner prefers to work in organizations, so the tutor can make sure that a lesson involves group work, or debate of some sort (Ginnis 2008).
Although there are many different approaches and ideas regarding coaching and learning styles, all suggest that there is a relationship between your two. It really is impossible for a instructor to have a strict coaching style, as you won't gain all pupils of their school. Instead, a tutor must identify what different learning styles pupils within their category may have, and then use this information to modify their coaching style so that all pupils benefit from their teaching.
My school experience placement took place in a Church of Wales university in a little town in central Powys. The institution has eight regular professors and eighteen coaching assistants, some specialising in helping special needs children. The institution is a dual stream co-educational principal school and between Infants and Juniors there were one hundred and eighty pupils. In my own course (year six) there have been seventeen pupils aged either ten or eleven yrs. old. The class had one teaching assistant who was a full time helper to a pupil with Autism. The institution is organised into eight classes, three in the building blocks stage and three in Key Stage Two, with years four and five combined. These classes are trained through the medium of English. The other two classes are taught through the medium of Welsh and range from reception to year six. Pupils are able to sign up for the Welsh medium classes, irrespective of home language. Despite the fact that the Welsh medium classes are individual from all of those other school, the whole school comes together for assemblies, respite and meal times and after university night clubs. In 2008, the institution received a positive ESTYN inspective article. In Fall 2010, the institution was re-awarded the Basic Skills Quality for Maths and Words. The institution is also a Green Flag Eco-School and a Healthy School because of its good work in Education for Sustainable Development (eco-schoolswales. org). .
The school used the National Curriculum of Wales. Core subjects the non-core themes of Background, Geography, Art, Design Technology, Music, Physical Education and Spiritual Education are educated. As the school is a Cathedral of Wales school, Religious Education is taught relative to the Church of Wales syllabus, which check out all religions and compares them to a child's own values. Collective Religious worship occurs on the daily bases.
Whilst on university experience I witnessed many different styles of coaching in the non-core subject matter. The coaching style were different not only in each subject matter, but depending on what task was being completed, and the particular teacher felt was most ideal for the pupils in the school.
In art, the whole category made cable men, that have been later covered with mod-rock and colored. To explain the task to the kids, the teacher firstly demonstrated what that they had to do. This helped visible learners, as these were in a position to see just what they had to do in order to complete the task successfully. Once the pupils actually carried out the task themselves, it was very practical, and the kids were actively engaged. This sort of learning supports Grinder's kinaesthetic learner, were utilizing senses such as touch and sight while undertaking the task. Throughout the lesson the professor continuously gave feedback to pupils. Giving constant reviews the professor was supporting Gregorc's Concrete Sequential learners. In artwork, it is easier than most subject matter to employ a multi sensory coaching style, as the subject itself reveals very useful work, suitable for the kinaesthetic learner.
History also presents a teacher having the ability to use different teaching styles. On university experience, the course covered the next World War ever sold. The tutor and I used different items from the conflict like a helmet and air raid siren, to help pupils learning. This form of coaching helped both visual and kinaesthetic learners as they could see and touch the different objects to assist their knowledge and knowledge of the War (Grinder 1991). Also while learning this area of history, there have been group and class discussions. This form of teaching would help Gregorc's Abstract Random learners (Ginnis 2008) and also auditory learners as pupils would learn by speaking about and listen to information about the Battle.
There are numerous different methods and design of teaching music in Key Stage Two. Music is a subject that allows pupils expressing themselves more than they could normally do in other subjects. Also, Gardner suggests music as you of his eight intelligences (Ginnis 2008). It's important for a instructor to understand a pupil's capacity in music to be able to teach them effectively and help them improve. Music is an extremely multi sensory subject matter as it benefits visible, auditory and kinaesthetic learners through reading music or lyrics, listening to different types of music and literally playing different tools. While on institution placement, the class composed a song in Welsh, to the tune of "What shall we do with a drunken sailor". Instead of just letting the pupils write any lyrics they required, the teacher proved them an obvious structure that that they had to follow. The pupils then did the trick in organizations to help create lyrics to the track and then carrying out it. This coaching style benefitted a variety of different learning styles. Firstly, Concrete Sequential learners benefited as they were provided with a definite structure of what that they had to do to compose the song. Second of all, Abstract Random learners benefited from the group work and the creativity to compose tune lyrics. During this lesson, the instructor had purposefully adapted their coaching style so that different learning styles would take advantage of the lesson.
Design and Technology (D&T) again offers a tutor the opportunity to adapt their teaching style to be able to benefit different learning styles. On institution go through the D&T topic centered on healthy eating, and planning and making healthy pizzas. The school began the topic by discussing in groupings and whole course conversations, different ideas about healthy eating and various types of pizza. The debate benefited Abstract Random learners and also auditory learners (Jonassen et al 1993, Grinder 1991). Before pupils made pizza themselves, the instructor demonstrated steps to make one, exhibiting each step obviously. This would advantage aesthetic and auditory learners and also Concrete Sequential learners (Ginnis 2008), as they could see clearly what they might have to do in order to make a pizza. Also as part of this issue, pupils had to make a recipe to make a pizza. Higher potential pupils in the category wrote the formula without the help of good examples. However, some lower potential pupils in the category were provided worksheet where that they had to fill in the spaces (see appendix 1). This worksheet wouldn't normally only profit lower ability pupils, but also Abstract Sequential learners as they could fill in the gaps (Ginnis 2008).
Physical Education (PE) in general is very much suited for kinaesthetic learners as it is a very actively involved subject. However, depending on which teaching style the professor uses, will depend on how much other types of learners reap the benefits of PE. On school experience, the pupils centered on dance throughout their PE lessons. Pupils were asked to work in pairs and communities to produce different dance exercises. This benefitted aesthetic, auditory and kinaesthetic learners as these were in a position to see different party routines, listen to them be explained, and then literally hold them out. Also, by physically doing the dance, the pupils were able to learn the workout very quickly. The spouse and group debate also benefited Abstract Random Learners (Ginnis 2008).
In Geography on school experience, pupils looked at an evaluation between there city and a little community in Uganda. To present the topic, the teacher demonstrated the pupils a video recording of the community in Uganda. This benefited visible and auditory learners as these were able to see the village and notice different things about it from individuals who resided there. The teacher also paused the video once in a while to ask questions and recap the particular pupils had learnt so far. This was especially effective as it made pupils focus on the video in the event these were asked a question about any of it. The discussion following video recording also benefited Abstract Random learners (Ginnis 2008). The pupils were then given a "treasure" map of the town in Uganda. The aim of the activity was for the pupils to discover where they could by dairy, and plot different locations on the map. The map contains different questions. The answer of the question gave a hint either to where in fact the next location was on the map, or what the next question was. This activity suited a variety of different learning styles. Pupils could see the various locations on the map, discuss them with there spouse or group (Abstract Random Learners), and be actively involved in answering questions. The step y step instructions of how to complete the task also benefited Concrete Sequential learners. This task was particularly exciting for the pupils plus they learnt a great deal of information about the community in Uganda from it. This demonstrates the teaching style used to provide information concerning this area was very successful.
In Religious Education, the course protected the nativity report. The teacher began this issue with a category discussion to make a timeline of the order of incidents of the nativity tale. This again benefited Abstract Random learners. Following the class experienced completed the timeline, pupils given page book, section and verse personal references and were asked to locate the nativity report in different parts of the Bible. This benefited visual and kinaesthetic learners. Also, the research methods found in this lessons also benefited Abstract Sequential learners (Ginnis 2008). After the pupils were more aware of the nativity storyline, the class viewed it as a episode activity. This activity greatly benefited kinaesthetic learners, as these were physically involved with the nativity story and therefore were able to learn the story far easier than simply reading, or being told about any of it.
It is important for teachers to adopt a variety of different coaching styles when teaching different subjects. Professors must find the best option style for the lessons content, but moreover, a style which will suit all learners and invite them to take advantage of the teaching. To be able to teach effectively, teachers must use solutions and theories such as Gardner's Multiple Intellect Theory, Piaget's Theory/ Style of Cognitive Development, Grinder's VAK model and Gregorc's method of learning styles, in order to discover what design of teaching would be most suitable and beneficial to their pupils. It isn't possible for teachers to consider most of the several learning styles when planning each lessons. It is important however that a selection of learning styles are covered over a series of lessons, so that learners benefit from the teaching.
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