Posted at 11.30.2018
How is tourism related to the natural environment? Discuss ways that environmental conservation can be increased through tourism.
Before elaborating the relativity of Tourism and Environment, it is necessary to comprehend both terms singularly. Relativity is to distinguish distinction and characterise between two different worth for understanding their stability upon one another.
Tourism: Tourism is currently a trend, not only a simple getaway activity. In addition, it must be considered that tourism and tourist are two different characteristics. Solutions differentiate accordingly and it could be defined corresponding to both understandings:
'It [tourism] is a real human activity which encompasses human behavior, use of resources, and connections with other folks, economies and conditions. ' Bull, 1991:1 cited in Holden, A. (2008).
From mentioned definition tourism is mainly focused on natural or communal aspects, where creator has examined travel and leisure based on environmental characteristics. Another understanding could be from the point of view of your visitor or vacationer, again I would like to mention a explanation from Holden's writing; where he used another author's definition to differentiate from the prior perspective.
Tourism as: 'an frame of mind to the planet or a means of seeing the globe, not necessarily that which you find only by the end of an extended and arduous journey' Franklin, 2003:33 cited in Holden, A. (2008).
This explanation is from the perspective of a traveler as a single entity and much more individualistic. Here personal experience is more valuable for a consumer. Travel and leisure is not really a very old research for world but travel defiantly is. Tourism is more of increasing a fantastic experience than a regular living, while travel can contains various reasons behind it.
But matching to Hunter and Green (1995, pp: 1) "There is no universally accepted explanation of tourism. This isn't astonishing, since what constitutes a 'vacationer' and the 'travel and leisure industry' are still matters of controversy. "
Environment: In terms of travel and leisure, Environment is obviously grasped as a nature or atmosphere of the destination or a location which is employed for tourism. Character contains mountains, normal water resources such as sea side, sea, rivers, waterfalls etc. Green environment includes crops, forests, parks, rainforests, safaris etc. when elaborated to wilderness it is made up wild life, family pets, forest species etc. Socially; traditions sites or social uniqueness is also a part of an environment.
'In environmental studies it includes commonly been assumed that there is a fundamental connection between a society's management of natural resources and its own perception of aspect. ' Brunn and Kalland (1995:1) cited in Holden, A. (2008).
Environmental studies and explanations are huge and distributions of its characteristics are crucial. If we look at it from a new perspective it seems environment includes entire world (living or non living beings) including humans, pets, crops and resources. From evolution humans are using environmental resources. When witnessed this use or reduction, it is categorised as Environmental study. Amount of resistance and Resilience are two distinctions in this analysis, where Resistance is tolerance of the site (while getting used but still being undisturbed) and Resilience is the ability to get over the happened damage or change. Some sites have either characteristics or some not. Hence due to its characteristics,
Hunter and Green (1995) explained that 'environment can be subdivided into three components as the physical environment or a biotic environment which includes solar energy, land, water and weather'.
Tourism is based on the environment; Travel and leisure has and can always devour the natural resources. Travel and leisure is the primary factor carrying out the environment in both negative and positive aspect. Even simplest form of tourism like going to a zoo uses environmental resources such as pets, birds or vegetation. Such a kind simple form of tourism also makes constructive as well as unconstructive results. The negative impact conditions might be the acquiring animals using their natural habitat and keeping them in a zoo, whereas positive aspect can be that by taking the pets or animals they are receiving shielded against hunters and other environmental conditions that can be critical to them. In a variety of other smaller or increased impressions travel and leisure has both positive and negative results, but more important is to comprehend the actual devastation or refurbishments triggering from travel and leisure towards environment.
It is understandable that human being participation with environment have a tendency to use the resources, if it can't help to make them expand at least they can be kept from future problems by use of wise human behaviour. Analysis of tourism environment is about understanding the cause and effect rule and imply theories to safeguard the environmental reduction scheduled to mass tourism. It is also significant that Travel and leisure should place combined with the higher quality of environment and environment shall get reap the benefits of it not the damage. No doubt every human action has its pros and cons and fragility of aspect resources must not be seriously harm because of it. Tourism is without a doubt one of the world's highest profitable business (whether on the cost of environment) and marriage between tourism and environment can get equilibrate if financial revenue gets used for the conservation programs or environmental sustainability.
All activities ingest resources and produce waste, possibly each one of these activities has a potential to spoil the surroundings, and in same framework Tourism is no exception. Tourism is rolling out as a greatest industry and any activity happens at a mass level definitely leaves it's positive and negative impacts, such as travel and leisure did in the past. Although not the case that every environmental problem is produced by tourism but still being a mass industry it affects on a wider program.
The unsafe impact of travel and leisure can eliminate the environment when the negative impacts on the surroundings are sufficiently extensive and extensive. Such as for example harming biodiversity of particular areas which include trip retreats, clearing of vegetation for constructing resorts and hotels or other tourism facilities, and also many unusual varieties have been brought to the verge of disappearance anticipated to non-tourism nuisance that are immediately related to travel and leisure. Habitat devastation brought by unrestrained and ill planned travel and leisure is the perfect reason behind extinction of varieties which eventually destroy the natural balance, but destruction of biodiversity can have significant effects than this. Another negative impact is the depletion of natural resources like water, land and resources like food, energy or recycleables etc. which already are in short supply. Degradation of land resources like lumber or plantations is another exemplory case of the negative impacts of travel and leisure on the environment. Solid waste material littering is more common in the case of trekking, rock climbing or hiking tourists. Tourism also pollutes the travel and leisure sites with sound and air pollutions, problems are more compounded in countries or locations which absence or does not have the capability to effectively treat such kinds of pollutants generated from tourism activities. Tourism development is pretty much responsible for most of the harmful effects that tourism has on the environment. The reducing of forested areas, changing the surroundings etc all have negative influences on the ecological balance of the travel and leisure destination, whereas levels of impact may vary from site to site, but the negative effects of tourism on the environment cannot be disregarded. The negative influences are intensely visible in ecologically delicate environments.
Whether from generating a new site or a heritage site used for different prospective, somehow environment gets trouble by this. By air pollution, numbers of folks using limited resources, behavior of travellers while on getaways etc are some of the complexities which straight or indirectly affects environment. It could include both physical and ethnic aspects. Unless controlling at all level it is difficult to provide specific account to each reference and this is how this becomes a negative aspect towards travel and leisure, environment must pay such cost by loss to the natural adjustments to beaches, coral reefs or heritage sites.
Effluence caused by tourism main concerns confronted by tourism trade today. The sewage waste materials from holiday resorts are drained in to the rivers causing pollution in the river normal water and finally to sea foundation, it highly influences the marine life. Extreme use of natural tool that is fossil energy to generate energy for visitor activity, the activities of overfishing, unnecessary use of surface water resources, are only few of problems which are created by tourism industry which in turn causes the reduction of the reference.
As tourism increases, it also give hands to increased littering, various varieties of air pollution e. g. noises, water, air. Sewage and waste material acquired increased sometimes to uncontrollable levels. Alongside need for transportation gets high and number of vehicles produces numerous gases and sound in air. In areas where resources are limited, tourism develops a feeling of competition, leading to a variety of degradation. Such harmful effects are majorly helped bring by poor management or lack of proper conservation system in place.
However with each one of these harmful effects, the environment is also increasing the optimistic result of tourism. Travel and leisure is moving towards a lasting side by helping and preserving the natural resources for future years generation. Various nations and its conventional organisations are utilizing strict ideas for conserving their nature and safeguarding their natural resources.
We should not only see at the dark area of the moon if tourism has its costs, its gives back again as well, as tourism grows it will be encourage other industries to rise hand and hand. Whenever a destination is selected to develop as a travel and leisure destination federal government and planning resources put attempts for the regeneration of the place. It involves revitalisation of a location or a site and beautifies the local environment. Thus this process brings new colors to the website. Any essential site when comes under tourism perspective, its natural resources gets special attention from the managing bodies, where as educated tourism designers knows the worthiness of an all natural source of information and keeping this at heart they prevent any misuse or harm to it.
According to Swarbrooke (1999) the word sustainable tourism can be explained as the strategy towards tourism where more concentration is shown in preservation of the natural resources in a way that they can be consumed by the present era and can be maintained for future years era as well.
Tourism can therefore no more be seen as a damaging factor to environment. Economically, many areas on the globe have benefitted from travel and leisure and conservations are occurring on a higher level in many countries.
'There can be an urgent need to comprehend the connections between tourists, travel and leisure and the surroundings. Many new forms of tourist ingestion revolve around environmental quality and the admiration for nature. One more reason for the negative picture of travel and leisure might be that it's difficult to disentangle the impact of tourism from other varieties of economic activity using destination areas'. Shaw g. , Williams A. M. (2002)
Numerous instances and circumstance studies can be found where travel and leisure has proven a saviour to drowning economies, along with cost-effective benefits; it is effective in urbanisation of inactive towns. Due to tourism many businesses develop and folks get employed, over a social level tourism keeps all communities mutually and linked. Any tourist's communal involvement and habits are controlled by the behavior where s/he is coming from and an insight can be developed to be able to gain positive response from vacationers. Appropriate educational information system towards environment is increasing as very helpful tool.
If tourism destroys the surroundings with negative effects, it also takes on an extremely big role in the preservation of the natural environment of the vacation spot areas. As tourism industry benefits from the tourism sites, it ought to be its morally in charge to take a pivotal role in the conservation of the natural environment from which it gets benefits. A proper and well managed tourism approach can reduce the pessimistic impact of travel and leisure on the natural environment.
Appropriate use of attained revenue- Although profits earned from the travel and leisure do is the major contribution of the tourism trade to the attempts of preservation of the surroundings, educating the holiday is also an important aspect in your time and effort of conservation of the environment. The revenue attained from various visitor activities brings in the riches which permits organisations to focus on the conservational efforts. Without the money, conservation process is little or nothing. Though, matter must be studied to notice that the professionals of such areas or sites are not tempted to enlarge the visitation top limit as the amount of money starts to stream, thinking that the money thus received from tourist activities like admittance fees will be adequate to address the very issues induced by the increased visitation. If this persuasion is not forgotten, than the natural environment will suffer more thereby negating the effective use of money from travel and leisure for the conservation of the surroundings. The conservationists who have the know-how and specialist should make an effort to assume control and focus on the maintenance of the environment.
Developing eco-tourism- Another most significant method is to bring a change from the basic idea of mainstream conventional travel and leisure. This can be achieved by propagating the effort of sustainable tourism and eco-tourism which are more environmental friendly and aims at nourishing both the external and the inner environment of the vacation spot. Adopting the idea of such varieties of tourism plays a significant role in the conservation of the environment. Fundamental principles of these forms tend towards minimizing the side effects of tourism on the surroundings without compromising the worthiness of experience that the visitors can get from visiting the sites.
In further part of the essay I've stated and elaborated how this alternative tourism is developing these days.
Sound planning- Sensible environmental management of travel and leisure amenities like resorts and hotels can boost the benefits to natural areas; need is careful planning of travel and leisure development which is based on environmentally friendly resources existing in the vacation spot area. For example clearing of vast areas of vegetation or forest to generate resorts, trip retreats, etc and changing of the scenery to appear more desirable to the holiday. While repeating this, the natural environment or to be specific the biodiversity or the ecology of the area is being infected. So worry should be studied to note that tourism development causes least impact on the environment. This again can be carried out by creating friendly to the environment resorts or complexes which will have the least impact on the surroundings. Tourism also offers the potential of raising awareness of the environmental problems among the people by delivering them into close contact with the surroundings. Tourism cannot be sustainable if the environment or the environment of the vacation spot is not ecological alone.
Developing awareness among vacationers- Conservationists should offer means where people using this destination, both local people and tourists can be made aware of the value of maintaining the surroundings. In fact they can encourage the visitors to contribute towards maintaining environmentally friendly balance. Conscious work to convert and develop the destination ought to be the aim of the environmentalists and the development assignments, remember the positive possibility as well as the downfall of the environment with extreme tourism. A way in which tourism can contribute to the conservation process is having an appropriate device for the dealing with pollution and sewages produced from travel and leisure activities. Various means may be used to minimise the impact of travel and leisure on the surroundings. Appropriate interpretation can remove negative facts of the site and instruct and inform the traveler on the diverse aspects related to the surroundings. This can lead to the visitor's greater understanding of the planet and thus act in a far more responsible manner and hence minimise the impact caused by them. Execution of visitation limitations, proper rules polices and mentioning the environmental issues induced by travel and leisure at its early stage can imply a major difference in the conservation of the natural environment.
Helping wildlife preservations- Travel and leisure also performs a vital role in the preservation and security of various kinds of endangered types which really is a vital part of the natural environment. Aspect loving tourists visit wildlife reserves and in doing this donate to the conservation process. Tourism can play major role in the conservation process in a variety of other ways. The tourism industry can also organise campaigns to raise awareness of the environmental issues affecting mother nature or wildlife and in doing so can also developed a good image which has been often criticised in the last few ages for the negative influences it has brought on to the animals destinations.
Alternate travel and leisure is developing- A fresh breed of travellers is producing called eco-tourists and sustainability emerged in light in 80's anticipated to previously happened mass devastation in environmental resources. Lasting Development concept came in attention from 1980's and in March 1980, World Conservation Strategy (WCS) was well prepared. IUCN, UNEP, WWF, FFO and UNESCO joined up with hands for world's living resources. WCS was a conservation strategy where ecosystem degradation-destruction, deforestation, desertification, air pollution, ground erosion and hereditary diversity and extinction of kinds and many related issues were in debate.
The relationship between financial development and the conservation and sustenance of natural resources is idea of lasting development. Though these thoughts were already in air from a long time in those days but WCS talked about many major changes taking place to environment and WCS was proven as a bridge between previous thoughts and later activities. Another major end result was establishment of WCED (World commission payment on environment and development) in 1983, Gro Harlem Brundtland (PM Norway) was appointed chairperson because of this payment and in 1987 he publicised a written report known as Brundtland Report (Our Common Future) where 'Sustainability' were actually popularised-
Sustainable development is development that 'meets the needs of today's without compromising the ability of future years to meet their own needs' (According to WCED 1987:43) cited in Hall, C. M. and Lew, A. A. 1998
Certainly sustainability includes strategy making, preservation of ecological operations, protection of heritage and biodiversity, futuristic concentrated output and balance between public behavior and environment. Along with the global acceptance of International travel and leisure, sustainability also acquired recognised as an integral element towards long-term beneficial insurance policies along with conserving limited resources. Vacation spot areas have developed to accommodate all these travellers, and receiving them and wedding caterers their needs has also become part of a daily routine.
'Development is an extremely contested concept and because the Second World Battle debates over what it is, and exactly how to attain it, has truly gone through a number of stages. International tourism has been a global happening from centuries, but that packaging of travel and leisure for mass ingestion dates back to the middle-19th century, whenever a specific service sector specialized in the mass ingestion of travel emerged, approximately parallel to the introduction of mass creation in the industrial sector'. Harrison, D. (ed. ) (2001)
As people aren't is commonly flexible as it pertains to implementing guidelines and regulation, especially when guests are on getaways, Publisher B Wheeller describes in his words. And what sort of touristic approach is needed is "Tourism at one with dynamics; non-consumption, non-exploitative, preventing degradation and devastation of the 'environment', but rather tourism in tranquility, in balance with nature" Wheeller, B. (1994)
Based upon the claims and codes-of-conduct developed by tourism stakeholders, that the environment has been located on the outline as a significant matter of how travel and leisure is usually to be developed possibly.
Thus each one of these negative and positive effects of travel and leisure on the environment, brings us to a final result that travel and leisure can be treated in negative as well as positive aspect in regards to the environment. The negative influences can be reduced by firmly taking effort towards conserving natural resources. There are many tools that can be used to protect the surroundings like collecting income in the form of taxes. All these samples however show us an optimistic picture about how precisely the travel and leisure industry and the environment are co-dependent to one another for their common presence. Though there a wide range of negative aspects to travel and leisure, we can still say that tourism has the tools to protect, preserve and improve natural resources and the environment.
Therefore Tourism and environment can both co-exist and be mutually good for one another if the travel and leisure industry gets the willingness to take completely support to the conservation efforts of the environment. In doing this, it can benefit maintain the environment and also recover from the negative image which it has built up for itself during the last few generations. Proper and productive planning and management accompanied by strict implantation, strict rules and regulations, proper interpretation, propagating the idea of sustainable consumption, well prepared eco tourism and sustainable travel and leisure and educating the tourist and making them aware of the impacts of the actions which may have negative impacts on the environment are some of the few ways in which travel and leisure sector can contribute in the conservation procedure for the natural environment. There cannot be a limit to the extent tourism can contribute to the procedure and there cannot be a finish to its contribution towards environmental conservation because so long as tourism is out there, the negative influences of holiday will be visible on the environment. There is no doubt accepting the actual fact that tourism brings in money. But even then, attention must be taken to ensure that the economical growth brought by the travel and leisure industry must contribute to the environment processes and the ecological use of natural resources.
Brunn and Kalland (1995:1) cited in Holden, A. (2008) Environment and Travel and leisure (2nd edition), Routledge)
Bull (1991:1) cited in Holden, A. (2008) Environment and Travel and leisure (2nd model), Routledge)
Franklin (2003:33) cited in Holden, A. (2008) Environment and Tourism (2nd model), Routledge)
Hall, C. M. and Lew, A. A. 1998. The geography of ecological tourism development: an intro. Harlow: Longman.
Harrison, D. (ed. ) (2001) Tourism and the Less Developed World: Issues and Case Studies. Wallingford: CABI. Ch. 1.
Holden, A. (2008) Environment and Tourism (2nd release), Routledge.
Hunter, C. and Green, H. (1995) Tourism and the surroundings: A sustainable romance? Routledge, London.
Shaw G. , Williams A. M. (2002) 2nd ed. Critical issues in travel and leisure: a physical point of view: Oxford.
Swarbrooke, J. (1999) Ecological Tourism Management. CABI Posting, Wallingford.
Wheeller, B. (1994) Egotourism, lasting tourism and the environment: a symbiotic, symbolic or shambolic marriage? inside a. V. Seaton et al. , eds. Travel and leisure: The State of the Art, Wiley, Chichester.