Posted at 12.13.2018
The pressure between modernity and custom has inspired all areas of today's life, especially in the social, cultural and architectural aspects. This dual structure closely shows the realities that a lot of modern Muslim societies face today. The impact of modernity and globalization cannot be ignored, which includes become one of the most controversial issues in modern Islamic architecture. Lately there were a sigificant number of papers and literature regarding the dialogue between old and new or modernity and traditions, which highlight the role of these challenges in our life. Most of the times becoming dissolved by globalization do not let us pause and rethink the architectural styles we could following.
What are the reasons that we need to speak about the consequences of globalization? Because it is necessary for a dialogue to be created between new horizons that take shape in just a globalized framework and local prices, specially when we discuss an Islamic country like Iran that has experienced an Islamic revolution by its people. We have to rethink the challenges of modern-day Islamic architecture to be able to enhance our knowledge and increase our ability to handle current problems confronting the ethnical and architectural need of the changing Muslim society. On the one hand there can be an urgent need to revitalize local identities and characters and on the other you can find inevitable dependence on new building materials and solutions.
The architectural personality of goal -built Islamic community centers in non-Muslim countries has been formed by image of Islamic architecture in the West designed through the Orientalist discourse, the post-colonial search for identity, and the particularities of postmodern architectural practice.
Nowadays we believe the architecture of present is surely the merchandise of past lessons, even if historicism and classicism are in minority.
There are subject matter we need to consider such as the main solutions and categories in modern-day Islamic structures and their perspectives regarding globalization and regionalism in contemporary architecture.
Since the 1970s and 1980s the current economic climate systems in Middle Eastern countries (as the largest Muslim societies on earth) like Iran or UAE has been undergoing an activity of transformation from international to global. The furiously quick development of information and telecommunication systems and infrastructures is providing advancements including the worldwide pass on of fund and capital market segments. Finally the reorganization of the various global functions has caused the transformation of the metropolises which were the historical and traditional centers of international exchanges. Not merely did globalization and global strategies become widespread all over the world, nevertheless they also became impossible to dismiss.
"Globalization" is a term transposed from globalization and localization. The move forward of globalization provided rise to all together react to and avoid local motions at the many degrees of nationalism. This process demonstrated that globalization and localization are not unilateral functions and can't be successful without a collaborative approach and always being together. Globalization is driving a vehicle localization and localization is driving a vehicle globalization at the same time.
Traditional structures (Islamic structures, for an instance) was met with western architecture; they are getting compared at all the changing times. Modern architecture looks forward to materials of top quality and high quality, total advanced technology of the day and the food cravings of new designers, architectures and designers in inventing new things, but traditional architecture would make use of the same traditional technology and the same outlines and limitations; consequently this battle didn't lead to a desire and nice condition of things and it was european architecture that triumphed in the unfair competition. International style and modern structures were the first true examples of the newly-fashioned styles that dominated the scene of modern-day Islamic structures. This facing with the new ideas cost traditional architecture its coherence, originality and integrity; nonetheless it caused many difficulties in the later periods including the use of modern materials that is very irrelevant to the function of the properties, such as mosques with facades protected with English orange tiles or using black marble to make a minaret.
At the convert of the twentieth century the root base of international structures style acquired already taken condition in steel-framed, concrete experienced and multistory commercial properties. But it was to take another fifty years plus some social reforms to change the modern day Islamic (religious areas) architecture's trends before the heart of modern Islamic structures began to find a coherent style that can call its.
At the move of the twentieth century the origins of international structures style acquired already taken form in steel-framed, concrete experienced and multistory commercial complexes. But it was to take another fifty years plus some social reforms to change the contemporary Islamic (religious areas) architecture's trends before the spirit of modern Islamic architecture began to find a coherent style that could call its own.
The middle generations of the twentieth century could be called the ascendancy of international style in Middle East, when nobody dared to question the validity of its principles. The powerful waves of globalization have influenced the movements of modern day Islamic architecture in many ways. It has transformed architectural education and training, materials and components, ideas and conceptions, political and economic conditions, public and civic ideals, and technology and the look process greatly.
Taking Iran for example for modern Muslim world in the Middle East, we will get facts that Islam as a main component of contemporary society has a noticeable effect on structures and design. The revival of Islamic regional architecture epitomized the revivalist ideas of exponents of the Islamic trend of Iran that are looking to dominate Islam as the utmost determining criterion in every facet of life, especially in culture, artwork and architecture. They may be buying version of traditional architecture that could be implemented in contemporary circumstances. Some radical tendency in modern-day Iranian structures emphasized a backward looking historicism; however it has been among a tiny minority of architects. Regional actions accuse modern architect of restricting traditional ideals, but on the other side they accused regional movements of not being diligent in the development of the grade of contemporary Islamic architecture of Midsection East.
As we realize representation of Islamic structures in the Western go back at least to the eighteenth century, when Western european travelers and painters came back from the Islamic world with vibrant impressions, that they recorded both on paper and paintings. To them, the most fascinating aspects of the mosque were its domes and minarets. Due to restricted access, the images these foreigners conveyed were generally distorted; minarets and columns were ill-proportioned; curvatures of domes were exaggerated; pointed, shallow, and horseshoe arches were used interchangeably, etc.
The variety of backgrounds, roots, and ethnicities of Muslims in non-Muslim societies and their shared values and activities with fellow Muslims worldwide are important aspects of personal information of Muslims in non-Muslim countries. The daily interaction of Muslims with the problems of immigration, multiculturalism, a loosened romantic relationship between the religious beliefs and the government, liberalism, stereotypes and racism has molded the development of their hybrid individuality.
These Muslims are trying within this context to develop an Islamic world that is autonomous as well as participatory, one that constantly makes an attempt at adapting to the contradictions of surviving in non-Muslim countries. This contemporary society would nonetheless be vigilant to enough time hegemony of the dominating culture, and aware of its role in challenging injustices. Attempts to engage this way with population are evidenced by the involvement of Muslims in local and national politics, the military, an increased focus on education, and a growing economic base recognized by Islamic banking organization. Amidst this discussion, Islamic community centers have emerged as clear markers of the distinctly Muslims presence of this populace.
The very idea of an Islamic community centre in a non-Muslim country symbolizes a set of contradictions. It isn't simply a mosque for executing prayers; alternatively it concerns the establishment of any religion, in majority population of non- Muslims who've more often than not secularized themselves during the last two ages. The Islamic neighborhoods in these countries are seeking to build for their selves a feeling of group identity in a cultural context that glorifies individualism as opposed to communal conversation. They make an effort to create permanence and stableness in a culture that is significantly based on range of motion, move and change. The community centers and mosques in these countries battle to maintain to their ties with the historical past that they are supposed to connect to and far away homelands in a apparently isolated land. The forming of Islamic community centers indicates a seek out individuality among Muslims that goes beyond the restrictions of ethnic bonds. It also provides as a community institution that helps to consolidate their scattered attempts and secure the to practice their beliefs.
Most Islamic community centers and Mosques in non- Muslim countries have been designed by architects who bottom their understanding of Islamic architecture independently image of it, motivated by the increasing volume of community structures throughout the european countries, as well as the substantive literature that is developed in the West on Islamic architecture. The emerging architecture is seen as a descendent of the Moorish revival style and the architecture of fantasy motivated by Islamic pavilions in the expositions of the nineteenth century. Equally these styles produced part of a general western tendency, so gets the architecture of the Islamic community middle become the part of any wider architectural movements in the west, where the existence of Muslim communities in increasingly experienced, especially in the metropolitan centers of European Europe and THE UNITED STATES.
Through their experience in developing Islamic community centers, non- Muslim architects often learn to reconsider a few of their common myths about Islam, also to change their earlier negative images about Muslims. Such experience not only increase their understanding of non-Western cosmetic and building practices, but also expose them to the type of Islam itself, especially the tenets that are most prominently reflected in the designs for municipal and local buildings and mosques. Regrettably, lots of the new Islamic community centers in America are scaled down and impoverished imitations of old monuments The architect of the Western world Virginia Community Middle, William Preston boast that:
"The South Charleston Middle is modeled after having a famous Islamic house of worship, the Badshahi Mosque, in Lahore, Pakistan (fig. 1). The Badhsahi Mosque is bigger than the Taj Mahal, and is definitely the greatest house of worship in the worldIn the final product, the building in no way resembles any of these monuments, but this isn't seen t disappoint either the architect or your client. Faithful imitation was not the intention; rather it's the capturing of the "flavor" of the old (fig. 2)"
The consequence is often kind of parody, which is presumably found desired in a community seeking a nostalgic romance to the past. In this case, the role of the architect is to regenerate the past and reinterpret its vocabulary in the modern-day architectural language. Inside the U. S. , this is the words of the commercial "strip". The resultant mixture of architectural revivalism and the remove mall aesthetic more often captures the substance of the "exotic" Oriental restaurant than the spirit of traditional Islamic structures. In such complexes the aesthetic features of the mosque- the minaret especially- are appropriated like the sign posts advertising gas stations or fast food restaurants. The distorted appearance of many Islamic community centers in the U. S. , their vibrant colors, and their use of modern industrial materials, donate to a generally crude aesthetic, one which may be related to the overall lack of high skills and design, low costs, and the reduced level of artistic sophistication on the part of both client and architecture.
On the other hand, it will probably be worth pointing out that in the quest for "self-representation" through architecture, the utilization of format icons such as domes and minarets has become widespread, not only in non-Islamic countries, but also in many Islamic ones, even where those forms didn't belong before. While this globalized use of iconic sources may seem to be a product of the Muslims' make an effort at representing themselves through an architecture that they see as "authentic" and displays the "essence" of the Islamic culture, it is actually more meticulously related to the European representations of Islamic architecture being perpetuated today by both Muslims and non-Muslim famous architects and scholars around the globe.
At a glance at the discussion it could be possible to conclude that the eye of modern Islamic architecture in Glocalization and moderate attitudes is at a good shape and will become the key popular style in Modern day Islamic architecture, especially on the list of recent era of young architects. Global-regionalism is too young to discover a coherent style that it could call its; therefore there are several varieties of approaches that may be grouped in this group. Their buildings are suggested by the heart of traditional Islamic architecture, as well as the use of new solutions and materials. This paradoxical strategy is the key specificity of the new generation of modern-day Islamic architects. Their fidelity to the spirit of these ancestors, as well as their keen curiosity about new technologies and advanced building materials, produced a new technology that may only be called Glocalized.
The architecture of Islamic community centers in non-Muslim countries illustrates issues related to a minority culture attempting, through architectural form, to re-establish continuity and stability, to express individuality and maintain varieties of collective memory. The partnership between id and iconic personal references should be observed in just a broad-based setting, due to the increasing globalization of ideas about "contemporary Islamic architecture" that are constantly moving back and forth between the Western and the Islamic world through architectural writing, tournaments and commissions.
While Islamic architecture in non-Muslim countries has already contributed to deconstructing the totalizing agendas of individuality politics and Orienatalist stereotyping, cycles of representation are difficult to escape.
The focus must shift to what kind of identification is being portrayed, and where the architectural aspects of collective memory of Muslims can be complemented, overlaid, or even substituted by other systems, so as not to miss the potentials of creative representation. This critical understanding may raise issue of shred human ideals that can help create a dialogue with non- Muslims through architecture. This is achieved through fragmentation as well as perhaps domesticity that decrease the authoritative areas of formality and humanizes the architectural product. Emphasis must be directed toward the manifestation of transparency, rather than obsession with personal privacy and exclusiveness.
Al-Qawasmi, Jamal, Regional Architecture and Personal information in the age of Globalization, volume 3, CSAAR, Tunisia
Owen, Graham, Architecture, Ethics and Globalization, Routledge, USA
Guggenheim, Michael, Reshaping Cities, How global ability to move transforms structures and metropolitan form, Routledge, USA
Hillenbrand Robert , Islamic structures: Form, Function, and Meaning, Columbia College or university Press, USA
Petruccioli Attilio, Understanding Islamic Architecture, Routledge, USA