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Impacts of Anti-social Working Time on Nursing Staff

Abstract

The goal of this research proposal is to outline a research study that was created to determine the effects, and impacts, of anti-social working hours on nursing personnel, with a view to evaluating the validity of three main hypotheses: H1: The higher the number of anti-social hours worked well, the more serious would be the negative effects on the professional and personal lives of nursing staff; H2: Nursing personnel who have high levels of work area support are less likely to be damaged by anti-social working hours; and H3: Nursing staff who receive adequate monetary payment for the anti-social hours they work are less likely to be adversely infected, in terms of the professional lives, by these anti-social time. It is proposed these hypotheses be tested through sampling twenty medical staff, gathering both qualitative and quantitative data through the use of the Work Capability Index, a questionnaire and a logbook filled with various questions the members will be asked to complete each morning for one month.

Introduction

A previous overview of the relevant literature showed that we now have many facets to the effects of anti-social working time on nursing personnel that aren't recognized. The critical books review discovered that there were many and various effects of anti-social hours on the professional lives of nursing personnel, including unwanted effects on performance at the job, an increase in the amount of problems made, a reduction in the patience nursing staff acquired towards patients, a decrease in the degrees of holistic health care provided and that anti-social working time may lead to strains being located on the connections nursing personnel have with the colleagues, their patients and the groups of their patients. Furthermore, it was shown that anti-social working time had unwanted effects on the non-public lives of nursing personnel, including on their home life, their personal protection and their overall health and stress levels.

Research questions and objectives

As a result of the findings of the critical literature review, this research proposal advises a dual quantitative and qualitative method of assessing the genuine ramifications of anti-social working hours and their impacts on nursing staff, with three main hypotheses to be explored:

H1: The higher the amount of anti-social hours did the trick, the more serious will be the negative effects on the professional and personal lives of nursing staff

H2: Nursing personnel who've high levels of place of work support are less inclined to be influenced by anti-social working hours

H3: Nursing staff who receive satisfactory monetary compensation for the anti-social time they work are less likely to be adversely damaged, in terms of their professional lives, by these anti-social hours

Perspective and methodology

The strategy to be utilised is both qualitative and quantitative, incorporating two quantitative methods (the task Ability Index and a logbook) and a qualitative method (a questionnaire). To be able to test the consequences of anti-social time on nursing personnel, it'll be necessary to test a number of nursing personnel each of whom work different types/number of time. Twenty nursing personnel will be sampled in total, five who work only throughout the day, five who work only during the night, five who work shifts without investing in nights shifts and five who work shifts and who do invest in working night shifts. Sampling such a diverse set of nursing personnel, in conditions of the amount/type of hours worked will allow the effects of anti-social hours on different kinds of nursing staff to be evaluated,

It is suggested that the Work Potential Index (Ilmarinen, 2007) be used to determine how anti-social time are impacting nursing personnel, in terms of these capacity to do their jobs, and their own health. THE TASK Ability Index (Ilmarinen, 2007) is basically a series of questions which take in to accounts the demands of the task, the workers health status and the resources available for work, which is a listing of the reactions to seven items, including: 1) Current work ability weighed against the life-time best; 2) Work capacity with regards to the needs of the job; 3) Amount of current diseases diagnosed by your physician; 4) Estimated work impairment due to these diseases; 5) Sick leave during the past a year; 6) Own prognosis of work potential two years from now; and 7) Mental resources.

In addition to the task Ability Index, several supplementary questions will be asked of the test of nursing staff, by means of a questionnaire, to be able to evaluate their attitudes to work and their overall satisfaction with the work and pay, their desire and their viewpoints about the support that is available in their work place. As well as the Work Capability Index, and the supplementary questionnaire, which will be used to determine how the sampled nursing staff are being impacted, in terms of the anti-social hours, the sampled medical staff will be asked to keep a logbook with their activities over one month of work, where they will be asked to track record: their slated working time; their actual working hours; how many of their overtime hours were paid; the amount of sleep they have; a rating of the grade of this sleep; if they use any sleeping aids, and what they are; a rating of the sleepiness levels; a score of the fatigue they feel each day; a rating of their stress levels every day; an email of any errors they made whilst at work; an email of the kind of error made; a note of any potential problems they would have made experienced another employee not intercepted them; and an email of any mistakes observed in other colleagues.

Methods

Sampling

The target for this research is nursing personnel, in the hospital where the researcher is employed. Because of time constraints with the research project, which needs to be completed in two semesters, the number of members in this study should be stored low, so that their replies to the task Potential Index, the questionnaire and their data in their logbooks will be controllable, in terms of the quantity of data that will end result. Hence, it is recommended that twenty individuals are determined for the analysis, divided into nursing staff covering a number of shifts and working hours: five who work full-time, only day shifts; five who work full-time, only nights shifts; five who work shifts, with no night time shifts, only day shifts; and five who work shifts but who can work nights shifts. Sampling the nursing staff in this way allows an examination of the effects of the sort of extra working time has on nursing staff, for example whether working anti-social hours at night has a greater negative effect on nursing staff than working anti-social (i. . e, longer) hours during the day, for example.

Data collection

As has been talked about, the objectives of the research, and the associated hypotheses, will be tested through a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. THE TASK Capability Index will be utilised in order to gain a standard picture of the effect the task is having on the members and the views the individuals carry regarding their capability to do their jobs, and their own health (Ilmarinen, 2007). THE TASK Ability Index, as it needs participants to provide a numerical assessment of these responses to the many questions, will provide a quantitative diagnosis of the members behaviour towards their work, their capacity to do their work and their own health, as a function of the task they must do.

The questionnaire that'll be handed out to the members aims to give a snapshot of the individuals' behaviour to work and their overall satisfaction with their work and pay, their determination and their thoughts about the support that's available in their place of work. The responses to this questionnaire are intended to be open-ended and, consequently, will constitute a qualitative method of data gathering, with members being absolve to react, at will, to the questions asked. This qualitative approach will allow the individuals to format any concerns they may have and to develop upon their thoughts with regards to the impact of these working hours on their ability to do their work, on the professional lives, on their personal lives and on the health, amidst other factors.

The logbook will, through the various questions it includes, allow both a qualitative and a quantitative approach to data gathering. A number of the questions will ask the members to rate various things, with the responses being quantitative in mother nature, including the quality of the sleep, the amount of time (scheduled and non-scheduled) that they worked, or their stress levels, for example. Other questions will allow for more open-ended responses, qualitative in characteristics, such as whether they use any sleep helps, and what these are, or whether any errors were made, with the chance to describe these errors.

Analytical processes

As the data that'll be collected is both quantitative and qualitative in mother nature, various analyses will be necessary. For the quantitative data obtained, for example the responses to the task Ability Index and the quantitative questions in the logbook, the data will be analysed with regards to identifying any correlations between the reactions, for example, whether longer hours, as recorded in the log e book, correlates with lower satisfaction with the work, as saved by the task Ability Index. Such correlations can be carried out using various statistical checks, with a statistical analysis software package, and will provide stable conclusions as to the relationships between your various variables being assessed.

The qualitative data that is gathered will be voluminous in aspect with significant amounts of responses to view and analyse (Polit et al. , 2007). As Thorne (2000) suggests, the analysis of qualitative data relies on some type of deductive reasoning to be able to interpret and structure the meanings that can be derived from the info collected, within the platform of the objectives of the research and the hypotheses that are being tested. It's advocated that the info be analysed using content research (Pope et al. , 2000; Kilometers and Huberman, 1984). Content analysis will allow the info to be analysed and to find emergent meanings out of this data in order to find inferences from what has been said by the individuals and to relate these inferences to the quantitative data that will be gathered (Neuendorf, 2002). Analytical induction will be used to test and re-test the intuitive ideas the researcher has about the content of the reactions, in regards to to the objectives of the research and hypotheses being tackled (Pope et al, 2000; Holloway, 1997).

It is expected that the correlations found within the quantitative data will be reinforced by the qualitative data accumulated, and that the qualitative data will provide more of an in-depth understanding of the actual effects and impacts of anti-social working hours on nursing staff. This blend of quantitative and qualitative data is therefore expected to be considered a powerful tool in terms of gaining a complete understanding of the effects of anti-social working hours on nursing personnel, in conditions of the effects on both their professional and private lives, in relation to fulfilling the aims of the study and determining the validity of the hypotheses being analyzed.

Strategies to promote methodological rigour

There is a risk, in this study, that the type of the study, and implied pressure from professionals and colleagues, can lead to bias in the results gained, for the reason that nursing staff might not feel able to disclose their true emotions about these issues for fear of retribution. In order to minimise the chances of this going on, as has been seen, anonymity will be guaranteed at all times, minimising the chances of bias entering in to the data and preserving methodological rigour.

Access and Moral issues

In order to recruit twenty nursing personnel, and to allow the research to be conducted, the Supervisor of the nursing staff will contacted and authorization will be wanted to get hold of the nursing personnel to be able to recruit participants. As this research subject touches on the delicate subject, in that managers might be skeptical of dealing with this subject matter with their employees, and because making recordings in the logbook will need periods of the morning of the medical staff, the Administrator should be approached carefully. Appendix 1 provides a backup of the suggested letter, that will be sent to the Manager of the medical staff, in order to recruit possible topics for the study.

All nursing personnel on one floor of the hospital will be delivered an introductory notice, given in Appendix 2, that will explain the goal of the study, outline the goals and goals of the study and outline what will be likely of members, and which requests any interested gatherings to come onward to volunteer themselves for the study. Participants will be picked based on them being 3rd party (i. e. , as yet not known to the researcher or any supervisors of the researcher) and will be contacted, within a few days of volunteering themselves and being selected, to be able to sign a Consent Form (given in Appendix 3).

Following the signing of the consent form, the analysis will be explained in greater detail to the determined participants, with the notice in Appendix 2 being delivered to selected participants, with the many components, and exactly how they will be offered to the individuals, being explained in this particular letter. Following this, the questionnaire will be given to the individuals and they'll be asked to load this in and go back it to the researcher within a week of it being delivered to them. THE TASK Ability Index will also be approved to the participants, at the same time as the questionnaire, and the individuals will be asked to complete this, within a week, and return the completed questionnaire with the completed Work Ability Index. At the same time, the logbook will be described at length, and handed out to each participant, on their behalf to start recording their reactions to the questions in this particular, every working day for one month. The actual Work Ability Index, questionnaire and logbook that will be sent out to participants receive in Appendix 4, 5 and 6, respectively.

It is important, at every level of this process, that the reactions of the individuals are kept confidential, with only the researcher knowing which reactions come from which person. This will be completed by allocating each participant a number and with the questionnaires, Work Capacity Index and logbook being handed down out, completed and came back, with only this amount, not any names. This may ensure that only the researcher is aware of which participant provided which replies, making certain all responses will stay anonymous. Anonymity is fundamentally important in this analysis, given its sensitive nature, coping as it has been subject areas that are inflammatory within the place of work of nursing personnel, and which could cause problems between medical staff and their professionals. As well as the numbering system which will be used to protect the anonymity of participants, no personal data will be collected, other than the replies to the three tools, and the storage space of all of the responses gathered will be carried out in compliance with relevant data storage regulations, including the Data Protection Take action 1998. The info accumulated will be collected on the basis of anonymity being looked after, but, due to the nature of the study, in that the results are likely to be disseminated as widely as it can be, although anonymity will be preserved, confidentiality of replies cannot be guaranteed, as it is these replies that will form the foundation of the results, and conclusions of the research, which is disseminated.

The researcher could be afflicted by the performing of this study, because, as has been explained, the research subject touches on sensitive matters that tend to be the reason for conflict within the place of work between professionals and nursing staff. The actual fact of doing this analysis within the office may put the researcher vulnerable to reprisals of some sort, although it should be observed that the analysis will be presented to the top of Department and also to managers as a research study, which, therefore, the researcher should be respected, without facing reprisals, and the research allowed to continue without problems.

Timetable

It is suggested that the work be conducted over the course of four a few months, January to Apr 2009. The nursing personnel will be approached, initially, as soon as the twenty nursing personnel have been decided on, the Work Capability Index and the questionnaire will be completed. Third, , the logbook will be handed out and the nursing staff will record their reactions to the questions within that each working day for one month. Once the logbooks have been completed, all the principal data will be collated and analysed, with the expectation that process will demand a further month. Once the results and conclusions have been compiled from the info, two further weeks will be required to write up this data by means of the dissertation. The work would be more vigorous if a more substantial sample of nursing staff could be included, but this isn't possible, unfortunately, given the time constraints,

Budget and likely financing sources

The researcher intends to apply for scholarships in order to cover the costs of the study materials needed, but, as the technique is utilising reasonably priced materials, if a scholarship is not gained, it is expected that the materials could be payed for from the pocket of the researcher.

The expected costs are as follows:

Twenty notebooks (for the logbooks): 20 x 1. 50 = 30

Paper/pens/printer ink etc. for the questionnaire/Work Potential Index = 20 x 1. 00 = 20

Small gift for every participant: 20 x 2. 00 = 40

Binding of dissertation: 4 x 10 = 40

Total cost = 130

Dissemination of results

Given the powerful interest in this subject matter in the nursing literature, it is supposed that this study be written up for publication in a peer-reviewed medical journal. In addition, the results of the analysis will be provided as nursing training seminars and the abstract of the task will be delivered to various meetings, with a view to the task being presented at various nursing conferences. In addition, much like all dissertations completed at educational establishments, a backup of the dissertation will be deposited in the school library, so the work is available for guide by other interested parties.

References

Holloway, I. (1997). Basic concepts for qualitative research. Blackwell Research.

Ilmarinen, J. (2007). The Work Potential Index. Occupational Medication 57(2), pp. 160.

Miles, M. and Huberman, A. (1984). Qualitative data analysis. Sage.

Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). This content evaluation guidebook. Available from http://educational. csuohio. edu/kneuendorf/content/ [Accessed 27th November 2008].

Polit, D. F. et al. (2007). Nursing research: generating and assessing research for medical practice. Wolters Kluwer Health.

Pope, C. et al. (2000). Qualitative research in health care. BMJ 320, pp. 114-116.

Thorne, S. (2000). Data research in qualitative research. Evidence-Based Nursing 3, pp. 68-70.

Appendix 1: Access letter

Address

Date

Dear XXXXX,

Re: Msc dissertation

An exploration of the impacts of anti-social working time on medical staff

I am writing to ask authorization because of this research to be conducted within your section. Within this request, I am asking for authorization to be granted to get hold of staff under your management, as well as for these staff to be asked if indeed they will take part in my research study. I am hoping to have the ability to decide on a total of twenty medical staff to be able to take part in this research study.

The research project contains three separate portions: a survey of the individuals utilizing a Work Ability Index, a questionnaire of the participants and a logbook, that your participants will need to complete each working day for just one month.

I want the possibility to present the research project to all of the medical staff under your management and also to select twenty members from the staff who volunteered their involvement. The research job will demand the members to volunteer their own time and any and all research costs will be included in myself.

By enough time of the analysis, the necessary ethical approval for the study will have been given by the relevant committee.

I do wish you can consider my obtain access to your staff and appearance forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,

XXXXXX

Appendix 2: Participant information sheet

Address

Date

Dear XXXXX,

Re: Msc dissertation

An exploration of the impacts of anti-social working hours on medical staff

I am writing for you now to ask your participation in a research analysis I am doing, looking at the effects and impacts of anti-social working time on nursing staff.

A books review I recently worked on confirmed that we now have many facets to the effects of anti-social working hours on nursing staff that are not well understood which, as anti-social working time have many negative effects on nursing staff, in terms of the professional and personal lives, I am interested in looking directly into this issue in further fine detail.

The main goals of the research are to test three hypotheses:

H1: The greater the number of anti-social hours did the trick, the much more serious would be the negative effects on the professional and personal lives of nursing staff

H2: Nursing staff who've high levels of workplace support are less likely to be influenced by anti-social working hours

H3: Nursing personnel who receive satisfactory monetary compensation for the anti-social hours they work are less inclined to be adversely infected, in terms of the professional lives, by these anti-social hours

The research project will contain three main tools, a Work Ability Index, a questionnaire and a logbook, to be crammed in by participants every morning for just one month. It is expected that the initial assessment, via the task Ability Index and the questionnaire, would take around one hour of your energy to complete, with the logbook taking around twenty minutes to complete each day.

If you have any questions or concerns about your contribution, please do not wait to contact me and I'll solve these.

If you select you want to be part of this research project, I would be pleased if you may sign and return the fastened consent form and go back it to me in the fastened stamped tackled envelope.

Yours sincerely, XXXXX

Appendix 3: Consent form

Research title: An exploration of the impacts of anti-social working hours on medical staff

Name of researcher: XXXXXX

Please tick the boxes

  1. I can confirm that I have browse the participant information sheet and this I am aware the seeks and aims of the proposed research _____
  2. I have been given the opportunity to ask questions and to have these questions replied by the researcher ______
  3. I understand that my involvement in this research is voluntary and I have fully understood the quantity of time my involvement in this research will demand ____
  4. I recognize that I will be in a position to withdraw from the research at any stage with no retribution _____
  5. I consent to my replies being found in the dissemination of the results of this research, under the proviso that my reactions will remain private all the time _____
  6. I consent to keep the study confidential in that I should not discuss this with my fellow workers or managers ____
  7. I agree to take part in the above review ____

Name of participant:

Signature:

Date:

Name of Researcher:

Signature:

Date:

Appendix 4: Work Potential Index

The Work Capability Index (Ilmarinen, 2007) will be used to evaluate how anti-social hours are impacting nursing personnel, in terms of the capability to do their careers, and their own health. THE TASK Ability Index for every participant will be calculated as a listing of the replies to seven items, have scored over a number of ranges, giving a total possible maximum credit score of 49:

  1. Current work capability compared with the lifetime best (scored from 0-10)
  2. Work ability with regards to the needs of the work (scored from 2-10)
  3. Number of current diseases diagnosed by your physician (scored from 1-7)
  4. Estimated work impairment due to these diseases (scored from 1-6)
  5. Sick leave during the past twelve months (scored from 1-5)
  6. Own prognosis of work capacity 2 yrs from now (scored from 1-7)
  7. Mental resources (scored from 1-4)

As has been seen, in addition to the Work Potential Index, that will give a possible score out of 49, according to the status of the individuals regarding their capability to work, several supplementary questions will be asked of the test of nursing staff, in the form of a questionnaire, in order to determine their attitudes to work and their overall satisfaction with their work and pay, their determination and their ideas regarding the support that is available in their work area.

The actual questionnaire is listed below:

1. What exactly are your overall emotions towards your task?

2. What's your attitude towards your projects?

3. How will you feel about your pay?

4. Do you work anti-social time?

5. Are you compensated effectively for these anti-social time?

6. Do you are feeling you are forced to work anti-social time?

7. Do you feel motivated to do your work?

8. If not, please identify the reason why behind you lack of motivation

9. Do you feel you receive enough support in your work place?

10. If not, what could be done to enhance the support open to nursing personnel in your work place?

11. How satisfied are you, overall, with your projects?

12. Have you ever considered giving up the nursing occupation?

13. If yes, please develop upon your reasons for this.

14. What do you are feeling could be done to make your job easier?

15. What do you think managers ought to be doing to minimise the effects of anti-social time on you as well as your acquaintances? Appendix 6: Logbook

The logbook is intended to be completed every working day for one month, and includes the next questions, repeated every day:

Date:

Please take note your planned working time for today

Please take note your genuine working hours for today

Please note just how many of your overtime hours will be paid

Please note the quantity of sleep you had last night

Please provide a rating of the grade of the sleep you'd yesterday evening (from 1 to 10, with 1 being the poorest quality)

Please notice whether you used any rest aids

If you used an aid to get to sleep, please be aware what the type of this rest aid

Please provide a rating of their sleepiness levels (from 1 to 10 with 1 being very sleepy)

Please provide a rating of the exhaustion you feel today (from 1 to 10 with 1 being very fatigued)

Please give a rating of your stress levels today (from 1 to 10, with 1 being very pressured)

Please take note of any errors you made whilst at work

Please make a note of the sort of error made

Please make a note of any potential mistakes you would have made experienced another member of staff not intercepted this error

Please make a note of any errors seen in other colleagues

Please make some other comments you would like to record here

Appendix 7: Ethics form (NEEDS TO BE INCLUDED)

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