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Impact On Drive At Times Of Change

  1. References
  2. 1. 1 Background
  3. 1. 2 Objectives, research questions and research hypotheses
  4. 1. 3 Scope
  1. .
  2. 2. 1 Change and Change Management
  3. 2. 1. 1 Key Principals that revolves around change:
  4. 2. 1. 2Types of change
  5. Fig1 Types of changes
  6. Type of Change
  7. Description
  8. 2. 1. 3 Business Change Management Model
  9. Fig 2 Phases in Change Process
  10. Stages
  11. Description
  12. (Shown in figure 3)
  13. Fig 3 Change management process phases
  14. 2. 1. 4 Phases in change Process
  15. Fig 4 Perceived Competence vs. Time
  16. Fig 5 Information of Phases
  17. Phase
  18. Description
  19. 2. 1. 5 Amount of resistance to Change
  20. Fig 6 Resistance to change
  21. Fig 7 Types of Resistance
  22. Type of resistance
  23. Description
  24. Fig 8 Reasons for change
  25. Reason for Change
  26. Description
  27. Fig 9 Reasons for overcoming level of resistance to change
  28. Reasons for Overcoming
  29. Description
  30. 2. 2 Motivation
  31. Figure 11 Types of motivation
  32. Type of Motivation
  33. Description
  34. Figure 11 Four key elements of motivation
  35. 2. 2. 1 Major Theories of Motivation
  36. Figure 12 Theories of Motivation
  37. 2. 2. 1. 1 Need Approaches
  38. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
  39. Figure 13 Shows Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
  40. Alderfer's ERG Theory
  41. Figure 14 Clayton Alderfer's ERG Theory Needs
  42. Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
  43. Figure 15 Cleanliness and Motivation Factors
  44. McClelland's Discovered Needs Theory
  45. Summary of Need Approaches
  46. Figure 16 Evaluation of Need Theories
  47. 2. 2. 1. 2 Cognitive Approach
  48. Expectancy Theory
  49. Figure 17 Expectancy Theory
  50. Equity Theory/ Friendly Comparison Theory
  51. Figure 18 Equity Theory
  52. Figure 19 Collateral Comparison
  53. Goal Placing Theory of Motivation
  54. Figure 20 Goal Theory
  55. 2. 2. 1. 3 Support Theory
  56. Figure 21 Types of Reinforcement
  57. Types of Reinforcement
  58. Description
  59. 2. 3 Control Style and Communication
  60. Figure 22 Authority Style Vs motivation

This study targets a research topic - Impact on inspiration at time of change on specific, on the basis of the ideas of Research Strategy for Business.

The format of the job covers:

Chapter 1 provides the background of the analysis underlining main goals, questions and hypothesis of the analysis.

Chapter 2 focuses on general explanations. Models and theories related to drive, control style influencing motivation at time of change and consultation process methods and models will be analyzed and identified.


1. 1 Background

In topical ointment times, organizations are marked by constant changes taking place in its orientation, strategies and even structural create. The workers need to constantly modify themselves to such changes. This often cause stress on their mindset and have an impact on their work quality. At this juncture it's important to shove away any misunderstanding or concerns and recreate the trust, which is incredibly essential for the organizational success. In order to achieve this, internal communication needs to be strong and effective. There's a possibility the determination in the workforce might be restored through successful communication within the business.

Information Technology provides several options because of this. E-mails, intranets and other innovations help in interacting with the high demand of communication during such time of alteration within the business (Wojtecki and Peters, 2000). Face to face communication also will help too much to straighten out the differences. There have been mostly individual studies about authority and grapevine communication.

According to McKenna (2000), command is an artwork that can find the optimum work required for the organization. The first choice also communicates the organizations goals to his team members. He will not discuss about the communication that is more important between your innovator and the team and the performance when such communication occurs in an casual way that contributes to more interaction and hence develops a bond with each staff and all together brings about commitment.

Most of the studies so far have taken the formal area into consideration. In Modern day issues in management and organizational habit (Peter, Poole and Jones, 2005), the complete routine of Team-leadership has been portrayed in inspecting group decision- making and learning. Later, a worldwide point of view has been given.

According to Robert E. Hoskisson, "Organisational Structure specifies the firm's formal reporting relationships, procedures, handles, and specialist and decision making processes. " (Hoskisson, 2008, p. 100) This accrues to the basic platform of assigning functions, allocation of resources and provides a basis for cooperation, coordination and communication on the list of organizational hierarchy. (Hoskisson, 2008).

Harris and Hartman discuss the problems of Grapevine. Matching to them, it isn't a trustworthy source and cannot provide full information and perhaps distorted. (Harris & Hartman, 2002). In the article, "Heard it through the grapevine: for interacting during change, facts and tips" by Baxter-Southward, an extensive analysis has been done about grapevine communication- the negatives and the positives, and how to deal with this in organizations.

However the right answer can be provided by a proper study of the views of professionals and staff. Whether such communication actually restores the beliefs and motivation is the area to be explored in this research.

1. 2 Objectives, research questions and research hypotheses

The objective of the study is to cope with the issue associated with organizational action and organizational development. This analysis is to analyze if the successful communication by the business to its employees during change will cause the motivated labor force. Additionally, the study will analyze the potency of good command and managerial as a means to improve production, employee job satisfaction and determination.

The core targets of the analysis are:

To understand the reaction of labor force to organizational change (qualitative and quantitative evaluation)

To understand the actions normally used by the managers under such circumstances (qualitative analysis; from the questions asked during survey).

To find out whether communication within the organization assist in motivating staff (quantitative evaluation).

Based on objectives, conceptualizing structure because of this research has been developed. The main parameters are evidently revealed through coherent analysis in the structure. Predicated on this structure, the null and choice hypotheses are developed as the followings:

The result of the labor force is positive or negative during change

Managers can or cannot influence the desire and hence the productivity of employees.

Successful inside communication affects or will not affects the motivation within workforce at times of change.

1. 3 Scope

Change is inescapable. Whether an employee is at the very best or underneath of a business, one thing worker can count on in the future is that there will be change. In such a turbulent environment it's important for the managers to behave quickly. Determination of employees at the time of change via successful communication will be identified. Moreover, it'll be examined whether communication can or cannot bring a enthusiastic workforce. In addition, the existing research will be focused on substance of good leaders in motivating employees and increasing production.


2. 1 Change and Change Management

Success is not merely for success it must be performed in an environment of intense competition, prolonged globalization, and quick technology change" (Schermerhorn, 1996). Presently change is among the most part and parcel of every organization to predict future trends also to forecast the changes that need to be experienced. Change is an ongoing process atlanta divorce attorneys organization as well as for the organization to be successful and survive in a active environment, it is important to own effective management of human resources"(Mullin, 2005).

People are the major learning resource of any group (MULLINS, 2005). The efficiency of personnel, their commitment on the aims of the business, and the skills and attitudes they bring to stand on the quality of service offered will undoubtedly affect the entire success of a business (MULLINS, 2005)

So to be able to achieve success, it is vital for the business to develop communication processes, inspiration processes and a working environment that will help to ensure that individuals will deliver results in accordance with targets of management.

2. 1. 1 Key Principals that revolves around change:

According to Bernstein (2003) over 70 percent70 % of all organizational change work fail to meet expectation and delivered prepared results. Before implementing change in an organization it is very important for the leader to comprehend the difference between the change and the move process. On top of that, a head should keep in mind that the success of change execution process is an integral drivers of how group will package with changes, how changes are directed and administered by the first choice.

According to Barons & Greenberg (1990) there several principals about change:

People conception about change

Individual barriers to improve:

Economic insecurity

Fear to Unknown

Threats to public relationship


Failure to recognize need for change

Additionally Barons & Greenberg (1990) detailed the following firm barriers to change:

Structural inertia

Work group inertia

Threat to existing balance of power

Previously unsuccessful change efforts

According to Bennis, Benne, & Chin, R. (1985) there are several key individuals to improve:

Nature of workforce



Economic Shocks

Changing communal trends

World politics

2. 1. 2Types of change

Fig1 Types of changes

Ackerman (1997) has recognized between three types of change

Type of Change



Planned or emergent; incremental. It really is change that enhances or corrects existing areas of a business, often concentrating on the improvement of a skill or process.


Episodic, planned, seeks to attain a known desired state that differs from the existing one. It is and second order.


Radical or second order in dynamics. It requires a move in assumptions created by the organization and its members.

Source: http://rmc. library. cornell. edu/EAD/htmldocs/RMM06299. html

2. 1. 3 Business Change Management Model

Kurt Lewin proposed a three level theory of change commonly referred to as Unfreeze, Change, Freeze (or Refreeze). Theory was actually offered in 1947, but the Kurt Lewin model is still extremely relevant.




Fig 2 Phases in Change Process




Old ideas and routines need to be restarted so that new you can be discovered.


New ideas and tactics are learned. This calls for helping an employee think reasons and perform in new ways.


It means what ever has been learned is built-into actual practice.

Source: http://www. change-management-coach. com/kurt_lewin. html

Based on Hayes (2002) research of the most effective and commonly applied change, most change management processes contain the following three phases:

Preparing for change (Planning, examination and strategy development)

Managing change (Detailed planning and change management execution)

Reinforcing change (Data gathering, corrective action and popularity)

(Shown in figure 3)

Fig 3 Change management process phases

Source: http://www. change-management. com/tutorial-change-process-detailed. htm

2. 1. 4 Phases in change Process

People perceive change operations in seven typical levels (IPA, 2001).

For successful implementation of change techniques, it is important for managers to investigate that in which stage they can predict what type of troubles and situations. The seven periods are:

Shock and Surprise

Denial and Refusal

Rational Understanding

Emotional Acceptance

Exercises and Learning



Mainly flourishing organizations are the ones that have the ability to adjust themselves to new environment swiftly. This requires designed learning and training procedures that lead to better organizational efficiency. In a great world, employees are able to reveal their own habit in relation to the organizational framework (e. g. procedures, products, resources, customers).

Fig 4 Perceived Competence vs. Time

Source: http://hr-horizons. blogspot. com/

Fig 5 Information of Phases



Shock and Surprise

Confrontation with unpredicted situations. This can happen 'by accident' (e. g. loss in particular sections) or planned incidents (e. g. workshops for personal development and team performance improvement). These situations make people realize that their own habits of doing things are not suited to new conditions any more. Thus, their identified own competence decreases.

Denial and Refusal

People activate worth as support for his or her conviction that change is not necessary. Hence, they believe there is no need for change; their identified competency increases again.

Rational Understanding

People realize the necessity for change. Matching to this perception, their identified competence reduces again. People give attention to finding short-term solutions, thus they only get rid of symptoms. There is no willingness to improve own patterns of behavior.

Emotional Acceptance

This stage, which is also called 'turmoil' is the main one. Only when management succeeds to generate willingness for changing worth, beliefs, and habits, the organization will be able to exploit their real potentials. In the most severe case, however, change processes will be ceased or slowed up here.

Exercising and Learning

The new approval of change creates a new willingness for learning. People learn to try new actions and processes. They will experience success and inability during this period. It's the change manager's activity to produce some early wins (e. g. by you start with easier tasks). This will likely lead to a rise in peoples perceived own competence.


People gather more information by learning and performing exercises. This knowledge has a feedback-effect. People understand which tendencies is effective where situation. This, in turn, opens up their intellects for new experiences. These expanded patterns of action increase organizational overall flexibility. Perceived competency has already reached a higher level than prior to improve.


People totally combine their newly purchased patterns of pondering and acting. The new behaviors become tedious.

Source: CA Carnall - 2007 Taking care of Change in Company - Pearson Education

2. 1. 5 Amount of resistance to Change

Fig 6 Resistance to change

Resistance to change consists of any employee patterns made to discredit, wait or avoid the execution of work change. Relating to Kotter (1996) resistance to change is the action used by individuals and organizations when they understand that a change that is happening as a risk to them. The majority of actions that are taken to manage change are unsuccessful due to improper planning and implementation (Coriat, 2002).

There are three different types of resistance among employees (Newstrom & Davis, 1993):

1. Logical Resistance

2. Psychological Resistance

3. Sociological Resistance

Fig 7 Types of Resistance

Type of resistance


Logical Resistance

Time required to adjust

Extra effort to relearn

Possibility of less advisable condition

Economic cost of change

Questioned complex feasibility of change

Psychological Resistance

Fear to unknown

Low tolerance of change

Dislike of management or other change agent

Lack of rely upon others

Need for security

Sociological resistance

political coalitions

opposing group values

Parochial, small outlook

Vested interest

Desired to sustain existing friendship

Source: http://www. cipd. co. uk/subjects/corpstrtgy/changemmt/chngmgmt. htm

According to Kotter & Schlesinger (1979) there are four main reasons people in an organization resist change:

Parochial self applied interest


Low tolerance to change

Different analysis of the situations

Fig 8 Reasons for change

Reason for Change


Parochial do it yourself interest

People are usually more concerned about the effect of change on themselves rather than its effects on the success of business.



Inadequate information

Low tolerance to change

People tend to be interested in doing one kind of work because of security and balance in their work.

Different diagnosis of the situations

Different people have different thoughts and opinions for the explanation for change. Some contemplate it as advantageous among others disadvantageous.

Source http://www. valuebasedmanagement. net/methods_kotter_change_approaches. html

Kotter & Schlesinger (1979) recommended ways to cope with the changes:

Education and communication

Participation and involvement

Facilitation and support

Negotiation and Support

Manipulation and co-option

Explicit and Implicit coercion

Fig 9 Reasons for overcoming level of resistance to change

Reasons for Overcoming


Education and communication

Educate people about the change effort in advance by giving them trainings to allow them to understand the logic behind the change.

Participation and involvement

When employees are positively mixed up in change they are likely to buy into change alternatively than withstand them.

Facilitation and support

When people want to adjust with the problem, managers performs an important role giving employees full support they require during the transition period.

Negotiation and Support

When someone loose out into change the professionals can combat level of resistance by offering bonuses to employees in order that they do not withstand changing.

Manipulation and co-option

It requires the patronizing gesture in having a person into a change management planning group simply for sake of appearance alternatively than substantive contribution.

Explicit and Implicit coercion

Managers can implicitly and explicitly induce employee to simply accept change by causing them clear that resisting changing can result in losing jobs.

Source:http://www. valuebasedmanagement. net/methods_kotter_change_approaches. html

2. 2 Motivation

The degree of performance of employees depends not only on their actual skills but also on the amount of motivation each individual exhibits (Burney et al. , 2007). Drive is an internal drive or an exterior inducement to act in a few particular way, typically a way that will lead to rewards (Dessler, 1978). Over-achieving, talented employees will be the driving force of most firms so it is essential that organizations strive to motivate and retain the best employees (Harrington, 2003). In a very turbulent environment where changes take place very often, therefore it becomes important for managers to investigate the level of motivation of every employee.

Every individual have their own set of reasons to get motivated. A lot of people are motivated by financial factors while some are motivated by non financial factors illustrated in Body 10. Determination can be labeled as external or internal motivation. Completing deadline promptly is an exemplory case of external motivation. The fear of loosing a job in case of uncompleted task is an example of interior motivation. Both external and interior motivation is similarly powerful.

The four most powerful type of desire that can influence an individual are the following:

Figure 11 Types of motivation

Type of Motivation


Intrinsic motivation

Satisfaction in the task itself (pleasure, excitement, learning etc)

Extrinsic motivation

Rewards for carrying it out (money, promotion, incentives etc)

Personal motivation

Individual beliefs (a love of knowledge, vitality, security, self-expression etc)

Interpersonal motivation

The effect of other people (competition, collaboration, commitments etc)

Human beings are sophisticated in nature, and are usually motivated by a mixture of four elements. Shape 11 illustrates 4 types of motivation, which come jointly to create four key areas for the managers to focus on when trying to motivate their employees.

Figure 11 Four key elements of motivation

Source : http://www. wishfulthinking. co. uk/2009/02/11/motivation-during-a-recession/

2. 2. 1 Major Theories of Motivation

Motivation isn't just in a single direction i. e. downwards. In today's scenario, where the labor force is more enlightened, more aware, more educated and goal focused, the role of inspiration has still left the limitations of the hierarchy of management. The Number below shows the major theories of motivation that can be applied in the working environment as well on the employees to start to see the impact of desire on the business all together.

Figure 12 Theories of Motivation

2. 2. 1. 1 Need Approaches

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Figure 13 Shows Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

By applying Maslow's theory of motivation, modern market leaders and professionals find way of worker motivation for the reason of employee and labor force management. According to Maslow the humans are encouraged by unsatisfied needs and the needs which are in low level should be satisfied initially and then your higher order need should be viewed. As given in Figure 13 there are five general needs of the humans that needs to be satisfied prior to the real human start behaving unselfishly. Therefore, in a real work time circumstance it becomes very important to the leader to comprehend which needs happens to be active for an individual employee determination.

Alderfer's ERG Theory

Figure 14 Clayton Alderfer's ERG Theory Needs

Source:http://www. envisionsoftware. com/es_img/Alderfer_ERG_Theory. gif

According to ERG theory, leaders must see that employees have multiple desires to satisfy at the same time. Furthermore, if the staff is not given enough opportunity for development, the worker can go back to relatedness needs. So that it becomes very important to the managers to recognize this example so that deliberate steps can be taken on relatedness needs before employee is able to follow the way towards expansion again.

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory

Figure 15 Cleanliness and Motivation Factors

Source:http://www. biomedcentral. com/content/figures/1472-6920-9-49-1. jpg

The psychologist Fredrick Herzberg asked the questions from employees in the entire year 1950s and 60s for understanding employee satisfaction. The results of its finding revealed that we now have some factors of employment that happen to be constantly linked to job satisfaction, while dissimilar factors are linked with job dissatisfaction. The hygiene and drive factors are illustrated in Physique 15.

To apply Herzberg's theory, managers need to take up a two stage process to encourage people. Firstly, professionals need eliminate the dissatisfactions the employees are experiencing and, second, managers need to help them find satisfaction.

McClelland's Discovered Needs Theory

McClelland theory of human motivation also called three need theory or discovered theory, segments the needs as follow;

Need for achievement

Need for power

Need for affiliation

Each of these needs will differ from one person to another. If the administrator can recognize the significance of each of these needs to a person, it can help the professionals to regulate how a person might be inspired.

Summary of Need Approaches

Figure 16 Evaluation of Need Theories

2. 2. 1. 2 Cognitive Approach

Expectancy Theory

Figure 17 Expectancy Theory

According to expectancy theory, every person has their own set of different goals plus they can be encouraged if indeed they have certain degree of expectation. Vroom's expectancy theory is dependant on three parameters i. e. valence, expectancy and Instrumentality valances.

Equity Theory/ Friendly Comparison Theory

Figure 18 Equity Theory

Source: http://www. businessballs. com/adamsequitytheory. htm

Equity theory states that staff always have a tendency to compare the situation (Benefits) they get while employed in relation to what they invested (Inputs). Additionally, they also willing to compare what exactly are the ratio between what they get from what they put in. Moreover people also attempt to compare their insight and outputs with their coworkers as illustrated in Amount 19.

Figure 19 Collateral Comparison

Source: http://www. businessballs. com/adamsequitytheory. htm

Goal Placing Theory of Motivation

Figure 20 Goal Theory

Source: http://faculty. washington. edu/janegf/goalsetting. html

This theory is designed to recognize the kind of goals that are most proficient in producing high level of motivation among the list of workers. Additionally, if employees have goals to aim for, under this circumstances the employee will perform better.

Therefore it becomes very important to the managers to analyze which goals can encourage which employee. In order for the managers to comprehend while arranging goals for the average person, the managers should arranged the goals that are:

Clear (not obscure) and understandable



2. 2. 1. 3 Support Theory

Reinforcement theory of inspiration overlooks the internal state of specific, i. e. , the inner emotions and drives of people are disregarded by Skinner. This theory focuses totally on what goes on to a person when some actions are taken. External environment of the business must be designed effectively and positively in order to motivate the employee. This theory is a solid tool for examining controlling system for individual's behaviour.

Figure 21 Types of Reinforcement

Types of Reinforcement


Positive reinforcement

This implies presenting a positive response when a person shows positive and required tendencies.

Negative reinforcement

This implies rewarding an employee by removing negative / undesirable consequences. Both positive and negative reinforcement can be utilized for increasing desired / required behaviour.


It implies lack of reinforcements. In other words, extinction implies cutting down the likelihood of undesired behaviour by removing reward to the kind of behavior. Extinction may unintentionally lower desirable behaviour


It implies taking away positive consequences to be able to lower the likelihood of repeating undesirable behaviour in future. Quite simply, punishment means applying undesirable result for showing undesirable behaviour.

Source: http://www. managementstudyguide. com/reinforcement-theory-motivation. htm

2. 3 Control Style and Communication

Leadership style is the manner and way of providing direction, implementing ideas, and motivating people (Kurt Lewin, 1939). Management Style influences the level of motivation of employees. Different Market leaders have different style for handling the employees working under them. Fig explains the style of control influencing the drive of employees.

Figure 22 Authority Style Vs motivation

Source: http://www. motivation-tools. com/workplace/leadership_styles. htm

There have been mainly individual studies about command and grapevine communication. Relating to McKenna (2000), leadership is an art work that can find the optimum work necessary for the organization. The first choice also communicates the organizations goals to his team members. He does not discuss about the communication that is more important between the head and the team and the effectiveness when such communication occurs in an casual way that causes more interaction and hence develops a bond with each worker and all together leads to commitment and determination.

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