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Impact of the web on Expanding Countries

Keywords: internet, producing countries, impact, India, China

Abstract

The Internet has completely transformed the information management field in developed countries. It includes increased the communication systems and is rolling out user-friendly environments for information posting and exchange. The great things about the Internet in developed countries have inspired the growing countries to develop the Internet and make use of it to their profit. The Internet is now changing the information practices in various sectors in producing countries. The impact of the Internet has caused developing countries to modify traditional ways of doing information business by establishing new sources of information and new methods of communication on a global basis. THE WEB has helped the producing countries for taking advantage of usage of global sources of information in order to improve their economic market segments.

In this paper we will discuss the evolution of the Internet along with the atmosphere, which initiated the progress of the web in growing countries. We will touch after the constraints involved with promoting Internet development, the models used to improve Internet progress, the areas benefited by the web and the continuing future of Internet in growing countries. We have focused our debate on the impact of the web on the two most populous developing countries, India and China.

Introduction

In today's world where globalization is inevitable if you would like to succeed, the web is your only respite. THE WEB has revolutionized it and made information access across boundaries very easy. It has pass on in every spheres of life and also you cannot think of life without the Internet. Come to think about it, how did the Internet evolve and exactly how achieved it become this essential part of the lives?

The Internet has created competition by having many international and indigenous it vendors on to the same system and has lifted the requirements of quality of services. Despite the fact that the web has its advantages, the developing countries are facing a whole lot of issues in deploying it to achieve maximum benefits. Some concerns are related to the infrastructure costs, dialect and cultural barriers, political barriers and financial costs. If the problems related to the expansion of the web can be tackled, there would be phenomenal growth in the economy of the producing countries because of the benefits of the web.

Statement of Purpose

The three major aspects involved in the overall development of a country are economic, political and public. As it is apparent from the success of the web in developed countries, and will be clear from the examples stated in the newspaper, we can easily see that the web plays an essential role in all these aspects.

It is visible from the magnitude of consumption of the Internet inside our daily lives it has and can continue to change just how we live. How it offers changed, and exactly how it will continue to change our lives, 's the reason for talk on the topic of Impact of the web in Growing Countries. We have been discussing the impact of the web specifically on producing countries because the recognition and variety of users of the Internet continues to be growing. When compared with the amount of users of the web, the effect of the benefits of the web has been extraordinary.

Evolution of the Internet

The notion of the web originated about 25 years back at the united states Defense Team Advanced research Projects Company (ARPA), to keep track of data through computer hardware and software. The Internet is now a complicated web of systems connected with high-speed links lowering across countries. A couple of no set restrictions online in cyberspace. Recent statistics show 50, 000 sites in more than 100 countries with more than 50 million users (MIDS press release). It's estimated that the rate of expansion in Internet use is just about 20 per cent a month. Currently the Internet is not proprietary and is also available to a person with computer access connected to the exterior world. Since the USA launched the information superhighway in 1994, the Internet has come to play an ever-increasing role in the huge information market in many countries.

Malaysia's Primary Minister, Mahathir Mohammed, once said:

It can be no accident that there surely is today no prosperous developed country that is information poor, no information abundant country that is poor and underdeveloped

This statement stresses the value of the Internet for developing countries. From an international perspective usage of and use of the Internet is unbalanced; there are apparent gaps between developed and developing countries in conditions of the numbers of nets, hosts and users.
Information Environment in Expanding Countries

China and India have the highest population among the list of developing countries. While using vast population, the marketplace online in these countries is huge. Both India and China are information-rich countries with a long tradition of learning and applying their knowledge. Both countries have had phenomenal growth financially and are utilizing information technology and information management for the same. The reduction in the price tag on personal computers and the multimedia system influx only accelerated the growth in Internet consumption.

For countries with vast information centers, the Internet proves to be the most valuable resource.

Chinese basic information systems are split into six categories:

(1) Information centers associated with the Country wide Scientific and Complex Commission

(2) Information centers owned by central federal ministries

(3) Information centers of your provincial nature

(4) Information centers of any specialized nature associated to regional governments

(5) Information centers associated with state enterprises, universities and other research institutions

(6) Information centers of non-governmental, local, professional and similar bodies

In India, at the national level the main resources of information include:

(1) Various brand ministries;

(2) The Central Statistical Corporation (CSO)

(3) The National Sample Survey Organization

(4) The Registrar-General of India (RGI)

(5) The National Information Middle (NIC)

(6) THE GUTS for Monitoring Indian Market (CMIE)

(7) The Federation of India Chamber of Business and Companies (FICCI)

(8) Tata Energy Research Institution

(9) THE GUTS for Knowledge and Environment

Given such huge information centers in both countries, the general public need for the web and its own potential are vast.

Areas of matter in Expanding Countries

Three major areas of concern about the web in expanding countries are:

(1) Country wide information policy

(2) Regulatory framework and information infrastructure

(3) Proper education and training

National information policy

Awareness of varied information sources in producing countries is bound to oral form. Awareness in print is negligible. The countrywide information procedures in expanding countries concentrate on trade, international relationships, countrywide security and technology, nevertheless they barely concentrate on electronic access of information through the Internet to achieve maximum benefits. For swift economic growth, public documents of expanding countries will include high priority plans to implement electric information delivery systems. National plan documents, like five-year plans, should contain insurance plan statements and should be implemented on time. Sufficient funding should be accessible during planning and execution phases of electronic digital information gain access to models.

Regulatory framework and information infrastructure

Developing countries have a regulatory construction in place, which makes safeguard of investment, intellectual property and specific level of privacy compulsory in the info market. Developing countries have legal frameworks in place, which deals with private sector engagement, skilled recruiting, standards and implementation. Regulatory frameworks for information do not are present.

Even though it and telecommunications have made a way into all the market segments in a developed country, in growing countries, information technology continues to be seen only as a means to aid information management systems, money and accounting facilities and data control.

As compared to the population statistics, the per capita penetration of computer systems in both India and China in the area of small office/home office (SOHO) is very insignificant. Telecommunications has also not yet picked up in India and China. If the info infrastructure were to cover the vast Indian and Chinese markets, in case technology was used for global usage of information through the web, there would be a phenomenal economic growth in these countries. Both countries need to urgently solve the knowing of the Internet and its own importance for plan creators at the politics level.

Proper education and training

As in developed countries, workforces in expanding countries are also adopting knowledge-based methodologies rather than labor rigorous ones. Surveys show that Internet use is associated with higher education in developed countries. Precisely the same applies to producing countries. Literacy rates in expanding countries needs to be improved upon to a great magnitude. The governments, central, status and local and learning institutions and civic organizations should take responsibility and really should work together to improve the literacy levels in growing countries. Information specialists should be trained on priority. Trained information professionals can make better use of the web and you will be better in acquiring, arranging and propagating information. Growing countries tend to be concerned about conserving dialect and culture history and supporting political systems. These are weary of overseas economic formats. Thus, proper trainings and workshops for information specialists is a must. These trained professionals can help educate the masses and may take advantage of the benefits of the Internet. This might help in sharing of knowledge through cyberspace and would assist in increasing the worthiness of the global information sector.

The Internet will support development in the following ways:

* Measure the information capacity of the united states and determine the needs of users, organize and synthesize information and provide access to interior and external information

* Disseminate information to meet up with the general population needs and private industries and the daily information needs of the general public

The government's role in utilizing the Internet is very critical. It affects the appropriate use of the Internet for cultural and monetary change in the move from labor-intensive production to knowledge structured information industries. Also, it unveils the market to a solid personal information sector by defining general public and private sector relationships. To be able to ruin monopolies and encourage competition among international and indigenous vendors, it redefines telecommunication insurance policies.

Internet Expansion in India

Internet service in India were only available in 1994 with federal government being the monopoly service provider. Service was costly and unreliable and by 1996 there have been only 4, 000 users countrywide. In 1998, the ISP market was deregulated. By 2000, there have been 225 ISPs (India Infoline 2001) and prices had dropped 60%. PC prices also fallen significantly owing to lowering of transfer duties. The subscriber basic then grew quickly, achieving 1. 8 million in January 2001. E-mail and chat will be the most popular applications (Natarajan 1999). E-commerce is yet to find extensive acceptance but is expected to touch $2. 3 billion by 2002 (Pai 2000a). Laptop or computer penetration in urban middle class homeowners has increased in recent times (Dataquest 2000; Pai 2000b), and has resulted in an increase in the Internet subscribers. The recognition of the Internet has also acquired a feedback effect on Computer sales (Dataquest 2000).

The demand for bandwidth outstrips resource thirty-fold (Desai 2001). By December 2000, there have been only 28 million mobile phone lines add up to a tele-density of 3. 5/100 persons. Alternatives to analog modems, such as ISDN lines or wire modems, are limited. Rules also have stifled Internet growth. The ban on Internet telephony and the requirement to obtain security clearance before setting up an international gateway are two illustrations. In a nutshell, Internet diffusion in India began very recently and is seen as a high cell phone charges, limited customer popularity of E-commerce applications, limited telecommunications infrastructure, and restrictive laws. These characteristics are prevalent in many other growing countries as well.

The VSNL, continues to be definitely the prominent player in the ISP market, and preserves the backbones that a lot of private firms will have to use to provide usage of consumers. There is currently one Level 1 gateway held by VNSL, and a Level 2, by which most private companies will have to connect.

1995/96

1996/97

1997/98

1998/99

1999/2000

2000/2001

2001/2002

States

Popn CAGR ('81-'91)

Estd

Popn

CAGR of Lines

Actual

Lines 000

Lines/100

Estd

Lines

Lines/100

Estd

Lines

Lines/100

Estd

Lines

Lines/100

Estd

Lines

Lines/100

Estd Lines

Lines/100

Estd Lines

AP

2. 19

696. 98

20. 44

797

1. 35

959

1. 59

1155

1. 87

1391

2. 20

1675

2. 60

2017

2. 58

2044

Assam

1. 20

227. 37

21. 59

107

0. 56

130

0. 68

158

0. 81

192

0. 98

233

1. 17

283

1. 16

284

Bihar

2. 14

903. 30

19. 97

280

0. 36

335

0. 43

401

0. 50

481

0. 59

577

0. 69

692

0. 68

694

Gujarat

1. 94

428. 65

16. 52

916

2. 44

1067

2. 79

1243

3. 19

1448

3. 64

1687

4. 16

1965

4. 18

2012

Haryana

2. 45

174. 52

21. 31

295

2. 00

357

2. 36

433

2. 80

525

3. 31

636

3. 91

771

3. 90

786

Himachal

1. 91

53. 60

28. 27

110

2. 58

141

3. 23

180

4. 06

230

5. 10

295

6. 42

378

6. 45

387

JK

2. 57

82. 29

13. 61

53

0. 71

60

0. 79

68

0. 87

77

0. 96

87

1. 05

98

1. 02

98

Karnataka

1. 93

466. 52

20. 32

784

1. 98

943

2. 34

1134

2. 76

1364

3. 26

1641

3. 85

1974

3. 85

2013

Kerala

1. 35

307. 74

22. 24

681

2. 67

832

3. 22

1017

3. 88

1243

4. 68

1519

5. 64

1856

5. 71

1905

MP

2. 41

700. 25

22. 47

623

1. 06

762

1. 27

933

1. 52

1142

1. 82

1398

2. 17

1712

2. 14

1730

Maharashtra

2. 32

831. 86

18. 70

2425

3. 38

2878

3. 92

3416

4. 55

4054

5. 28

4812

6. 12

5711

6. 19

5904

Orissa

1. 85

327. 44

19. 68

166

0. 59

198

0. 69

236

0. 82

282

0. 96

337

1. 12

403

1. 11

405

Punjab

1. 91

210. 22

25. 23

571

3. 34

715

4. 1

895

5. 03

1120

6. 18

1402

7. 60

1755

7. 70

1813

Rajasthan

2. 53

468. 70

28. 14

494

1. 32

633

1. 65

811

2. 06

1039

2. 57

1331

3. 21

1705

3. 17

1727

TN

1. 44

570. 17

22. 01

1014

2. 14

1237

2. 57

1509

3. 09

1841

3. 72

2246

4. 47

2740

4. 50

2798

UP

2. 30

1464. 71

25. 53

810

0. 68

1016

0. 83

1275

1. 02

1600

1. 25

2008

1. 54

2520

1. 51

2537

WB

2. 23

714. 44

15. 56

610

0. 96

704

1. 09

813

1. 23

939

1. 39

1085

1. 57

1253

1. 55

1265

The above stand signifies an extrapolation predicated on the s offered by the finish of the 1995-96 fiscal year. The s show that the penetration of telephone lines is actually growing faster than the populace. In addition, the s symbolize only the penetration of general population services, whereas the latest telecom coverage demands added investment in the private sector. Nevertheless, it is clear that the current trends in progress will not bring about the prepared telephony penetration into India (7% by 2005 and 15% by 2010). Furthermore, oftentimes the s are skewed on the urban areas within the state governments, and mask a inadequately developed rural sector. Thus, the overall indication as of this juncture is that there surely is a clear dependence on dedicated infrastructure developed throughout india. '

The Impact of the internet in expanding countries http://cse. stanford. edu/classes/cs201/projects-00-01/third-world/india-overview. html

Modeling Internet Growth

To get an intensive knowledge of the technicalities of Internet diffusion in growing countries, we will discuss a model, which combines contagion results and their discussion with exterior factors.

There are a variety of methodologies available in the market to represent active processes. We are talking about the SD (Sterman 2000) model. Some of the known reasons for choosing this model are listed below:

* The opinions loop, which is the key structural element in an SD model, makes the model perfect for capturing the connection among different motorists of diffusion over time

* The SD model not only symbolizes quantifiable parameters, but also soft variables, that assist in understanding because the diffusion context has both sociable as well as specialized aspects

* System patterns in SD models results from connection among its opinions loops

When you build an SD model, you start with the introduction of a causal loop graph that involves a collection of causal links. Each of these causal links has a certain polarity. An optimistic (negative) link is associated with a reinforcing (balancing) relation. An optimistic (negative) change in the cause in this circumstance leads to a good (negative) change in the effect. Small lines intersecting causal links represent the delays within an result. A causal loop is the consequence of a closed series of causal links and the loop polarity can be easily known from the average person link polarities. The causal loop graph ends up with a mathematical model where interactions are illustrated by means of time differing difference equations. A what-if examination is conducted by simulating the numerical model under different parametric and structural alternatives.

The given above depicts the causal loop diagram for our diffusion model. The first of validation is the verification of every of the structural components involved. We will be discussing the foundation for the primary component, followed by the picked components that capture external factors that are typical of growing countries. At the heart of the diagram lies the contagion structured Internet Adoption, which helps Personal computer owners become Internet clients. Technology Coefficient and Imitation Coefficient drive Contagion very much the same as in Bass 1969. The causal loop composition consisting of the aforementioned five variables would cause the familiar S-shaped diffusion curve, if it didn't have any structural components. The basic contagion system is augmented by external factors typical of expanding countries. Inside the above, this is achieved by generating the contagion variables by external factors like Personal computer price, tele-density and the level of competition allowed by regulation.

Model validation - Replicating noticed behavior

Replicating the discovered behavior is the second stage involved in validating an SD model. The given above was changed into the corresponding difference equations and was then applied using the iThink bundle.

The s given below provide a comparability of the simulated and witnessed behavior of customer base and expansion rates respectively, using quarterly data for India from 1996 to January 2001

(Dutta. A, Roy. R, 2001)

(Dutta. A, Roy. R, 2001)

Conclusions out of this model

The validated model offers a synthetic environment that helps us in inspecting the effect of different exterior factors. Loop dominance analysis (LDA) was used in SD parlance in order to analyze the exterior factors. A dominating loop is one, which is mainly in charge of model tendencies over a particular time interval. The relevance of LDA is that it can help in identifying which loops have to be strengthened and/or weakened, through coverage actions, so that people can achieve maximum desirable habit.

Two conclusions analyzed from our model, using LDA, are the following:

* Low infrastructure service, high hourly utilization costs and low geographic dispersion are dominant in the diffusion process. Regulatory insurance policies would help in weakening these variables and for that reason would dominate the near future diffusion techniques.

* Besides the professional countries, security concerns never have disperse intensely in developing countries. One explanation for this could be that e-commerce hasn't yet received a hold in developing countries.
Political obstacles hindering the expansion of the Internet

The political atmosphere in India is to be blamed for the slow development of both, the web access and the telecom infrastructure. Regardless of the liberalization of Indian current economic climate in 1991, the telecommunication sector continued to be in limited control of the government. This led to a number of problems for both, private organizations as well as consumers.

Even though the authorities has increased its interest in promoting the expansion of the web throughout India, there is still a need for the review and/or removal of rules still in place if we wish the telecom industry to flourish.

The federal government should rethink its current policies on telecommunications, take into account the global changes helped bring the about by the advancement of new technology, and work to create a market environment that is favorable for investment by both local and international IT companies.
Impact of the Internet on various areas in developing countries

The Internet has extensive potential in a variety of sectors in producing countries:

Education

Bank and Finance

Business

Government

Telecommunications

Travel and Tourism

We will discuss the impact of Internet on some areas at length.

a) Impact on Education

The world of education is undergoing some major changes, the most crucial which is the utilization of the Internet in coaching and learning. Before the advent of the Internet the main resources of information for students were the educators and the catalogs available in the libraries. Now, because of the Internet, professors are just one of the resources of information. Global usage of information has widened their horizons to gain maximum knowledge.

In this Information get older, the Internet has helped involve students in active learning. They are more considering hands-on learning, which presents them with sensible, real-life experience. Studies have revealed that this style of learning results in better retention and knowledge of issues. Also, learning is currently not limited to the wall space of the companies. The easy and quick access to infinite sources of information has encouraged out of the pack thinking.

Besides these benefits, the Internet has helped in personal development of students. Sociable interaction over the Internet has helped students who are shy to have interaction and enhance their communication skills.

With the development of the Internet, the concept of online exams in addition has evolved. It has become easier to appear for exams like GRE, GMAT, TOEFL, specialized documentation like SCJP etc. These tests are actually conducted online, which has helped people in producing countries to improve their knowledge. It offers reduced the overheads and hassles involved in personally heading to exam centers.

One of the best instances would be CISCO human being network which includes marketed education in remote control areas of almost all producing countries like India, Africa etc. utilizing the Internet for educating through exclusive classrooms designed to use training video conferencing.

b) Impact on Banking and Finance

Around the clock banking is one of the primary benefits of Internet use in banking. By using the Internet, we have remote access to the finance institutions, which helps in copy of money abroad with ideas like RTGS from RBI, India. It has reduced daily trips to the banking companies because we can get regular posts about our bank or investment company details online.

Expenditure on administration services, newspaper, stationery etc. has been reduced which includes helped in increasing the income of bankers besides being environmentally friendly. Internet has eliminated the tedious paperwork involved in lenders, and has provided easy and fast access, making life much easier for bankers as well as customers.

The concept of digital signatures in addition has picked up and it will only enhance the great things about Internet banking.

Tedious and monotonous process of dealing with brokerages has been eliminated with the help of Online Trading. Demat accounts have taken away the concept of physical stocks.

c) Effect on Business

The Internet has provided a worldwide way to obtain information, which helps in developing new strategies and methodologies to enhance businesses. Even for the smallest of traders, constant updates of the costs of commodities can be found online.

Some companies make an online search to build immediate associations with the customers. Others are employing the Internet to gather buyers and retailers in the new greatly efficient marketplaces. The Internet has taken the concept of e-Commerce to e-Business. The development of the Internet has marketed inter-company trade of goods online. The best illustrations would be of online websites like e-Bay and other companies promoting online gifting systems.

Airline sectors also have benefited a great deal from the web. Tickets can be booked online anytime of your day.

d) Impact on Advertising

The companies catch the attention of customers by building brand recognition and by providing market information over the Internet. This is observed in the recent IPO (Primary Public Offerings) produces like those of Reliance Petronet. In e-business, the profits are produced not only by accelerating and automating the business's own internal procedures but also by spotting its ability to pass on the efficiency advantages to the business enterprise systems of its suppliers and customers. The ability to team up with others may be just as much of a competitive advantages as the ability to deploy the technology.

e) Impact on e-Governance

With the progress of the Internet, people have noticed that the use of information and communication technology to provide and improve the federal services can be highly beneficial. Using the Internet for e-Governance is a convenient and affordable method to provide people usage of current information. Internet can promote higher citizen participation in the country's capital. It'll encourage people from coast to coast to interact with politicians to make their voices observed so that the political situation can improve and the countries can progress.

E-Governance would make the politics system better, provide improved services, better availability of public services and would make the techniques more transparent and responsible.

Nowadays, online counseling for entry exams has reduced the overhead for the government institutions.

Expanding countries are actually using the Internet to manage the biggest sites like railways. All travelling trades can now be done online on websites like www. irctc. co. in (India).

f) Effect on Telecommunications

Internet has helped the producing countries in minimizing the national as well as international call rates. The BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) nations have all adopted the idea of VOIP (Voice over Internet Process), which includes helped them achieve the above mentioned.

g) Effect on Travel and Tourism

With the progress of the web, all countries have their dedicated travel and travel and leisure websites. These websites have information related to various places of travel, their routes and accommodation facilities available.

Taking a good example of India, websites like www. incredibleindia. com.

h) Effect on Social Networking

Social networking websites like www. gmail. com, www. orkut. com, etc. have helped people retain in touch.

Future of the Internet in Growing Countries

The reality the demand online service is continuing to grow phenomenally, both in conditions of the fantastic amounts of under-served users and the range of services required by users, has compelled the government to do something in way that could benefit the development of the Internet in India. As its first rung on the ladder to encourage Internet progress, the government created commercial Internet services. The regulatory environment is also becoming more encouraging towards private competition in the telecommunication sector. Your competition in private telecommunication sector will profit the Internet growth in two ways. Firstly, it will enhance the quality and boost the option of local loop connections. Secondly, the decision to allow licensing of private ISPs, has paved the road for more than 100 companies to enter in the market and provide more and better services. These private ISPs could establish dish links to the Internet unbiased of VSNL, the monopoly carrier. This helped them in avoiding delays and helped in costing their services relating with their needs.

The government has also promised to have some other actions to boost Internet growth. A few of these steps are:

* Development of multilingual software. Hypertext markup languages, Internet web browsers and email have chosen for early on indigenization

* Establishment of development projects with the Internet participating in the most essential role

* Establishment of open public access and information centers

* Development of the Internet and telecommunications in rural areas in order to increase the benefits associated with the Internet beyond urban areas

* Usage of it in the federal government sectors like rules and order, family welfare, nursing homes, education and electrical power power

* Recommendations that all schools nationwide should have access to computer systems and the Internet

* Make India a software superpower through the elimination of bottlenecks in IT development

If the government can implement each one of these steps promptly, Internet progress will reach new degrees of benefits and there will be an enormous increase in the number of Internet surfers.

Conclusion

The Internet has handled all aspects of our lives which is very difficult to assume life without it. The scope of consumption of the Internet will only increase in the coming days. While using types of websites like www. google. com, www. yellowpages. com, etc. we can easily see that by making use of the web information of most kinds in just one click away.

Now that the regulatory obstacles have been removed and in almost all of the countries by this year-end you will see introduction of the 3G (Third Generation) technology the Internet will develop exponentially as there is no lack of knowledge and competence needed to set up a competitive Internet market. In India, licenses for the 3G technology have been distributed and it will be unveiled by Sept 2009.

The Internet has removed all sorts of geographical barriers and its power has brought greater awareness of skills and resources, thus assisting the various marketplaces reach a diverse global audience. They have played a key role in opening up the unexploited market segments of the country and bestowed the advantages of globalization on the producing countries.

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