Posted at 10.17.2018
Access to Nursing
Tutor - Lis Footsoy
This should maintain the survey format! Please follow Project Brief instructions carefully!
According to Ogden (1996), there are numerous factors that effect on the fitness of individuals within population, some are more prevalent than others such as poverty, unemployment, lifestyle and domestic areas. Alongside they are medical factors, religion and differing values in remedies and health. Regarding to Ogden (1996) although they are all different areas to consider they are all interlinked one to the other and it is often thought that if a person has anybody of the above chances are they will have some degree of every one impacting on the health and wellness and wellbeing.
[LF1]Naidoo and Wills (2000) claim that there are extensive determinants also known as health inequalities, which can all be divided into categories such as public, environmental, lifestyle and physiological factors, it can be suggested that public factors have a major impact on health and just how individuals live generally associating health with public course, lower working classes have emerged to lead unhealthier life styles anticipated to poverty or insufficient employment which in effect will lead to poor enclosure and residing in higher criminal offenses rate areas and less usage of health services and very little means of leisure activity which will then lead to poor diet as few individuals in the lower classes can afford healthy food choices and 10 fruit and vegetables every day which is needed to maintain a good level of health, this may also include high consumptions of liquor and cigarettes. Naidoo and wills (2000) talks about how all of this then leads to physiological factors that impact on health like stress and melancholy, high blood pressure, heart disease and obesity which then ends up costing the National Health service thousands of pounds each year. It can be suggested that is just a vicious routine and until poverty and unemployment levels cut down, society as a whole will continue steadily to consume profit the NHS.
The graphs above shows the unemployment rates in the united kingdom in comparison to other countries, it's advocated that though it is not at the bigger end of the level there is still a high range of unemployment that includes a major impact on the Country wide Health service and the united kingdom's economy which will in turn effect the overall health of everyone through poverty.
It is obvious to see from this quick introduction how all the determinants are interlinked and how each one separately affects health and wellness.
Ogden (1996) suggests that what's clear is that ill health will not happen by chance or through bad luck, in order to keep health, society as a whole should promote it. The Lalorde article published in 1974 helped identify four areas of health that may be improved these are: Genetics and natural factors which determine an individual's disposition to disease, life-style factors where health behaviours contribute to disorder, environmental factors like property or pollution and the health services provided. If a location has an unhealthy health service than it is much more likely that loss of life rates are higher through disease and health will be effected. These show that factors apart from genetic and natural all affect a person's health but it is possible to change it out.
Naidoo and w[LF2]ills (2000) explains that unemployment and low income is a significant determinant of living specifications and when learning levels of income and materials deprivation through unemployment it's been found that it can tie in with sick health and premature mortality.
The graph above shows the various ages and school sets of the working environment it shows the level of deaths are a whole lot higher in those who work in manual hard labour which is very hands on and demanding compared to those of other intermediate and higher professional backgrounds paying in higher salary than other lower category jobs.
According to the Rowntree report in 1990, 24% of the population had an income of below the national average after enabling cover costs (Rowntree foundation 1995), people probably to maintain this category are the unemployed, pensioners, lone parents and the low paid. Blackburn suggests that there are three ways in which low income and unemployment can affect health, Physiologically - inadequate housing, lack of warmth, lack of food, subconscious - stress insufficient support network and behavioural - health damaging behaviours like excessive smoking, alcohol consumption, sweets for children instead of healthy foods, living in poverty can affect anyone and without the means to give a healthy lifestyle most are obligated to live bad lifestyles to make ends meet, it is not a choice.
According to Ogden (1996) one of the key challenges the Country wide Health Service (NHS) must package with is the frequent utilization of money, as health care costs thousands each year and areas with poor housing and less deprived areas spend more scheduled to leading poor lifestyles, an issue with this is the fact that those people who are unemployed who are in these poorer areas pay nothing in to the system yet can still gain access to health care with the same protection under the law as people utilized who do pay into the system and pay taxes, so individuals who are unemployed can claim benefits, professional medical should be free and accessible to everyone although there should come a period when there is no financial funding still left to cover healthcare, there were suggestions of inserting a fee for every time the average person visits the physician or attends Accident and Emergency on a Friday night time when they are found too intoxicated to operate. Therefore will promote a healthier living although it can be seen as discrimination as individuals in poverty or unemployment still won't have the methods to pay for the healthcare trips resulting in illness and diseases increasing, having a detrimental effect on the health and wellbeing within population.
The graph above shows the way the Country wide Health Service financing has increased over the last 7 years achieving a high of just over 105, 000 in the years 2012 to 2013.
As Naidoo and wills (2000) explains there are a few factors that impact health that we cannot change for example: ethnicity, different contest and ethnic backgrounds can determine an individual's health for example: individuals with darker skin area have a higher safeguard from diseases of the skin, caused by sun rays such as pores and skin cancer and individuals with lighter more pale skin can burn off easily and be allergic to sunlight, this can tie up into the environmental factors that have an effect on health. Although to be able to squeeze in to contemporary society in modern day it can be seen that there surely is a lot more pressure positioned on young girls and women who feel the need to be perfect due to the mass media resulting in a rise in the use of tanning beds in order to get a tan and darkening of your skin, this heightens the opportunity of skin tumors and other skin diseases.
The graph below demonstrates in 2010 2010, among men, white men had the highest rate of getting melanoma of the skin, followed by American Indian/Alaska Local, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and dark men. Among women, white women had the highest rate of getting melanoma of the skin, accompanied by Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and dark-colored women.
Melanoma of the Skin Incidence Rates* by Competition/Ethnicity and Making love, U. S. , 1999-2010
It can be recommended that along with this, studies have found showing that youthful people particularly are at risk by using a tanning foundation as people who begin using sunbeds before the years of 35 are 87% much more likely to develop Melanoma compared to people with darker pores and skin from different ethnic organizations or those who never use sunshine beds. [LF3]
It can be said that on the other hands certain ethnic groupings are more prone to specific diseases, darker pores and skin is especially prone to sickle cell disease, and those who are inclined to certain diseases can use the National Health Service at their discretion depending on the beliefs surrounding medication. Although in some countries like America, certain ethnic organizations do not have confidence in the health good care system American Indians consider disease is an act of characteristics and should be allowed to follow its course. It may also be said that in third world countries medication and health care is not easy to get at as there exists little money to provide the satisfactory care. It can also be advised that some areas with less natural light can also influence health credited to causing psychological factors like stress and Seasonal Affected Disorder (SAD) which really is a disorder influenced by seasons which triggers higher suicide rates in winter colder calendar months in comparison to summer months.
It can be done that things in society affect health insurance and although looking as of this from a Marxist viewpoint unemployment and poverty are a root cause to most medical issues. Marxists assume that everyone should be equivalent and that poverty helps keep up with the domination of the Bourgeoisie (upper class) it assists the eye of the prosperous, although other sociologists disagree and claim that individuals are to blame for their own poverty or as groups they create a culture of poverty. Marxists believe that poverty is rooted to the structure of society rather than specific individual therefore a person lives in a deprived area they are simply more likely heading to adjust to the ways of that community resulting in sick health through poor life styles. [LF4]
Along with Karl Marx another sociologist Charles Murray (1989) [LF5]stated that poverty is triggered by the lower class in the sense that the lower class do not want to work or find career, he blames illegitimacy for this condition of poverty in 1979 Britain had an illegitimacy rate of 10. 6% but by 1988 this possessed increased to 25. 6% he claimed that illegitimate children are more likely to come from women of the lower class and they run wild because of the lack of a father physique and in place he kept them responsible for rising criminal offenses, property offense and violent criminal offenses. This in turn damaging communities making the domestic area deprived with little amenities and also made people withdraw into themselves creating all varieties of illnesses mainly emotional. A critic of the is that there is no proof to verify his conclusions and there are no significant differences between the lower class and the employed in their behaviour towards work and it could be seen that mothers with husbands/fathers spend additional time professing benefits than sole mothers. Naidoo and wills (2000) suggests that the Marxist approach to poverty and unemployment ties in with the social researchers perspective on medication, as they argue that medication is closely linked to power and continues to be a powerful method of public control, as without treatments health would deteriorate and society would lack structure. [LF6]
There are many medical models that look at the determinants of health. The behaviour change model is designed to encourage individuals to conform healthy behaviours which are seen as the key to improve health and wellness. It could be argued as this model will not reflect the understanding of poverty the methodology is popular as it views health as a house of individuals, making it possible to expect that people can transform their behaviours to make improvements to their health. In addition, it states that people who do not look after themselves are to be blamed for the results of sick health.
When taking a look at poverty and unemployment which treat it is impossible to improve behaviours and life-style for advanced health when they are beyond your individuals control, there should be some amount of flexibility to be able to make changes, individuals surviving in poverty and who are unemployed know that changing bad lifestyles is not always as easy as it may seem.
The above shows the way the Behaviour change model works.
On the other hand a health model that can be tied in with poverty is the Sociable change model the key aim of this approach is to permit people to gain control of their lives, it enables visitors to gain skills and self-confidence, and empowerment is also used in an effort to describe a means of working which enhances peoples power to change their sociable reality, an example of this in areas there are self-help teams and community structured development like setting up goals and community based mostly development such as getting together with to be able to meet specific needs like clean-up programs and such, this might help individuals in poverty and unemployment gain confidence to learn new skills in order to find a job which in turn would improve their health or even help people with despair or stress by interacting with new people going right through the same thing. [LF7]
The picture above shows the several phases of the social change model.
This way also makes an attempt to bring changes in the physical, cultural and monetary environment this consists of things such as bans in public places for example smoking, which will lower or attempt to lower smoking levels in more deprived areas that could result in saving money and starting the long highway out of poverty. It can also be suggested that it might reduce air pollution as if the area of dwelling has high air pollution then this posesses more detrimental concern on health in regards to people who are clinically unwell or have health problems such as asthma or emphysema.
Air pollution is a significant environmental risk to health. By minimizing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung malignancy, and both chronic and severe breathing diseases, including asthma. The lower the levels of polluting of the environment, the better the cardiovascular and respiratory system health of the populace will be, both long- and short-term. The "WHO Air quality guidelines" provide an evaluation of health ramifications of air pollution and thresholds for health-harmful air pollution levels.
Ambient (outdoor polluting of the environment) in both towns and rural areas was predicted to cause 3. 7 million premature fatalities worldwide in 2012. [LF8]
Some 88% of these premature deaths happened in low- and middle-income countries, and the best number in the WHO Western Pacific and South-East Asia parts. Policies and investment funds supporting cleaner transportation, energy-efficient housing, electric power technology, industry and better municipal waste materials management would reduce key resources of urban outdoor polluting of the environment. Reducing outdoor emissions from home coal and biomass energy systems, agricultural waste products incineration, forest fires and certain agro-forestry activities (e. g. charcoal production) would reduce key rural and peri-urban polluting of the environment sources in expanding regions. Reducing outdoor air pollution also reduces emissions of CO2 and short-lived climate pollutants such as dark carbon allergens and methane, thus contributing to the near- and long-term mitigation of environment change. Furthermore to outdoor air pollution, indoor smoke is a serious health risk for a few 3 billion people who cook and heat up their homes with biomass fuels and coal (WHO, 2014)
Very good dialogue with clear evaluation of ideas and models.
In conclusion, it can be seen that poverty is the main cause to ill health within contemporary society, regardless of time, ethnicity, religion, social class. It all comes down to poverty, as with no means to live a wholesome lifestyle, individuals cannot change behaviours and attitudes towards more healthy living. Poverty can cause disease and condition and affect health and wellness through stress. Psychologically becoming depressed over money worries, poor living conditions and lack of nutrition or too much junk food and alcoholic beverages can cause excess weight, diabetes and liver damage. If the region is professional or run-down a person has more change[LF9] of growing lung disease and breathing difficulties.
Poverty is a term which is thought as very endemic and there are an incredible number of implications to health and what living in poverty can cause.
A very good article which talks about models, theories, ideas and issues well. To further improve:
Table of References
Butterfield, W. J. H. (1968) 'priorities in medication'. London: Nuffield
Naidoo, J. & Wills, J. (2000) 'Health promotion' (2nd release) London: Bailliere Tindal
Ogden, J. (1996) 'Health mindset' Buckingham: University or college press
Katz, J. , Peberdy, A. (1997) 'Promoting health, knowledge and practise' Basingstoke: Start University or college press.
World Health Company. (2014) 'Ambient air quality and health' [online] Available at: < http://www. who. int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/> [Accessed - 5th May 2014]
Very good options.
[LF1]If this were an essay this might be allowed therefore this should have been a written report! Also I can't identify where your Introduction ends and Debate of Findings starts etc.
[LF3]It is important here to indicate that you will be basing this after US figures.
[LF6]Good factors made and assessed here.
[LF7]Very good conversation of models however where are you getting the information from??