Posted at 12.17.2018
Corruption is one of the major obstacles to Nigeria's progress and development, the impact of problem has certainly surfaced as one of the main barriers to national expansion and development in contemporary Nigeria. Although corruption is a global phenomenon, it is the single most significant interpersonal problem in Nigeria today. It offers afflicted a number of social categories and the nation has suffered severe losses financially and socially.
In Nigeria, the presence of human being and natural resources is so abundant, but their development for the betterment of the welfare of the people has been difficult. The estimated inhabitants of Nigeria in 2006 was 140, 431, 790 (Federal government Republic of Nigeria, 2006), making the country the most populous in Africa. Corruption isn't only pervasive, alarming and endemic in Nigeria but corresponding to Achebe (1983), it includes came into the fatal condition in the united states. Problem in Nigeria is a symptom of poorly working state which is with the capacity of retarding socio-political and monetary development. Problem stands as a hazard to our democratic order, political stability and lasting national development and development.
1. 1 Background to the study
Corruption has been within the earth from the inception of Man, it was documented in the Jewish mythology that Jacob the patriarch of the Israeli race deceived his sibling Esau into acquiring his inheritance bogus fully; Ancient civilization has traces of popular illegality and problem. Over the years it's been witnessed that corruption is capable of creating unwanted results even from excellent monetary procedures and development plans. The World Loan company 2000 identified corruption as the solitary most significant obstacle to economic and sociable development as it distorts the guideline of law and weakens the institutional foundations which monetary growths is based.
Corruption is by much the greatest challenge to our countrywide economic and politics development. Corruption must be granted circumstances of emergency status if our country is to gain back and keep its wealth and prestige and start to function optimally for the benefit for the Nigerians. If the reality must find out, corruption now influences virtually all elements of the Nigeria population. It has eaten profound into our main beliefs as a land.
Today, the quest for money has turned into a virtue alone in Nigerian world. And there is hardly any question asked about how exactly people happen it. Corruption imposes much burden on small and medium-sized corporations, and will shift federal government spending away from socially beneficial ventures, such as health, education, roads and communications towards unneeded "white elephant" tasks, or lower quality infrastructure. Problem discriminates against honest foreign businesses therefore of lack of transparency generally in most acts of corruption. In this technique, beneficial direct purchases often grab of the country.
Corruption reduces local savings and investment and stimulates capital trip, as it weakens local banking system. Corruption is one of the main inhibiting forces on investment and development, thereby bringing down the living expectations of folks. Corruption often discourages donors from providing more aid, which harms opportunity for economic development.
In the education sector, assessment malpractices have become common, and the most lamentable aspect of the situation is the fact parents are thought to help and abet with money, the acquisition of incorrect education certificates by their children. Forgery of documents and the so-called 419 tactics especially through the internet have become so rampant that unverified documents emanating from Nigeria are suspects in a great many other countries abroad, in a world where money is worshiped, there exists hardly any scruple or restraint on what people that have a unlawful bent can do to obtain wealth.
Corruption has remained the main element obstacle to your national development, how else is one able to begin to describe the fact our infrastructure, especially our roads and other transport systems, our education organizations and our hospitals, amongst others, havent benefited more appreciably from the large revenue that this country has received from its export of crude engine oil, Nigeria has a tremendous amount of natural resources, including petroleum products, large amount of reserves of gas, tin, iron ore, coal, and limestone. Its agricultural products include cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams and plastic; livestock including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; and timber and fish. Professional products include crude engine oil, coal, tin, columbite, hand oil, peanuts, silk cotton, rubber, lumber, hides and skins, textiles, concrete, foods, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, metallic exports, cocoa and silicone, Nigeria rates 158th of 177 countries measured in the United Nations Man Development Index (UNDP 2008). While majority of Nigeria's society living below the poverty series reaches 70 percent in 1999, over half the population lives on less than US$1 per day, (IMF 2007). This results in about 80 million Nigerians residing in poverty. Only China and India have much larger populations of poor people (DFID 2004).
Serious make an effort at fighting corruption was first made in 1983 by the shehu shagari supervision when he proven the new ministry of National Guardians to deal with corruption, to set up discipline and improve the moral tone of your society. His authorities was temporary, succeeding governments launched the Battle against Indiscipline (WAI): Mass Mobilization for Social Development and Economic Restoration (MAMSER): along with the National Orientation Company (NOA). It's undisputable that Nigerian government authorities have made work to bring to an extremely minimal level the problem of corruption in Nigeria.
In 2006 Nigeria developed the eyesight 20:20:20 agenda which includes that Nigeria would be among the very best 20 economies in Nigeria by the year 2020, in what of Joaquim Chissano, ex - Mozambian chief executive, Nigeria's dream of becoming one of the world's 20 biggest current economic climate by 2020 will remain a fantasy unless corruption is tackled and brought in order. Nigeria has enough human and materials resources to support that aspiration. However this ambitious benchmark can only be gained if the united states manages to tame corruption, the monster that is undermining all development initiatives and initiatives of the economies. It is in fulfillment of the fantasy that the Nigerian innovator of the fourth republic president Olusegun Obasanjo on 2003 set up EFCC with a constituting device: The EFCC establishing action 2004, using its head office at Adetokumbo Ademola crescent wuse. Its present behaving chairman Ibrahim Lamorde. It investigates financial offences such as move forward fee scam (419 frauds) and money laundering. Proven in 2003 partly in response to pressure from the financial action process pressure on money laundering (FATF). The first chairman Nuhu Ribadu, followed by chief(Mrs. )Farida Waziri in 2008 and presently with its performing chairman Ibrahim lamorde (publication of EFCC vol4, 2 July 2009).
Also in the quality to fight problem and get the battle in Nigerian, resulted in the promulgation of the corrupt practice and other related offences function 2000. the work was the first bill provided by Olusegun Obasanjo to the national assembly for concern at the inception of the democratic supervision in 1999. the act was signed into legislations 13th June 2000 and set up the independent corrupt practice and other related offences commission(ICPC). which is the apex body saddled with the responsibility of fighting corruption and other related offences using its chairman as Justice Emmanuel Ayoola.
Finally it's been established that corruption has lead to the underdevelopment of many sectors in the economy, starting from the public sector, the training sector, health, business, agricultural and spiritual industries etc. It can be seen that governments has made attempts in curbing the pass on of problem in the united states, through the establishment of several anti-corruption organizations like the EFCC, ICPC etc. This study will be focused mainly of the workings of problem on national economical progress and development mainly during the democratic dispensation from 1999 thus far.
1. 2 Assertion of research problem
The effects corruption has on monetary growth can't be overemphasized; problem is one of the greatest causes affecting the entire national development of the Nigeria economy. Nigeria as a expanding country is plagued with numerous political and economic difficulties but the problem of corruption has damaged deep in to the fabrics of our society. Corruption in Nigeria causes slow movement of documents in offices, police extortion at tollgates and sluggish traffic on the highways, port congestion, queues at passport offices and gasoline stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities amongst others.
Thus, it is assumed by many in the population that problem is the root issue of Nigeria. Corruption has been endemic in all governments, that is not peculiar to any continent, region, ethnic group. It slices across faiths, spiritual denominations, and politics systems and impacts both young and old man and woman alike. Corruption is situated in democratic and dictatorial polities; feudal, capitalism and socialist economies, Christians, Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhist cultures are evenly bedeviled by problem, and corruption didn't start today, the annals is really as old as the planet.
The issues of problem, economic growth and development have become major coverage discourse globally. To this extent the study work has generated a couple of questions which include the following:
i. How has problem affected the monetary progress of Nigeria?
ii. The types and forms of corruption we have in Nigeria?
iii. How do the issue of corruption be curbed?
These will be the research questions that your study attempts to provide answers.
1. 4 Targets of the study
The main purpose of this study is to explore the impact of corruption on national growth and development in Nigeria, as well as the several limiting factors, hindering their operation of anti-graft organizations in Nigeria, such as politics disturbance, managerial problems, lack of integrity on the part of EFCC officials, federal interference, inadequate representatives, finance, inadequate open public awareness campaign, slow pace of litigations insufficient necessary information technology machines for trapping down corrupt techniques etc and their potential clients towards fighting problem in Nigeria. Among the other objectives includes:
1. 5 Need for the study
Corruption has prolonged to bring to a continual decline, the developmental plans of the united states, As such a study as important as this will not be neglected. Thus, this research will be channeled in essence to explore the causes and ramifications of problem on the Nigerian Monetary progress process and means of combating problem in Nigeria and the partnership between problem and economic expansion in other to enhance socio-economic and politics development, Thereby noticing the vision 2020 of becoming one of the world's greatest economies.
At the finish of the study, it'll be of great importance to dealing with the menace of corruption and its own way of hindering the even economic and political development of Nigeria.
The findings of the study can help in enlightening Nigerians on the evils of problem especially in a producing region like Nigeria, this research would gauge the impacts corruption has on the Nigerian Economic growth
1. 6 Opportunity and limitation of the study
A review as important as this, ought to have taken the researcher to almost all over the country, and should have evaluated all the administrations of Nigeria, starting from the first republic till the present dispensation, however the work will be too cumbersome and troublesome.
Thus, this research will be limited to the appraisal of the democratic regime of leader Olusegun Obasanjo, Yaradua and Goodluck Jonathan in management of problem through the instrumentality of EFCC and ICPC in attainment of national and economic development. The study covers corrupt issues between 1999-to time. Hence particular emphasis and interest will be placed on political office holders during the regime.
The limitation of this research work also includes:
Time constraint: Enough time within which to send this project equally acts as a restriction to the research.
1. 7 Plan of the study
This study will take a five section format, with chapter one taking the introductory area of the study, the assertion of research problems, research hypothesis, affirmation of aims, the opportunity and restriction of the analysis, the program of the analysis, the significance of the study and operational definition of terms.
Chapter two is the literature review and theoretical platform. This includes the concept and source of corruption, idea of national development, summary of democratic administration, reasons for increase rate of problem over the years, the effects of corruption on nationwide development, device for curbing problem in Nigeria etc.
Chapter three deals with the research technique containing the advantages, source of data, populace of sample size and sampling approach, method of data collection and method of data evaluation.
Chapter four treats the data presentation and analysis, which include introduction, evaluation of hypothesis, and talk of findings
Finally section five provides the summary, summary, and recommendations.
1. 8 Classification of terms
Corruption: According to move forward learners dictionary 4th release, corruption means happy to act dishonestly in substitution for money. Bad or immoral, etc.
Perhaps, because problem has received an extensive attention in the communication and perhaps because of the fact that it's been over flagged in the academics circles, corruption has received numerous definition. Problem or corrupt tendencies, entails the violation of founded guidelines for personal gain and revenue.
Corruption is work to secure prosperity or vitality through illegitimate means: private gain at open public charge: or a misuse of open public ability for private profit. In addition problem is a behavior which deviates from the normal duties of any public role, because of private (benefits) regarding (personal, close family, private cheque, pecuniary or statue gains, it is patterns which violates guidelines up against the exercise of certain types of (responsibilities) for private gain.
National development: National development identifies an overall integrated transformation in almost all industries of the overall economy. It involves a good growth simultaneously in all areas of the market, ranging from the health sector to the training, oil and gas, religion, business, manufacturing and agricultural sector etc.
Regime: This refers to a period of the reign of a particular constitutional federal.
Bribery: The repayment (in money or kind) that is considered or given in a corrupt relationship. This consists of kickbacks, gratitude, pay-off, sweetness, greasing hands, etc.
Fraud: It requires some kind of trickery, swindle and deceit, counterfeiting, racketing, smuggling and forgery.
Embezzlement: This is theft of general public resources by public officials
Extortion: That is money and other resources extracted through coercion, violence or threat to use push. Especially by police force and custom officers are the main culprits in Nigeria.
Favoritism: That is a device of power abuse implying an extremely biased syndication of express resources. it sometimes appears at a natural human being proclivity to favor friends, family and anybody close and respected.
Nepotism: That is a special form of favoritism which an office holder pertains his/her kin folk and family members. In Nigeria it occurs when an example may be exempted from the application of certain laws or laws or given undue choice in the allocation of scarce resources.