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Identification of Organic Compounds

  • May Zheng
  • Lab Spouse: Vena Ganesarasa

Observations:

Table 1: The Use of Iodine Solution for Determining the current presence of Starch in Various Samples Solutions

Sample:

Amylose

Maltose

Sucrose

Glucose

Unknown X

Unknown Y

Distilled Water

Observations

Light yellow, cloudy, liquid

Transparent light yellow, liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

White liquid

Orange liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

Colour of Solution

Dark blue/dark-colored liquid

Clear yellowish liquid

Clear, dark yellow liquid

Red/brown liquid

Blue

Dark blue/ dark liquid

Yellow/orange liquid

Table 2: The usage of Benedict's Solution for Deciding the Presence of Sugar in a variety of Samples Solutions

Sample:

Amylose

Maltose

Sucrose

Glucose

Unknown X

Unknown Y

Distilled Water

Observations

Light yellow, cloudy, liquid

Transparent light yellowish, liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

White liquid

Orange liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

Colour of Solution

Orange liquid

Dark orange liquid

Clear, light blue liquid

Yellowish/whitish precipitate

Beige liquid

Lime inexperienced liquid

Clear blue liquid

Table 3: The Use of Biuret's Reagent for Deciding the Presence of Protein in Various Samples Solutions

Sample:

Amylose

Maltose

Sucrose

Glucose

Unknown X

Unknown Y

Distilled Water

Observations

Light yellow, cloudy, liquid

Transparent light yellowish, liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

White liquid

Orange liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

Colour of Solution

No shade change

No shade change

Clear light blue liquid

Very light blue/white liquid

Beige liquid

Yellow liquid

Clear light blue liquid

Table 4: The Use of Sudan (III) Solution for Identifying the current presence of Lipid in Various Samples Solutions

Sample:

Amylose

Maltose

Sucrose

Glucose

Unknown X

Unknown Y

Distilled Water

Observations

Light yellow, cloudy, liquid

Transparent light yellow, liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

White liquid

Orange liquid

Clear, colourless liquid

Colour of Solution

Pinkish red on top, yellowish/white on bottom

Light green liquid

Light orange liquid

ј pinkish coating, white on bottom

Pink layer, milky/ whitish level on bottom

Orangey on top, yellow on bottom

Clear very faint pink when signal was added; coloring gradually faded away

Discussion:

The distilled water in this experiment functioned as the control sample. A control test should be a constant variable that was not subjected to the factors being tested in the test. In cases like this, the goal of the laboratory was to look for the occurrence of starch, lipid, necessary protein, and sugar in a variety of solutions. Distilled water did not contain these experimental factors and therefore it acted as a control sample. The distilled normal water played a very important role in this test due to the fact the results of the experimental samples must be set alongside the control to be able to form a bottom line (Rodriguez, 2013). By assessing the results of the control, the colour changes which got happened in the experimental examples could be revealed. If there is no control, one wouldn't have been able to find out any valid changes in the experimental results since there is little or nothing to compare these to to be able to validate the changes. In such a experiment, distilled normal water was used as the control instead of tap water due to absence of metals and vitamins such as iron and calcium. These elements have the potential to improve the results of the experiment by creating unwanted reactions with other chemicals in the experiment. Therefore, in order with an accurate control to act as a reference source for the results of the experimental examples, distilled normal water was used (Myers, 2013).

The Iodine solution was commonly used to test for the occurrence of starch in a material. During the existence of starch, the Iodine solution would become a dark blue/black colour. The color change was brought on by the substance reaction between the starch and the iodine. Amylose was a polysaccharide consisting of glucose products; it was a type of starch, in reality starch was made up of a mixture of amylose and amylopectin. Therefore in this experiment, when the iodine solution was added in to the Amylose solution, the ensuing solution had a deep bluish-black coloring. The helix composition of amylose resembled a coiled spring and coil. The aspect iodine, a non-polar molecule, alone was insoluble in drinking water; hence it was dissolved in an aqueous potassium iodide solution building potassium triiodide that was soluble in normal water. The linear triiodide ion (I3-) quite simply slipped inside the coil of the amylose molecule leading to an extremely blue/black coloring. The transfer of charged allergens (electrons) which took place between the amylose and the iodide ion transformed the spaces between your energy levels/electron orbitals. This recommended that light was ingested by the solution at another wavelength leading to the color change. The occurrence of starch was also decided in the unidentified X and undiscovered Y solutions. The unidentified X solution acquired a less powerful color of blue indicating that there was a lower awareness of starch in that material ("Iodine test for, " 2012).

Benedict's solution was a clear blue liquid containing copper sulfate used to test for the existence of simple sugars such as allmonosaccharides and several disaccharides like maltose. The existence of these sugar such as glucose triggered a substance reaction between the sweets and copper sulfate (after heating system which provides the power required to initiate the reaction) resulting in a reddish-brown precipitate if there is a high attention of glucose (2% or even more). The answer could also turn greenish, yellow, or orange with lower concentrations of sugars. During this experiment, the sugar solution became a dark orange-red color, while mysterious X turned into a light yellow/beige coloring, the mysterious Y with a green color and the maltose resulted in a yellowish-green coloring. This advised that the sugars content in maltose, unidentified X and Y was low (less than 2%) in comparison to glucose ("Benedict's reagent, " 2014).

Specifically, the Benedict's solution examined for reducing sugar which consisted of an aldehyde group (presence of the CHO group). In the presence of reducing sugar, the copper (II) ions were reduced to copper (I) ions creating copper (I) oxide, a reddish-brown precipitate that was insoluble in drinking water. In this experiment, the blood sugar possessed accessible electrons for donation, that your blue copper (II) ions were happy to getting/accept to be reduced to reddish copper (II) ions. Once the blood sugar donated an electron, it became oxidized while the copper (II) was reduced. For this reason, glucose was considered to be a reducing sweets capable of initiating a chemical response with the copper sulfate in Benedict's solution. In the same way, maltose, a minimizing disaccharide, reacted with the benedict's solution when warmed to create a murky yellow precipitate. Maltose molecules have a linear open-chain framework which made them accessible to respond with the copper sulfate in Benedict's solution producing a dark yellowish color indicating a minimal concentration of sweets (Yool, 2014).

However, sucrose, also a disaccharide, didn't provide a positive test for sugars. This was because sucrose was not a reducing sugars. The bond between the two sugar which made up sucrose, fructose and blood sugar, was shaped in a specific way which inhibited the sucrose to isomerize to aldehyde form causing it to be a non-reducing sugar. The molecular framework of sucrose was not linear meaning that it was incapable of beginning; it was essentially trapped in its cyclical form. This averted the sucrose from donating electrons and reducing the copper (II) in Benedict's solution leading to no chemical effect, colour change, or development of precipitate ("Benedict's reagent, " 2014).

Biuret's reagent was used to test for the occurrence of proteins. The chemical response which occurred in the presence of protein led to a violet shade solution because of the peptide bonds which made-up health proteins. The biuret reagent included hydrated copper sulfate; the copper (II) ions formed coordination complexes as the solitary electron pairs of the four nitrogen atoms in peptide bonds surrounded a central atom which was the copper (II) ion. As the metal complex was produced, the wavelength of which light was soaked up improved to violet from clear blue indicating the presence of protein. Also, the greater the total amount the health proteins in a remedy, the more powerful the color change due to the fact there have been more peptide bonds present leading to long string peptides ("Biuret test, " 2014).

Sudan III was a red reagent that diagnosed the presence of lipids. This solution was insoluble in drinking water, however would dissolve in lipids. It could stain the present lipid an orange-red shade. In this test, only the unfamiliar Y solution presented a distinctive orangey colour on top of a yellow solution following the addition of the Sudan III reagent recommending the presence of lipid in this unknown solution. This demonstrated a clear separation of the lipid and drinking water portions of the answer considering that both did not mixture; lipid substances were nonpolar while drinking water molecules were polar. For this reason, the staining acquired only occurred at the very top layer of the solution ("Sudan iii, " 2014).

Carbohydrates were essential nutrients to leading a healthy diet. These were important energy source for the human body. However, they were not used straightaway anticipated to excess consumption; your body would store the glucose by means of glycogen in the muscles and liver. The body used the glycogen stored in the muscles while the brain obtained energy from the glycogen stored in the liver organ which could only support a restricted amount. Therefore, upon excess use of glucose, the sugars would be converted into fat that was stored in the fatty tissues. This might also simultaneously raise the sugar levels in blood which triggered the release of insulin to be able to maintain homeostasis. Insulin was a hormone secreted by the pancreas in to the bloodstream with the goal of lowering the sweets levels. An excellent level of insulin not only triggered your body to store the extra carbohydrates as fats but also inhibited the discharge of the stored fats. This intended that the stored excess fat lost its potential to be used as energy. Also, high degrees of insulin restrained the secretion of glucagon and hgh. Glucagon was a hormone secreted in the pancreas that initiated the break down of fat and glucose to boost the blood sugar. Growth hormone was in charge of muscle development. Finally, the excess consumption of carbohydrates which increased the blood sugar levels induced the secretion of extra insulin to be able to lower the sugar level at an instant rate. This brought on hunger due to the fact after a brief timeframe; the body's blood sugar levels would be lower than normal leading to the hungry sensation to convince the body to take more carbohydrates increase the sugar levels ("The relationship between, " 2008).

Cholesterol was a waxy, sterol, material found in most body muscle such as with blood vessels and the nerves. This chemical substance was made by the liver organ in the body and circulated through one's blood stream. Cholesterol may be within one's diet; foods with a great amount of saturated and trans fat such as beef and milk products contained it. The occurrence of high level of cholesterol in the body greatly increased the risk of many center diseases such as center episodes and strokes. This was because when there is an excess amount of cholesterol in the blood, it could accumulate in the interior wall surfaces of arteries which provided differing of your body the nutrition and oxygen had a need to function properly. Plaque was produced as the excess cholesterol and other chemicals such as excess fat and calcium caught up to the inner wall surfaces of the bloodstream vessel. This sticky compound would harden and reduce the circumferences and overall flexibility/elasticity of arteries. This health issue was known as atherosclerosis; the clotting of arteries due to the buildup of plaque restricting the flow of blood to several areas of the body such as the brain, the heart and soul, and other organs. Based on which of the numerous arteries in the body was blocked, there were several potential heart and soul diseases. If the plaques clot the coronary arteries which supplied the center with oxygen-rich bloodstream, heart attacks may occur and if there is a blockage in the carotid arteries which given blood to the mind, the reduced blood circulation to the brain may cause a stroke. Most of these center diseases were serious and even dangerous ("What is atherosclerosis?, " 2011).

Protein could be utilized as a power source for our body; however not the most efficient method. As protein was digested by the body, it was chemically broken down into amino acid solution subunits. Sugar and proteins were chemically similarly with the exception of the occurrence of nitrogen atoms in amino acids. In the absence of nitrogen, the proteins could be changed into glucose or fatty acids which provided energy for your body. Due to the additional steps of eliminating the nitrogen, proteins were a slower source of energy, but longer lasting compared to glucose and lipids. Furthermore, the utilization of protein as a power source could be harmful to the body due to the by-products developed from the break down of proteins. The nitrogen atoms contained in all proteins were converted into ammonia during amino acid solution catabolism. The substance ammonia was dangerous as it accumulated in the blood vessels causing the body to excrete it through urination. However, high degrees of ammonia would affect the liver and the kidneys. Also, the existence of a huge quantity of this compound was poisonous to the skin cells in the body (Cloe, 2012).

Errors:

During this experimental, a few mistakes had took place. The test tubes filled with the experimental samples were not washed properly for the next nutrient test. This resulted in absurd colour changes. Sometimes, not enough indicator solution was put into the samples. This may have damaged the resulting colours. Lastly, during the test for sugar, following the addition of the benedict's solution in to the samples, the alternatives were not warmed consistently for the same length of time. A few examples didn't obtain enough energy for a potential chemical substance reaction/ coloring change to occur.

Conclusion:

It was concluded that distilled drinking water functioned as the control in the experiment because of the absence of metals and minerals in the water which could possibility initiate unwanted reactions. The control was used to give a reference point source for the obtained results from the experimental examples in order for the changes to be valid. The iodine solution was used to check for the existence of starch. The substance reaction between the triiodine ions and starch substances triggered the colour change of the solution to deep blue/black. Starch was recognized in the amylose, unknown X and Y solutions. The benedict's solution was used to look for the presence of minimizing sugars. The chemical reaction between your copper sulfate in the benedict's solution and the sugar molecules induced a colour change in the samples. The sugar molecules reduced the copper (II) into copper (I) producing a reddish precipitate. With a lower concentration of sweets molecules, the samples changed greenish, yellowish or orangey. The presence of sugar was motivated in maltose, glucose, unidentified X and Y examples in this test. Biuret's reagent analyzed for the presence of necessary protein. The copper sulfate in the reagent created material complexes with the nitrogen atoms found in the peptide bonds of proteins. This led to a colour change of the samples to violet if health proteins was found. The Sudan III solution examined for the occurrence of lipid. Because the solution was insoluble in drinking water and soluble in lipids, the color change to orangey red was only found on the top coating of a few examples. The occurrence of lipid was driven in the undiscovered Y test.

Furthermore, excess absorption of carbohydrate increased the glucose level in bloodstream. This triggered the release of the hormone, insulin, with the motive of bringing down the sugar level to maintain internal balance. The release of this hormone by the pancreas triggered the extra sugars to be stored as fat. Also, the existence of a large amount of insulin brought on the frequent experience of hunger. This was because the insulin quickly reduced the sweets levels causing the body to want more sugars to raise the sugar levels to keep up homeostasis. High degrees of cholesterol in the blood led to the build up of plaque minimizing the blood circulation to various part of the body. This was a significant risk factor of heart and soul diseases such as center attacks and strokes. Last but not least, when your body used proteins as an energy source, there would be an increased degree of ammonia in the body considering that it was a by-product of the breakdown of proteins. The high level of this poisonous compound would harm the kidneys, the liver and other cells.

References:

Benedict's reagent. (2014). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Benedict's_reagent

Biuret test. (2014). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Biuret_test

Cloe, A. (2012). Why are proteins used as the last source of energy?. Retrieved from http://livewell. jillianmichaels. com/proteins-used-last-source-energy-5473. html

Iodine test for starch. (2012). Retrieved from http://brilliantbiologystudent. weebly. com/iodine-test-for-starch. html

Myers, G. (2013). How come distilled water a good control for technology assignments?. Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com/facts_7418493_distilled-good-control-science-projects_. html

Rodriguez, B. (2013). What's the goal of a control in an experiment?. Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com/info_8612333_purpose-control-experiment. html

Sudan iii. (2014). Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sudan_III

The relationship between sugars and insulin. (2008, July 02). Retrieved from http://www. naturaltherapypages. com. au/article/Insulin_Weight_Loss

What is atherosclerosis?. (2011, July 01). Retrieved from https://www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis/

Yool, B. (2014). The effect of benedict solution on glucose. Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com/about_6584528_effect-benedict-solution-glucose. html

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