Posted at 11.03.2018
How convincing is Hume's debate for the claim that reason is and ought and then be considered a slave to the passions?
David Hume's argument is formulated after the two types of reasoning: Firstly, relations of ideas, which pertain to a "world of ideas". This form of reasoning makes use of mathematical influences, due to the idea that mathematics lends itself to every aspect of "art and job; and secondly relations of things or logic, which humanity derive through experience or their understanding of how things within the earth connect to society. The first kind of reasoning (relations of ideas) has little affect upon initiating an action, whilst relationships of objects produce a feeling of either pain or pleasure from the thing we connect to, hence the consequent sentiment or passion compels one to know what object caused the feeling within them. This causes the feeling of "aversion or propensity" or whether we simply want it or if we repeal the thing. The process incurred is a way of reasoning. The impulse or passion is merely "directed by reason rather than caused by it. "
I buy into the affirmation " reason is and ought and then be considered a slave to the passions" It's been proven already that "impulse occurs not from reason, but is only directed by it. " (Hume 1978: 414). Reason cannot entirely cause any form of action or desire or prevent desire. Hence, we later ascertain that there is no force to impede or oppose the impulse of interest, unless a contrary impulse is founded. "Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions, and can't ever pretend to any other office than to provide and follow them. " (Ibid) Furthermore, "a interest can be an original existence", in other words enthusiasm has little bearing after other objects on the globe. Interest is can be evident through fury, health issues or one's mere thirst. It really is for such reasons that passion can't be contested or unlike truth or reason. This is attributed to the fact that the contradiction only arises due to the dissent between things and/or concepts/perceptions. If items have reference to truth or reason, only they are contrary thereof.
Hume is quite powerful in his views that a desire can only just be unwarranted if supplemented by way of a perception - such as an judgment or a common sense. Either a desire is based upon a perception that an object ceases to subsist in any from or on the other hand when one expresses a desire (within an action), yet the chosen method fails to satisfy the proposed desire or end result. Desires are by no means unlike reason other than the aforementioned. Therefore, the wants slightly "triumph" over reason without problem. Later, it is deduced that desires and beliefs neglect to counter each other when governing activities.
It is evident throughout the text that reasoning exclusively is insufficient to produce powerful feelings. Such feelings are referred to as "relaxed desires", as their impact is stronger as opposed to the experience. Often these quiet wishes/passions (which determine will), produce marginal feeling within someone and are thus determined by their results (as previously mentioned) rather than by the immediate discomfort. Moreover, such thoughts are divided into two possible types: impulses within one's characteristics, such as emotions of love and adoration, or alternatively an overall inclination to explore the source of goodness or depravity within mankind. Calm passions neglect to produce any turmoil within one's moral fibre and consequently are occasionally misconstrued as reason. With such rife misconceptions, the "direction-of-fit" was devised, to be able to distinguish between calm passions and reason. The direction-of-fit refers to when values are mind-to-world. Hence, the mind is 'manipulated' to fit the world, so that the opinion is correlated to the way the world functions. A desire however, is "world-to-mind", so basically the planet is constructed in a way that is satisfactory to how the brain functions and 'dreams' the planet to be.
Violent passions/emotions are sometimes comparable to quiet passions. Violent passions are directly experienced and subsequently cause a experience, such as an long lasting a personal injury from one's neighbour, which in turn causes one to desire 'revenge' or an identical misfortune upon the culprit. Hume states that "AFTER I am immediately threatened with any grievous sick, my concerns, apprehensions, and aversions climb to a great elevation, and create a sensible sentiment". (Hume 1978:418) "Strength of brain" advises the dominance of the peaceful passions above that of the violent passions, as a person craves passions and wants.
Desires are capable of motivating one's activities due to the fact that desires are personalized almost according to how we aspire the globe to match our needs. Regarding to Hume, reason has been proven as having no impact upon our passions and activities, despite the subject matter of morality. Morality is by popular thought designed to effect passions and activities, as moral humans generally make their life options and decisions based upon rules and moral rules. However, such options are not because of this of reason, as a sense of morality can either evoke or deter activities from being committed. Hume later deduces that reason cannot prohibit or incur any action from happening. Reason however, is the mere detection of "truth or falsehood". Hence, one's passions and desires are not at the mercy of truths and fallacies alike. Reason however, can affect one's behavior in two ways: either by galvanizing passions whereby is enlightened about the presence associated with an object or when the hyperlink between cause and result, allowing passions to be exercised.
Reason is incapable of compelling one to perpetrate an action or oppose the interest within us. This is because actions are "laudable" (admirable) or "blameable"; yet "can't be realistic or unreasonable". For these reasons, reason is the slave to the passions. As humans we need impressions of reflections to cause an action (as previously mentioned an "aversion or propensity" towards an object). The fervent desire within a human being is what urges someone to act and is actually propelled by an impulse or love (which we can not have control over and quite simply is an intrinsic reflex of our own emotions), and not by rigid decorum associated with logic and reasoning.