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Human Factors In The Aviation Industry

'Human factors' is one of the very most used terms in the aviation industry. It had been quoted in the Civil Aviation Specialist - Cover 715 that "aircraft accidents recorded from across the world brought the necessity to address human being factors issues in this environment into distinct focus6". Human factor can be quite referred to as a faults or mistake that is cause by way of a human behaviour. Additionally it is the largest causal factor of incidents and so, it must be targeted for major basic safety efforts if an improved safety records is usually to be achieved. From real human factor, the concept grew into a far more comprehensive system that really helps to improvise the aviation maintenance corporation working condition and such a new system are; safe practices culture and basic safety management system are being integrated in to organization.

Safety Management System

Safety Management is seen as a systematic execution of Risk management in the look, control and guidance along the way to ensure safe functions. Inside a publication by Civil Aviation Expert (CAA) on Security Management Systems for Commercial Air Transfer Operations, CAP-712 it identifies Security Management System as:

"'Protection Management' is thought as the systematic management of the potential risks associated with flight operations, related ground operations and aircraft anatomist or maintenance activities to achieve high levels of safety performance. " 5

"A 'Safe practices Management System' can be an explicit component of the organization management responsibility which models out a company's safety policy and identifies how it intends to manage safety as an integral part of its overall business. " 5

In short, safety management system is the techniques and arrangements place by an organization to manage the health and protection issues within an business and through such a method of utilizing a system to control those important function in the business; it can improve the performance of an organization and reduce the risks any damages.

In the aircraft maintenance industry, protection management takes on an important role of maintaining the satisfactory work output. Failing in this may cause a list of chain impact that may increase the likelihood of causing an plane accident. For this reason, the Civil Aviation Specialists publish manuals on regards to this matter and one of such is the Cover 712 which focuses specifically on the safe practices management of the aviation industry to minimize the probabilities any factors that causes risks.

A typical Basic safety Management Systems within aviation industry should be made up of 4 key components:7

Safety Insurance policy and Objectives; 7

An organization must have a safety insurance plan that outlines the techniques and processes that they will use to attain a positive end result. It will declare the guidelines and philosophies that place the foundation of the organization's basic safety culture and be communicated to all or any staff thorough the business.

Safety Risk Management; 7

Safety risk management process starts off with recognition of hazards impacting on the aviation industry and by examining the risk from the hazards in terms of its seriousness and similarity to previous cases. Once the risks are determined, only then can we make the appropriate implementation of remedial actions to reduce the amount of risk only possible.

Safety Guarantee; 7

Safety confidence assesses the safeness performance of the business and this will allow constant improvement to the organization. Through monitoring, dimension and critiquing the security of an organization, it is possible to create a protection assurance within the organization and allow a continuous improvement of the safety system.

Safety Campaign. 7

Promoting safety in an organization by means of training and educating employees will rather increase their safeness responsibilities. This is especially effective for functional staffs, managers, supervisors, senior professionals and the accountable manager being that they are the ones that are responsible for the main creation line of the company. Through training and persisted maintenance of competence, it'll provide an chance to reinforce the protection policy and establish the proper attitudes and behaviours for all those levels of staff in the organization.

Safety Culture

Safety culture can be defined as the product of individual and group beliefs, attitudes, competencies and patterns of behavior that determine their dedication to medical and protection issues. A business with a safeness culture is the one which prioritizes the safety and the value to control them to reduce risk. However, a safe practices culture is more than simply avoiding incidents or reducing the amount of mishaps, but an clear way of measuring success in increasing the safe practices of employees within the organization. In the plane maintenance industry, it is to do follow the right procedures when following a maintenance check or repairs.

Recognizing that incidents are avoidable through following the key to reaching that basic safety culture is at:

recognizing that incidents are preventable through following correct procedures and founded best practice;

constantly thinking safety; and

seeking ongoing improvement

It is however, rare that new types of damages that occurs and a lot of those common ones continue steadily to occur are normally due to the unsafe functions of employees, or technicians in these maintenance industry. These errors are usually the violation of good practice of establish rules. Those that make these problems are often alert to their foul actions but to trim a lengthy task short, they normally choose to take 'short-cuts' and this ultimately boost the risk of damages occurring.

The central of any Security Culture is a 'leadership' that is with the capacity of interacting with everyone in the business as a means of actions and setting a typical to the safety culture. Once everyone in the business can handle doing their job in a safe ways and vigilance of the hazardous environment of the maintenance firm, only then can they reach a fresh standard of safe practices driven through behaviour. At exactly the same time, as a head they must positively encourage and show regularly to encourage all employees to take part in order to accomplish a new level of safety.

A safe practices culture within an aircraft maintenance industry should consist of five elements2:

An up to date culture

In an informed culture the business should gathers and analyses relevant data, and positively disseminates safe practices information to upgrade on their security management system.

A reporting culture

Through cultivating an atmosphere where people have confidence to report security concerns without fear of blame. Employees got to know that confidentiality will be retained and that the info they post will be acted upon, otherwise they'll decide that there surely is no profit in their reporting

A learning culture

In a learning culture, the organization can study from its mistakes and make improvements. It will ensure that people understand the Security Management System processes at a personal level.

A just culture

A just culture, mistakes and unsafe acts will not be punished if the error was unintentional. However, for many who take action recklessly or take deliberate and unjustifiable dangers will still be subject to disciplinary action.

A adaptable culture

A versatile culture in the organization and the people in it are capable of adapting effectively to changing needs.

Safety Management System with Basic safety Culture

In a term, security culture lays the foundation of the basic safety management system which can be cared for as the lifeblood of a business. The basic safety culture can influences how well its people and structure work together therefore it can can determine how successful a business can be for the long-term and short term period at exactly the same time. Safeness culture in a maintenance organisation can be described as the way it performs and particularly in the manner it manages safety. Putting it simple, a basic safety culture influences all important thing that go on in an company.

In order for Basic safety Management System to accomplish its goals, the business must first have the ability to establish a basic safety culture within the working environment. From the main element components that composed the Basic safety Management System and Protection Culture, it is understandable that why without safety culture, a safeness management System will not be effective. The Safe practices culture elements refers to the work environments, such as prices, guidelines and understandings that impact the employees' perceptions and attitudes toward the value of a security of the organization. Alternatively, the Safe practices Management System is the plans made by the organization in order to promote a protection culture and achieve good protection performance.

Without a Safe practices Culture the industry will never be able to lessen the potential risks of accidents with just getting a Safeness Management System. It is the combine effects of the two 2 that induce a balance of risk management. The basic safety culture functions by providing the proper evaluation of risk confronted by the industry and employing this information, the Safety Management System can make layout to fortify the protection culture, for example, the attitude of employees when performing a task can be reinforce if they have beneficial claims if indeed they done the task with correct technique. Therefore, we can conclude that in order for a Protection Management System to determine in the aviation industry, a safe practices culture must coexist with Security Management System.

Reprimanding Engineer

Reprimanding an engineer is an activity where they are simply judge on their mistakes. However, the probability of that engineer making the same problems in the future is suprisingly low but if we are looking at a different type of mistakes, it is nearly impossible to state that by reprimanding an engineer can actually prevent them from making the flaws in the foreseeable future. Even if we reprimand the engineer who is at fault it is difficult to put the blame on him/her once we are well alert to individuals factors and other factors that plays a role in such situation. Therefore, even if we were to reprimand the designers for the problems, it is not entirely possible to state that they can not make other flaws in the future. The only way to answer fully the question is the type of problems which is either something that we can't control i. e. human factors, and those that are induced by poor management in the business. By learning from blunders, the management team will be able to adjust or improve the working culture so the same mistakes will not every happen again in the business.

The few aspects compared to that place the engineer ready where he or she is at fault of the faults but the simple fact reveals that they are not entirely responsible. They are:

Working Environment


Maintenance Team

Working Environment:

In the maintenance section of aviation industry, with the ever before changing working environment it is hard for technical engineers to cope with it. The maintenance team will have plane going in and out of the hangar every day and it ought to be able to accommodate the precise type and number of aircraft in the base to handle the maintenance. When the engineer have been employed in a tight space area there are bound to have real human errors mistakes occurring in the maintenance basic.

When we talk about working environment, it also contains the environmental issues such as temps, lighting, noise and tools. In different countries the working temp can play a role in causing individuals errors which is can be avoided by having proper ventilation in the working environment. Light on the other side performs an important role because a working environment with poor light can also promote poor working environment and expose technical engineers to make flaws. Noises levels should be manipulated to the stage where it will not distract engineer when undertaking tasks such as inspection if it's not practical to control the noises source, technicians should be provided with the proper products to avoid the excessive sound that cause distraction.

Working environment also includes the various types of tools that are being used for specific responsibilities. If the maintenance need to handle a task that will require tools that the maintenance team are not well prepared with, designers might be forced in a situation where they need to improvise to complete the job such as using non-compatible tools to execute a job.


An increased workload can also be considered to be associated as the cause of the errors. Workload can affect engineers' emotional and physical performance. With increased workload, the quantity of stress that builds up slowly can ultimately cause an unwanted problem to occur. That is a common problem that may be within most aviation maintenance industry as designers are constantly asked to perform an activity within a particular timeframe. If for reasons uknown they are unable to accomplish the task with time, their stress level will go up to a point where they could complete the task without proper inspection of being done properly. Therefore, engineers aren't the only real reason that will link those to making errors but originated from the maintenance department that schedule the quantity of work that should be done.

Maintenance Team

In the aviation maintenance industry, it is common to realize that technicians work in a team with a handful of technicians or other engineers to accomplish a certain job. However, it is impossible to guage who's at fault when a problem looks in the duty that they performed. As a team, it isn't justify adding the blame on 1 engineer that does the duty as a team whether it be the correct way or not. The problems should be raise up against the complete team in order to maintain a balance in the working culture so that everyone in the maintenance division are well alert to such a difficulty and you will be more vigilance. After such an occurrence, the management team can setup a system that require all team members to examine that the task is done effectively and without any problems and reducing the probability of repeating the same faults in the future.

From the unintentional reason behind mistakes, we now move on to discuss on the violation of aircraft maintenance practice. Although most designers stern from a genuine desire to execute a proper job but there are always some that chooses to be the peculiar ones and made a decision to violate the techniques intentionally and cause as a danger to the aviation maintenance. A couple of 4 types of violation which is often classified:

Routine Violation

Routine violations is when engineers believe that types of procedures may be over prescriptive and determined they can be violated to simplify a task or commonly known by us as 'trimming corners', to save time and attempts.

Situational Violations

Situational violation only occurs credited to time pressure, high workload, unworkable strategies, limited tooling, and poor working conditions. So to be able to get the job done, engineers consider a procedure cannot be used completely and again skipped the entire procedure.

Optimizing Violations

Optimizing violations entail breaking the guidelines for 'kicks' or pleasure. They are often quite unrelated to the real task. The person just uses the opportunity to show that he is very skilled in doing specific job.

Exceptional Violations

Exceptional Violations are when technicians have no other choices to carry on with an activity without violating a few rules. Even if the engineers have no unwell objective of violating any method but circumstances persists.

When an error occurs in the maintenance department, the engineer who previously done the aircraft is usually consider to be 'at mistake' and may be reprimanded and requires to go through some remedial training or just told not to make the same error again. However, by blaming the engineer who is at fault might not be considered a positive means of sending message over the maintenance team since other designers may be discourage to 'come clean' about their flaws and hide their mistakes. Ultimately, through reprimand it refuse a security culture to effectively build in the maintenance division. Without a safe practices culture, the engineer will never be aware of the other mistakes and subsequently that engineer will make another mistake.

All in all, it is not possible that the engineer will avoid making flaws since there is always a individual limit. So, in order to lessen or prevent problems, the maintenance organization needs to compromise between implementing solution to avoid or reduce errors and making money. Perhaps the main of all is to accomplish a level of management where engineers have no method of intentionally violates the proper procedure to perform tasks.


In conclusion, human being factor is one of the most common factors that cause mistake or injuries in the aviation maintenance industry. To be able to prevent or reduce this risk, firm integrated many new types of safety system and culture to counter this problem. Human factor forces people to make errors and mistakes causes accident, be it a serious or slight ones however the final result will be organization not making any earnings. Having having said that, since it's not possible to avoid individual factors in the aviation industry, designers making a flaws unintentionally can help the maintenance business to learn from such an occurrence and use new system so that they can reduce or prevent such faults from occurring again in the future.

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