Posted at 10.01.2018
The designs that come in HCI targets in producing interactive products that are that provider pleasurable experience to work with. Due to the multi dimensional approach to HCI and varying systems of interface it's very problematic for developers that are user friendly as well as cheap. In this modern era there is an increase in the quantity of folks who complain about HCI. These complain causes due to poor design of system or by ignorance of the logics of HCI design. This research tries to develop an understanding about the HCI challenges while designing applications in hardware and software of mobile phones/devices. In addition, it tries to comprehend methods of developing mobile interfaces that provides convenience to users and identifies improvisations to the down sides in interaction designing for the same.
The analysing and knowledge of working between people and electronic devises like computers are referred to as human computer interaction (HCI). The user who is involved performs the primary interaction. The main problem faced by companies or people related to HCI is went it comes to the design of such computing devises for use. As a result of this it forms the necessity and necessity of HCI developers to make systems more easily usable and easily adaptable to consumer needs. Therefore in order to provide best answer to this problem the developers or designers of HCI has to reduce the distance between human's cognitive model of what consumers want to achieve, and the computers ability in analysing the users needs and tasks.
The contact between consumers and systems occurs at the users interface or edge which includes software and hardware. Interaction design refers to the design and development of interactive products to assists and allows people in making their life easier. As HICI involves mutual linked use between human and machine which each other the look of user interface should have the ability to understand and perform task based on the human side and the machine sight. One side of the information concept comprises of details like graphical requirements communication theory and knowledge of mental psychology etc are required. On the other hand it demands from the designers side to build up computer related techniques like based on programming languages, operating systems etc.
Along with the changing times cell phones have grown to be an important in human's life. They are being used in every spears of life. Every field like communication related service, military equipments and education etc. Because of multiple nature of HCI the job of designer who designs interfaces for the same raises tough challenges. These are both relating to hardware and relating to software.
HCI is now highly complex because of the dynamic changing digital technology and digital media. Accordingly to keep up with the changing trend the users of the products can keep on studying the several operating interfaces, the programming language that is use. Nowadays we can observe a large number of folks who keep complaining about the indegent design in the interaction design. Is this problem actually caused due to the poor design HCI products or because of the lack of understanding of users about the basic logic of the same. Most the merchandise demands the users to involve with them to get their work done are not developed/ design remember the user's convenience and priority. However majority of the changing times the designer always says that their products are user-friendly and usable; the basic fact lies that the interface should allow the user to function his/ her tasks fully. Or it could be said that the design of HCI must be user concentrated design. Most the people nowadays depends mobile computing devises like PDA's, Palm top, mobile phones.
The common problems on all these are they make an effort to give solutions to highly complicated and powerful services with the aid of really small interfaces. The common problems on each one of these cases are compressed screen sizes that make the projects of information difficult. This also limits their navigation options. As the current mobile devices market insists on developing mobile phones with multiple functionalities there's a urgent need of merging computing electronics and communication in the mobile sector. Yet another significant problem the operation of the devices on chemical cells or batteries. Therefore dealing with the perfect solution is of battery consumption is also a major problem for HCI designers.
Hens, in this advance world of ever changing technology it is a vitality to provide efficient mobile products to consumers. For the same designers, users, technical assistance must corporate hand in hand to generate success. Therefore this research tries to comprehend the difficulties encounter while designing HCI, suggest solution in creating a user-friendly design, understanding principle user interface design, and study the current trend in this industry.
This identifies pocket size computing devices having small screen with small input device like keypad or touch screen. Example of the unit include electronic devices like PDA, laptops, palm tops, game boy, Nintendo, Advance digital and still cameras, audio recorders and communication devices like wireless pagers etc.
PDA Laptop Palm top
GameBoy Digital still camera Audio Recorder
PDA's are been excessively used in area where large level of data is to be collected. For example it with the aid of PDA's that orders are taken in modern day restaurants by the waiters, waitress. PDA's are also been used in areas like hospitals to accumulate information and diagonals data about a particular patient. Discussing cellular devices it has turned into a important part in universities and schools for the process of mobile learning. Mobile learning is the utilization of mobile device for learning while the user is on move. M learning also offers more advantage comparing with e learning. Another common system used in schools includes scientific calculators, translators, and electronic dictionaries.
Yet another use of the cellular devices are in the sector of entertainment where in it is utilized for gaming, hearing music and watching movies on the road.
GPS system is another exemplory case of HCI devices. This is used pin point a particular geographical point on the planet by using co- ordinates.
Due to the constrain of weight, size for mobility the interface design for mobile device posses more of hardware challenge than software challenge. These challenges are challenges like limited input facility, limited output facility and mobility.
There are 3 main inputs in current mobile device. They may be:-
Via Stylus on the touch screens
The keyboard allows the person to enter input via hitting keys or in moving in one area to the other on the screen. The stylus assists with inputting data by using an impression on the touchscreen by the user. The scroll wheel can be rotated or moved to go across pages or in one page to another. Developing a keyboard on a mobile device is a difficult task because there is merely limited space. Though past researchers has shown that the size doesn't matter. They discovered that making keyboard small did not raise the error rates. However future research has proven that using such keyboards are difficult for individuals who've fat fingers.
Researches in modern days are suffering from possible solutions just like a unique keyboard stick that suits over a four row of stranded qwerty onto the base row to over come the physical space constraint. But a immediate reduction in range of keys to obtain portability reduces text entry probability and demands extra effort to study new approach to inputting data. Another method was also developed using new keyboard minimisation method which suggested in reducing key pitch to lessen this problem and also have formulated a single key keyboard that delivers priority to input, acceptance, performance, usability.
Many of the cellular devices utilize touchscreen and stylus facilities. In some instances they are even used to replace keyboards. The issue that are from the same are it becomes difficult to operate if the screen of the mobile device is too small. They are having numerous investigations to develop a remedy for the same. For instance one of the solutions that was suggested was to permit the user control this application by pressing to an additional button put behind these devices.
The scroll wheel generally used as a solution to the limitations of stylus and keyboard. This is efficient because it may be used to navigate as well as function as a push button.
Talking about the output the screen is the main and major limitation. Hence proper measure should be taken during the design of the screen of the device to ensure that the screen is efficient and effective. The audio tracks output is another challenge. This has are more important in the multi model user interfaces. By using real-time signal processing sound feedback is becoming efficient and effective. Sound files also add to the user experience.
A major challenge for the computing device is the design for the portability. Subsequently the power facility becomes the difficult task. Research shows that power consumed by an application is directly proportional to the level requested by the application form. A power management middle where was suggested, this not only save energy but also optimises energy conservation for other device like keyboard and memory.
Researchers have found through studies that using a menu in desktop of the application form will seem helpful to consumers as it can help experience user to find what they need in a convenient manner. But copying a successful design for some desktop and simply incorporating it to a mobile device without understanding the translation input, output can result in various issues like in effective interaction caused due to the design. Systems of arranged pattern of menus are hence practice alternatively. Having a sequential menu a specific individual can access one main menu that causes future sub menus till the person reaches his/her desired function.
There have been a lot of researches to review the layout and design of hierarchical menu in mobile device that was targeted to understand an optimal solution to arrange information in consecutive and user-friendly pattern. In future studies conducted it was observed that smooth interaction which such menu system can be obtained only with numerous menu items on the root menu and the end menu, and little options at the center levels. However a later study showed that the most effective hierarchy for use with mobile devices was the one with approximately four to seven items on every level.
This is also a problem in cellular devices in conditions of navigation and subsequent browsing as a result of limitation of the screen sizes of the devices. According for some particular researchers to project data's on screen that is suited to large screens the information data must be split into smaller units those are often presentable as well as understandable and also fits into the screen of the cellular devices. This helps it be increasingly difficult to effectively arrange information and allow and ensure smooth navigation for consumers to help them move from one segment to other. Hence a fresh interface methodology called "Roller" originated that helped in alleviating the actual screen limitation in a interface design.
Yet another study conducted by another set of researchers helped in presenting a definite interface design for HCI devices that would address major user points with menu system and page scrolling. With the help of someone to five wheel and arrange in a mixture lock style on a single screen this design enable users to take pleasure from a number of self satisfying content and never have to scroll or select a menu. The researchers said that the testing of this particular system in china proved the model to be very efficient, effective and desirable. In spite of the verifying navigation paradigms and verifying expectations in each this country.
Icons and image associated are considered to be very important kind of data and visual projects of the info on screen. In case of cellular devices it continues to be limited when compare to other non portable devices especially with concerned to the projection of geographical data like diagram, maps and logos. Hence downsizing and down scaling images from bigger screen of non portable device to small screen of lightweight device is not that can be ignored.
Studies have analysed that mobile device lack from option of resources because of the limited size and application. Particularly if geographical data has to be presented. Future researchers have found
out particular guideline to the display of geographical content projected by roster and vector graphic sound cellular devices to permit resource saving.
This research was conducted to analyse HCI challenges in the look of application in both hardware and software sections of cellular devices. Because mobile devices are widely been used by a broad number of folks in day to day life the interface designers of HCI are expected to handle extremely high challenges in creating such devices. The main design challenge is approximately making the unit easily usable as well as affordable to a varying group of folks from varying backgrounds. Mobility is also a primary factor of the look that should be kept in mind by designers. Hence miniaturization of hardware related parts is likely to be the trend in future HCI cellular devices. For example majority of the cellular devices are small sized computing devices therefore they must have a display screen, keyboard/touch input. This is expected that desktop and laptops will be replaced by palm tops to meet the advancing need of individuals.
Due to the need for mobility cellular devices have limited screen size. Therefore a design supporting both mobility and portability is crucial challenge for HCI designers. Present day mobile devices have a common problem which attempting to provide users usage of a varying selection of computing service and resources through small interfaces that contain tiny screens and limited input, output, sound interactions.
Owing to the task of size and weight of the devices compare to other device like desktop, the design for these rises more hardware challenges. Small screen size makes information projection extremely difficult especially in case where large display should be projected because these have to put into small units to suite these devices. To match this problem a 3d interface that can present linear and consecutive data is an alternative. Hence specialized keypad and stylus are becoming an integral part of the unit.
In case of software's designers will find even more complicated to create mobile interface software's. The significant problem here is limiting the users interaction with the interactive system to understand and serve the user's needs and wants. To build up a user friendly and useful systems the designer should work hand in hand with technicians and must always watch out to the needs of individuals who use interactive products. They need to also understand about the area of use of this product. To summarise there are three major things in interaction design process.
They are concentrating on an individual, usability conditions and iteration. No designer can avoid thinking of the true users of HCI systems but due to the several needs and wants of differing people it is very challenging to create those varieties of products which reduce the barrier between human cognitive model and designers understanding about what the users want.