Posted at 10.28.2018
"Lecturing is not simply a matter of standing before lots people and reciting what you understand. A lecture is a particular form of communication where voice, gesture, movement, facial expression, and eyesight contact can either match or detract from this content". 1
A lecture prep may initially appear to be always a simple task, nevertheless, you that it needs a long process of study and comprehension of the subject as well as a careful and well-organised preparation. Otherwise stated, a lecture prep requires the power of the presenter to accumulate specific materials and key points, put them into a concise words and symbolize them obviously and accurately, using the available supports front of any audience of any specialised track record or not within a limited time frame. It also requires a combination of an intensive knowledge and an comprehensive experience on the subject to be offered as well as a strict request of basic steps that will lead to the successful delivery of the lecture.
Making a first-rate display not only opens doors to many career opportunities and improves the self-esteem, 5 but can also influence the values, thoughts and ideas as well as broaden the knowledge of the participants in the area of their field of expertise. Given that presenting well, especially at medical conferences is important in growing one's career, 11 it becomes clear the providing a technological lecture isn't just a demanding but also a challenging activity.
The presentation of the lecture consists of three phases: 1) the receipt of the invitation, 2) the popularity of the invitation and 3) the actual delivery of the lecture. The person who is directly involved with all the above-mention phases is the lecturer. Initially, the lecturer should automatically remember to read carefully the invitation to provide a lecture and consider all the relevant factors such as the subject of the lecture, the reason why of his invitation, the day, place and time of the lecture, the sponsors and his travel, accommodation and dishes in cases where the lecture will take put in place another town or country. If the lecturer accept the invitation a long process of preparation is launched and you will be clearly examined in the next pages.
The present essay will provide an in depth analysis about how a lecture should be properly well prepared and delivered. The two basic phases of a lecture (the before-lecture phase and the during-lecture stage) will be evidently explained, by talking about what should be studied under consideration and avoided both before and during a lecture. All of the afore-mentioned will be reinforced by a series of illustrations thereupon provided.
To commence with, the planning of the lecture has two main stages, particularly the before-lecture phase and the during-lecture period. Both phases are interdependent and a great emphasis should therefore be thereon laid.
As the Greek proverb goes, "the beginning is the fifty percent of all things". The before-lecture stage is indeed the beginning of any lecture preparation on which the success of the lecture to be offered is based to a great degree. It is well-known that about 80% of the effort comes before the presentation. You see, the talk comprises only 20%. 7 If the prep is meticulously ready, then a superb presentation will be achieved. The before-lecture period comprises exactly what must be taken into account prior to the delivery of the lecture. That is to say there is a quantity of key factors, particularly the where, how, who and what factors, that are of vital importance for the presenter to learn.
First and foremost, where the lecture will be supplied performs an important role for a successful lecture preparation. The presenter should get up to date in advanced about where the lecture will be delivered in order to get ready himself in terms of tickets, accommodation and transportation means in instances the lecture will take place internationally. If the lecture happen in the speaker's home country, then he should familiarize himself with the positioning and its environment. In other words, the speaker should go to the place if possible. Therefore, he will estimate the quantity of men and women who are likely to show up at the lecture and get up to date about the projection equipment available, the lightning and the podium elevation. 2 The loudspeaker has also the right to order any extra equipment he may need for the lecture purposes, check if the available ones work properly, or learn how to operate the lightning and the audio system of the area.
Once the area of the lecture is described, it is significant to identify just how of the lecture demonstration in conditions of the language used based on the audience track record, the materials to be accumulated in line with the subject and the "take home messages" according to the scope. He should also identify the visible aids to be used and create a written version of the discussion in order to practice before the actual delivery.
A vocabulary is something of signs or symptoms (indices, icons, icons) for encoding and decoding information and the ability to use speech started in distant prehistoric times. 10 It is clear thus, that having the ability to exhibit in words everything that exists in mind as well as to convey effectively the intended communication to a number of people near you indicates the great gift of understanding a language. The audio speakers of international lectures could be characterised as ethnic mediators, since through their way of communicating they constitute a bridge that connects people of different scientific backgrounds, cultures & most likely of different languages. Considering that most international medical or methodical conferences are performed in English, 6 all lecturers are required to have a efficient understanding of the English vocabulary, be able to state and explain clearly the essential factors of the lecture also to carry out easily a conversation on subjects of any specialised area, such as drugs, technology, computer technology etc. The challenge is to keep short written materials to be able to expand verbally beyond what is written, to change the word order, to add more interesting points, good examples or clarifications. 6 The verbal expression can help the non-native British speakers to understand this is both in writing and orally and the local English speakers to stay engaged by the excess dental information. 6 The noisy speaking should be prevented since it generally does not improve the non-native English audio speakers' comprehension. On the contrary loud speaking is likely to provoke tiredness and frustration to the audience, resulting to their being absent-minded. At this point, it should be stressed that common terms or words found in the specific website of expertise would become more preferable to be able to ensure an improved and much more to-the-point understanding. The loudspeaker should carefully opt for the words to be used by taking into consideration the audience's domain of specialty area as well as its social history. He should avoid idioms, contractions or metaphors in order to help the comprehension of both non-native and indigenous English speaker systems. Finally, you need to remember that the easy spoken expression remains a cornerstone of communication. 4 The success of those located at the podium will depend on what they state and how they state it. 4 Verbal skills are therefore of essential importance for a competent lecturer.
Assessing the right amount of materials is one of the higher challenges. 4 What facilitates the materials collection is always the recognition and full knowledge of the lecture's opportunity. The lecturer shouldn't only have a professional knowledge about the subject to be shown, but also be able to decide on the key items and present them effectively in order to attain the goal of the lecture. Moreover, in line with the time designed for the lecture the presenter should determine the "collect key points" of the presentation5 and collect them in a concise form of demonstration. The time allocated for the lecture will therefore help him determine the right amount of materials to be included. Once the speaker has assessed the right amount of material, he should start creating illustrations in the form of slides, which no more than 25-30 should be included in a 45-tiny lecture. 4 Furthermore, the loudspeaker should prepare some material that can take 10% less time than the allocated4, to be able to manage to summarize the presentation on time, by taking always under consideration the time necessary for questions, answers, further clarifications and the conclusion. Finally, it should be stressed that knowing the materials well and having sufficient material gives the lecturer self-assurance and versatility at the podium. 5
A presentation is obviously more stunning and comprehensible when recognized by visual supports. Visual helps can succeed in maintaining the interest, but only when they are used in view. 3 There are various kinds of visual supports such as maps, graphs, charts, photos, pictures, posters etc. The mostly used visual aids for lectures, and much more precisely for the clinical lectures are the slides. Getting ready slides needs both a technological and an imaginative approach. 7 In other words, a combination of a scientific knowledge of the subject and an artistic taste on how to present and express the intended concept better is required. The usage of slides in a display is well known and has many advantages indeed. Firstly, slides help the audience to focus, save the initiatives and time spent on explanation and improve performance of the meaning. 7 Secondly, they are considered to be quality aesthetic helps for presentations with amounts, results or new concepts. 7 Finally, they can serve the speaker's records for important things and they can be useful in pacing the talk. 7 Each glide may be altered in line with the knowledge of the target audience or adapted to the allocated time. For example, the loudspeaker may erase some less importance words or phrases, or highlight key terms. The slides are used to bolster the have a discussion7, due to the fact the audience may browse the slides while the speaker talks without interrupting him.
A step of progress, good-looking slides should be referred to as appropriate, exact, legible, comprehensible, well-executed, interesting and most importantly memorable. 7 Normally stated, there should be reasonable for using and displaying each slide, so that they work for the precise subject of your lecture. The slides should be very carefully and cleverly chosen and really should include exact information and spellings, including brands of individuals, organizations, establishments etc. , where regarded necessary. Moreover, they must be legible to avoid the eye tiredness of the participants. For example, it is more preferable to use a 18-point font for the slide text and the very least font size of 36-items for the titles on each glide. 7 It could also be better to use a simple font such as Arial, Tahoma, Zurich or Times New Roman, rather than a expensive calligraphic font that avoids the easy reading of the phrases. In general, there should be only seven lines of materials per slide, including the subject and subtitle. The average person lines should be no more than seven words wide. Upper and lower case letters are usually more more suitable than capitals. 8 Also, due to the fact a first-rate presentation is an efficient mixture of verbal and aesthetic elements, it is good to learn that the use of illustrations help to explain concepts that cannot be verbalized. 7 Any illustrations to be used are likely to keep up with the audience attentive as well concerning clarify, restate, make clear and interpret 7 all the top points or principles of the lecture. However, it ought to be underlined that, based on the rules, in case a slide can't be realized by the audience in four moments, the glide is bad. 9
Should the speaker choose charts and graphs in its demonstration he should carefully opt for the right ones, aiming to make the audience to soak up the point at a glance. 7 For example, the horizontal bar chart can be utilized for contrasting items at one point in time, while for checking parts of a complete, a pie chart is appropriate. 7 The charts should be made easy to read. For this function, colorings, shading or arrows could be used to be able to highlight the main element words or concepts. The most important words could become greater or the main data lines darker. 7 So far as the illustrations are concerned, it should also be described that furniture are also effective if percentages are being used for comparability. 8 It should be stressed that crowding a great deal of words, conditions or concepts in small bins or places should be prevented, to be able to facilitate the clear view of what is written in a slide. Should the presenter decide to use photos, he should carefully opt for those who will neither provoke any disgusts to the audience nor violate anyone's right of privateness. Otherwise mentioned, should a picture illustrate a personal injury, it might be preferable to choose for an illustration rather than a picture taken in a genuine life accident. Also, should a image demonstrate a related person but it is considered useful to be contained in the lecture, it might be ethically proper to acquire that person's consent before utilizing it.
All the above-mentioned should be included in a well-organised glide layout in order to provide a successful presentation. In other words, the first glide should show the subject, the presenter's name and the presenter's organization. This should be followed by an introductory glide which will be followed by the key contents. The final slide should be the summary or the conclusion, with the recommendations and the acknowledgments. Each slide should be self-explanatory and also have a title. 7
It is important for the speaker to learn in advance the exact content and purpose of each slide and be able to explain it in his own words, without uncertainties and ambiguities. The experience and thorough knowledge on the presented subject escalates the speaker's self-confidence, prepares him for possible questions on the slides included in the presentation and enables him to answer obviously, accurately and also to the point. Finally, it would be helpful to provide a duplicate of the demonstration and deliver it to the audience prior to starting the lecture.
Writing down the talk to be supplied shows the professionalism and indulgence of the lecturer and is also a step that should never be overlooked. The writing-down treatment has several benefits for the speaker and ensures a successful delivery of the lecture. It can help the loudspeaker not and then clarify what will be offered, but also to see clearly the sequence of the things to be brought up. This will likely lead to the recognition of any gasps in logic or content. 5 One of the best strategies of writing a lecture is to start out with the "whole word" and then highlight or underline the primary points, prior to going on to the short version. 4 A perfect writing of any lecture should conclude with a "catchword manuscript"4, in the form of cards. The credit cards could contain words, ideas and phrases to steer the lecturer. At this point, it ought to be stressed that the speaker should use the same words in writing as he found in the slides, 8 in order never to be baffled with the precise purpose of each glide. However, notes should not be read but memorized only. 5
The speaker's being familiar with the subject is the ultimate way to avoid nervousness when at the platform. 3 The written form of the lecture should not be taken up to the podium, however some relevant important notes would be of vital importance for the speaker. For instance, it might be helpful for the speaker to attempt to invent some methods that will probably accomplish the delivery of the lecture. He could focus on specific terms, to be able to remember to mention and make clear them during presentation or write at the bottom of each greeting card the key phrase "next slip please" to be able to remember that we now have more slides to come.
What is more, a presenter should never ignore that practice and even more practice is really the only ticket for a superb presentation. Preparation and practice can help the lecturer arrange his conversation in line with the time that is allotted. All sound system shoud retain in mind which it always takes much longer to present that which they have got written than they think. 13 It will also be pressured that heading beyond the assigned time shows the speaker's poor planning which is usually interpreted as arrogance. 13 The lecture practice could be in front of an reflection, a colleague or a family group and is remarkably helpful for the speaker's personal progress. The speaker should pay attention to the pitch of the tone, the acceleration of delivery and the respiration. 5 It should also be highlighted that rehearsing always improves the speaker's confidence, despite the fact that everyone is always anxious before walking to the podium. However, the most crucial thing is that when the loudspeaker is properly ready everything will be under control and he'll manage to take care of the strain in the 1st minutes.
Finally, it is worth mentioning that recording the speech helps the lecturer to convert the display in a manuscript for publication purposes, reality is of essential importance for him and his career. 5 A suggestion for setting up the manuscript is to incorporate the audience's feedback and queries in order to enhance the meaning. 5
Following the very lengthy process of careful consideration on the place and the methods of the lecture delivery, the time comes to think about the persons who are going to be present at the lecture. The presenter ought to know its market and consider its needs both before and during a lecture. Otherwise explained, the audience's hobbies, background and skills will shape a powerful presentation. 2 In general, the quantity of the complex details, the types of samples and the major goals of any lecture vary matching to each audience. 2 The broader the audience is, a lot more qualifications information must be included and a lot more results must be described along the way. 4 Moreover, a lecture responding to experts of the speaker's field can include a lot more results and deductions and promote further research on the subject. 4
On the first side, using specific medical terminology before an audience that comprises doctors and specialists of the speaker's website is probable not and then pull their attention but also to enhance the intended concept. Alternatively, using the same specialised terminology before listeners with little record will probably provoke confusions, misunderstandings and their indifference about the topic. It is generally known that listeners are more comfortable when the presented material is so simply and clearly delivered that they can follow all parts of a lecture. 4 Last but not least, the particular lecturers should always remember is that in lecturing it is almost impossible to underestimate the audience. As a rule the audience should always be overestimated. 4
Being aware of the sort of lecture to be given is of essential importance for the lecture preparation. The speaker should always be educated from the very beginning whether it'll be a university or college course lecture, a conversation at an assessment workshop or a display of his own work at an international meeting, considering that the sort of the lecture dictates just how one assembles it. 4 What is more, the loudspeaker should identify and flawlessly understand the opportunity and reason for the lecture to be shipped, in order to clarify the materials to add and the items to stress during the lecture. Maybe it's underlined that usually, a university or college course lecture or a seminar talk requires few of the lecturer's own data, whereas a demonstration at a gathering with specialists often comprises the lecturer's results, set in the point of view of a research sector. 4
As mentioned before the actual converse includes the 20% of the whole preparation. At this time, its about time for everyone theoretical aspects which have been researched and considered to be apply. During the have a discussion, the loudspeaker must be completely concentrated and think various things of essential importance at the same time. The primary steps towards an effective delivery of the lecture will be examined in the next pages.
First and most important, it is clear that a competent and professional lecturer should confirm that he has all necessary equipment before living, like the slides, notes and the copies of the display, his business credit cards and a watch. The slides and records would be the supporting materials during the lecture and the copies will be allocated to the audience in order to really have the key points already indicated, gaining thus more time for listening than for writing. As far as the business cards are concerned, they are likely to be used at the very first conferences of the lecturer with new colleagues, since they include the lecturer's contact details. Finally a watch is undoubtedly useful for maintaining enough time that passes so quickly without knowing it. Quite simply, a watch will remind the lecturer about the hour, in terms of the lecture's start time, the break's time or whether he will have to speed up in order to complete the speech promptly. It would also be suggested for the lecturer to truly have a light meal prior to the lecture to be able never to feel sleepy and fatigued.
When attained the area of the lecture, the speaker should firstly check out the room. 8 He should ensure if the visual products function properly, quite simply to check out the microphones and the projector. He also needs to determine how to get to the podium and check the podium's elevation so that he audience can see him. 5 Then he should download his slides in to the carousel8 most preferably by himself, minus the help of the projectionist. However, if a projectionist will be operating the slides, the lecturer should present himself and answer any inquiries. 5 He should also check that the slides are right aspect up and in the right order. 8
The lecturer also needs to expect to be a little nervous. 8 Any signs or symptoms of stress, such as perspiration, tachycardia or thirst shouldn't worry him, since they are totally normal through the minutes before a lecture. However, he should make an effort to stay quiet and focused in his opportunity. It might be recommended to work with the restroom during the time preceding the talk and avoid enjoying alcoholic beverages and large levels of liquids. The only think that the lecturer should think of, would be that the lecture to be delivered is significant for his future profession and though that he will manage to verify what he is able for.
First of all, the presenter should consider that the oral communication performs an important part in the exchange of methodical information. The main purpose of a congress-oral discourse between participants may be accomplished only when a contribution is heard and grasped. 3 Travelling all around the world in order to wait a workshop or take part in a seminar as a lecturer is usual for many scientists, such as doctors, College or university professors etc. plus they should all feel duty-bound to be interesting, interesting and concise. 3 Therefore, it is clear that the lecturer should be well alert to what he is committed to do and consider the next significant factors.
First and foremost, the speaker should always remember that once he is at the podium, he's not only a researcher, clinician or administrator; he's a teacher. 6 He should retain in mind that the audience has come for him, holding out to glean new information and broaden its knowledge, which will do for him to be determined and do his best. It would be polite enough to expose himself and his topic, being smiling and peaceful and let the audience know that he is thankful to be there. After three profound breaths the lecture may start and the only thing still left for the speaker is to take pleasure from it!
The introduction of your lecture is probably the most important part of any lecture. 4 The starting words of an conversation must be simple, easily known and carefully slanted into the interests of the audience. 3 During the introduction, the presenter should firstly explain the goals of the lecture, point out the major responsibilities he wishes to satisfy and briefly clarify how the latter will be completed. 2 Regarding to an over-all rule, no more than three major goals should be carried out within a presentation. 2 Additionally, the presenter should describe why the lecture is important to his audience, by sketching from specific instances within their history, to be able to persuade them to pay attention seriously to him. 2 The main goal while chatting is to activate the audience, show the collected material and keep everyone awake. 6 There are several methods to achieve a successful introduction. Such methods are the following:
Opening with a narration may arouse the interest of the participants, considering that individuals like hearing reports. 3
Opening with a quotation can be effective if the one chosen is relevant to the speech and details toward a primary assertion of the speaker's goal. 3
Opening with a rhetorical question will middle the attention on the purpose of the analysis and make the audience think about the key subject. 3
Opening with a poor statement will improve the "suspense"3 and make the audience inclined to see what comes next.
Opening with an evaluation or compare makes a neat opening3 and motivates the audience to believe.
Opening with a descriptive statement3 helps the audience get an exact idea of what will be described.
Moreover, if the presenter is aware of the prominent interest of his audience, he could utilize it to establish a knowledge with them. 3
Finally, starting with a funny account3, where regarded necessary usually establishes an agreeable relation between the loudspeaker and his audience and releases the tension.
The afore-mentioned methods may be used according to each lecturer's personal way of conducting a conversation as well as to his personality.
Once the purpose has clearly stated, it is pretty much known what is likely to come next. The body of the talk is always predicated on the organisation of the materials already accumulated. The loudspeaker should start talking predicated on the slides' order, by hoping to convey his ideas in short and clear claims. He should also use linking words and phrases in order to switch from one slide to another, striving never to make long pauses. The assertions should be clear and acceptable. Every word should be chosen and used appropriately and specifically3, always according to each slip. However, the loudspeaker should not stick on the slides and be able to develop the slide's content in his own words. Should he believe that classification of a term is necessary, he should supply the definition when the word is first brought up. Additionally, if there are tests to share, they should be meticulously related to the lecture's goal and described in brief words, because of the time limit. Every minute of the converse is precious and really should be exploited to the maximum.
The speaker should never ignore his audience and leave it at night throughout the converse. 3 The loudspeaker should face his audience rather than turn his back again to it through the demonstration. The speaker's problem at this stage is to identify the training needs of the audience in order to modulate his note. That is to say, the audience might need to collect new information about a specific subject or get enlightened about the results of the speaker's experiments. Therefore, the speaker will modify his speech accordingly. It would also be suggested to observe the activities or facial expressions of the audience and once in a while ask "Am I heading prematurely?"2.
What is more, the speaker should take into consideration the interest rate during lectures. Regarding to scientific tests, as the lecture proceedes attention spans become shorter and frequently fell to three or four minutes towards the finish of a typical lecture.  Adult learners can keep tuned directly into a lecture for only 15 to 20 minutes at a time, and this at the start of the school. 14 In 1976, A. H. Johnstone and F. Percival recognized a general style matching to which "after three to five minutes of "settling down" in the beginning of class, the next lapse of attention usually occurres some 10 to 18 minutes later, and since the lecture proceedes the interest course becomes shorter and frequently falls to 3 or 4 minutes towards the finish of a standard lecture". 14 The said standard pattern is illustrated in the next figure.
Figure 1 12
That is to state, that the speaker should make an effort to state the most crucial points through the first 20 to 25 minutes of the lecture and most preferably proceed with cases for another 10 minutes, giving some time offered at the finish for the final outcome as well as for discussion or potential inquiries.
As far as the questions are worried, the speaker should devote a while at the end of a lecture for questions. He should hear carefully when a person asks a question and don't interrupt. 5 He should then duplicate all questions to be able to check that everyone has heard the question, 5 and then provide a clear and brief answer, using the same style as to make the display. 5 Finally, after the speaker makes certain that you will see no more questions, he should give thanks to the people for their questions. He should have in mind that the audience questions give him the opportunity to prove his thorough knowledge on the subject and even provide him with ideas for further research.
The speech comprises the vocabulary, the syntax which structures them, and the set of speech sound devices that differ, creating the lifestyle of many 1000s of different types of mutually unintelligible individual dialects16. The language and expressions of each human being echo his internal world, personality and manners. A lecturer can be very easily judged for the way he talks. Exercising the lecture prior to the actual day of delivery makes better use of the voice mechanism. 3 During a lecture a proper speaking rate is of essential importance. The presenter should talk at a rate of no more than 80-100 words each and every minute. 4 It requires practice to avoid communicating quickly that what are slurred. 3 Furthermore, both push and pitch of the speech should vary in order for the lecturer to stress the primary ideas and important parts of the discussion. 3 The loudspeaker also needs to make pauses and take breaths to keep. A good advice that was occasionally given by professional speakers is the fact long pauses are preferably used at the end of primary thoughts. 3 That point period allows time for the audience understanding. In addition, the speaker should avoid word and thoughts repetition. A monotone way of communicating will probably deflect the audience's attention, provoke slaps easier and fail to convey the expected message.
The eye contact and cosmetic expressions provide important cultural and psychological information and people, perhaps without consciously doing so, probe each other's eye and faces for positive or negative ambiance signs. 15 A skilled presenter is usually well informed and appears his audience straight into the eyes. The attention contact is completely essential to effective speaking. 3 However, it is absolutely clear that it would be poor to stare at someone. A useful advice to amateur speakers is to attempt to establish the attention contact form the very first rows to the previous ones and sometimes pick out someone to three persons among the audience and speak directly to them. 3 In this manner may need the other attendees to turn their heads and see who's speaking, listen carefully to his query or remarks and just why not try the conversation.
The speaker's position, and especially his upper body stance shows his self-confidence and pretty much his connection with lectures. An excellent posture can contribute much to the impression of leisure and the greater relaxed the speaker is apparently, the more the audience will be at ease. 3 Walking should be designed and purposeful but aimless wandering should be averted. As far as the arm gestures are worried, they should be let hang obviously and move fluently in to the most regularly used gesture; directing to the slides. 3 Being able to locate and indicate a portion of a slide while continuing to face the audience and also to speak properly and coherently is fundamental to good oral presentation. 3 On the other hand, looking constantly right down to the floor or outside the windows, stressed gestures or visibly quaking knees are definitely pitfalls to avoid.
The purpose of the timing is to set boundaries of the lecture's period. The lecture should start and surface finish according to the time allotted and this is where in fact the watch will be used. Considering that timing is very important to an effective lecture, maybe it's advised to add timing marks into the organizational plan of the discussion. 3 The timing marks could be words like "pause", "verify time", "change glide" written in specific elements of the cards, where deemed necessary to be able help the presenter delivery the talk based on the organizational plan.
When concluding a lecture, the wheel has come full circle. 4 The speech should progress from an attention-getting, tell-me-more advantages to a solid, relevant and strong stopping. 5 The end of the talk should be the strongest point considering that it constitutes the last impression of the audience. It ought to be neither too brief nor too much time. It ought to be delivered in a firm voice, mentioning briefly for once more the main tips of the lecture and the arisen key results, helping those who have been attentive only at the start to receive the supposed message. The participants should leave the lecture with the important "take-home factors" written in their notes. The speaker shouldn't forget to mention his co-authors, where relevant and also propose closely related subjects that may be presented in a form of lecture at a future stage.
Finally, a well-prepared, utilized and delivered presentation may lead to the increased affinity for and understanding of the speaker's work. This might offer opportunities for network, collaborating, financing and publishing. As a consequence, a well-delivered lecture is rewarded appropriately.
A lecture may constitute a benchmark for the career development of several scientists. It provides them opportunities not only to share their knowledge but also to propose impressive ideas in their domains of specialization. It could also be looked at as an intermittent reunion of a large band of specialists of the same site, who seek solutions to dominant problems with their domains as well as proposals for even more research. That is a considerable proof of the significant technological and medical development of the 21st century. Consequently, the more the science builds up the more progressive and original if the lectures be. The lecturer should be constantly up-to-date with the improvement of these field as well as the new methods of presentations. The truth is that the grade of a lecture displays the interest of the lecturer towards his subject of specialty area.
Preparing and presenting a lecture is a great concern indeed for specialists who seek evolution and professional development. However, it needs often of serious work and attentiveness in order to achieve a compilation of knowledge, findings and collected materials, properly collected in a concise words. It also requires professionalism and reliability, indulgence and full devotion on the lecture's purpose. It is of vital importance that the lecturer is genuine, interesting and certain during his display. It will always be easier to encourage an audience of the concept, if it's confidently and well sent. 4 Last but not least, the abilities for obtaining an eye finding and interesting lecture are not inborn, however they may attain a high level through continuous practice All the best!