Someone else’s information in the scientific work is usually used as a paraphrase, and citation. Paraphrasing and quoting is an essential element of writing student scientific projects. Quotes in moderation decorate the text and give the impression of solidity: the author illustrates and reinforces his or her thoughts by remarks of reputable scientists, excerpts from primary sources, and so on.
When working with someone else’s information, it is necessary to distinguish citation (the exact use of somebody’s words) and paraphrasing (generalization of ideas using your own words).
Your essay should not be a repetition of what has been already said by various scientists. Therefore, it must include author’s own comments to the given material, his or her thoughts, and ideas.
Quoting and paraphrasing requires certain skills, because the cited source should be properly formalized as the reference. The absence of the reference constitutes a violation of copyright, while the wrong formatting of the reference is regarded as a serious mistake. The ability to correctly quote sources and in compliance with a sense of proportion is one of the most essential skills in scientific work. Proper selection, distribution, and the formatting of somebody else’s information in the text largely determines the appearance of the work and the overall impression arising the professor has when reading it.
You need to quote sources in the following cases:
Academic etiquette requires to accurately reproduce the quoted text, as the slightest reduction of the reference can distort the meaning, which was initially put by the author in the reference. Therefore when quoting you must stick to the following rules:
Precise and accurate quoting provides a systematic and thorough indication of the source, from which information was taken. This source must be listed in the bibliography, and the text should be referenced with the source number and the page where the quote is taken. In other words, you have to document the sources so as to avoid any questions relating to what words and ideas belong to you, and what words belong to other people. This can be done as follows: in conclusion of the author’s material you need to indicate the serial number of the source according to the list of bibliography with the page on which the quoted material in square brackets.
In today’s literature, there are many sources of quotations, which author makes references to in the work. A common mistake of students is a reference to the source, where this quote was printed. In such cases, you should not directly indicate the source, from which the quotation was taken, but the source you are quoting.
The quote is formatted as follows: in the end of the quote, you need to indicate the material of the quote in square brackets, followed by the serial number of the source according to the list of bibliography with the page, on which the quoted material is listed.
You must remember that the citation should be neither excessive nor insufficient, since both reduce the scientific level of the essay. Excessive quoting (abundance of quotes on each page) creates the impression of lack of independence in the project as a whole, while the lack of citing reduces the scientific value of the work.
The size (length) of paraphrasing (presentation of ideas of other authors in your own words) is similar to the original material. Paraphrase represents the details of the author’s reasoning and logic, but the most important feature of the paraphrase is that you do not use the exact words and sentences of the author.
The presentation of thoughts of other authors in your own words provides significant savings to the text. At the same time, you should be very accurate in the representation of the ideas of the author and correct in assessing the fragments you are using. When paraphrasing, as well as when quoting, appropriate references to the source, from which information was taken, are made. The source must be listed in the bibliography, and the text should be referenced with the source number, or, if you are paraphrasing ideas of several authors, using different sources, the numbers of sources.
In contrast to the citation, when paraphrasing, you do not need to specify the page.
The reference in the case of paraphrasing should be done in the following way: in square brackets, in the end of the fragment you are paraphrasing, indicate the serial number of the source (or sources) according to the bibliography list, where the material you’re paraphrasing, is located. If the reference refers to a certain word, the sign of the reference should o stand directly in the word, if the reference relates to a sentence (or a group of sentences), and then the sign of the reference should be at the end.
The process of paraphrasing is very creative, however, you need to keep in mind the following important points on how to paraphrase in an essay that will help you achieve a paraphrase of a high quality:
Plagiarism is an intentional or unintentional representation of text, words, facts or ideas of another author as your own.
In the academic world, the author will be seen as plagiarized, if he or she:
Thus, it is very important to remember both how to cite sources and how to paraphrase in an essay so the text of the project won’t be very similar in the use of words or syntactic constructions to the original source.