Posted at 10.02.2018
Negotiation is taking place everywhere round the world. It really is "the procedure of discussion by which two or more parties try to reach a mutually suitable contract. "
Negotiation can even be defined as a process of communicating back and forth for the purpose of achieving a joint decision.
The process of negotiation, difficult enough when it requires place among folks of similar backgrounds, is even more complex in international discussions because of social differences, lifestyles, expectations, verbal and non-verbal words, methods to formal types of procedures, and problem fixing techniques.
According to Deresky the negotiation process consists of five steps;
These stages have a tendency to overlap, and managers have to deduct the model in line with the ethnic norms. Culture can be defines as the cumulative result of experience, values, religion, beliefs, behaviour, meanings, knowledge, social organizations, methods, timing, functions, spatial relations, concepts of the universe and material objects and possessions bought or created by sets of people, throughout generations, through specific and group effort and interactions.
This paper will focus on the preparation part of the negotiation process and how cultural subject will impact it, but first we will have a brief intro of the five steps to obtain a broad understanding of the procedure.
Stage one: Preparation
Most negotiation problems are induced by dissimilarities in culture, language and environment. Preparation for a negotiation can be wasted if these factors aren't carefully considered. "In preparing for negotiations, it is critical to avoid projective cognitive similarity - that is, the assumption that others understand, evaluate, think, and reason just as when, in reality, they don't because of differential ethnical and practical affects.
Stage two: Romantic relationship building
This is the process of getting to know ones connections in a host country and building common trust before getting into business conversations and transactions. In most parts of the earth, this stage has already occurred or is concurrent with other arrangements.
Stage three: Exchange of task-related information
This is where the parts present their aspect and areas their position. Often there is a question-and-answer treatment and alternatives are reviewed.
Stage four: Persuasion
This is where the procedure for bargaining starts. Typically, both celebrations try to persuade the other to simply accept more of their position and to give up some of their own. Examples of tactics which may have been used are assurances, threats etc.
Stage five: Concessions and agreement
This is the ultimate point in the negotiation process. That's where the deal is finished.
Preparation is a primary aspect of any negotiation. Even though we work out with the same customer or spouse for years, keep in mind that there surely is grounds for carrying out this; there are pursuits and needs that must be served.
Before the managers start to prepare the cultural variances, terminology and environment issues they have to understand their own styles. Prior to the meeting they should also find out as much as possible about:
The sorts of demands that might be made
The composition of the opposing» team
The relative power that the members possess
The platform for preparation given by of Moore and Woodrow says that we now have four main steps when it comes to cultural variations.
Understand and observe the dissimilarities between cultures
Develop a knowledge of how ethnic differences effect problem handling and negotiation
Educate yourself in regards to a new culture
Develop a negotiation plan
Understand and notice the differences between cultures is an important point because one of the most frequent flaws when people jumps into work across cultures are that they assume that all of us are basically the same. Another fault is to romanticize culture. This can resolve in extreme work to be culturally appropriate. Both these main blunders hold some fact, but the real truth probably lies someplace in between. Therefore it is important to simply accept the cultural differences and understand how to identify them so we can build bridges between them.
Develop a knowledge of how cultural differences effect problem resolving and negotiation needs to be done since when we are going directly into a negotiation it can be useful to make a knowledge of both our own culture and the other culture. To recognize these factors we may use "The steering wheel of cultural map". The steering wheel is split into the hub, the interior and outer rim and the spokes. The Wheel of Culture Map identifies ethnic factors that shape the ways participants of societies bargain for their involvement in respond to disputes.
When you been employed by yourself through the first two points it's time to educate yourself in regards to a new culture. Reading articles and catalogs and watching videos and documentaries is examples of how you can do this. To see culture is another great way to educate about the new culture.
The last point is to build up a negotiation plan. You utilize the info you have following the three first steps and discover how you will best can deduct to the distinctions between you and the other part or parts in the negotiation.
Nowadays it is not only important to keep yourself updated that in virtually any international transaction you will see cultural differences. It's important to have the ability to recognize the culture of the counterparty, as well as, to fully understanding the effect of cultural dissimilarities of both functions in a negotiation process. In order to accomplish it, it is necessary to learn their cultural, religious, , terminology, and social ways at work. I would expect that each of these aspects of culture are later mentioned as related to negotiation
Taking in profile cultures in which religion is an essential part of the culture is significant in the negotiation process, for example spiritual days and nights like Easter, Holiday, Sabbath, and Ramadan.
Social systems should be carefully check out, including the role in female in Japan in not an productive one, and in Norway girl are believed as the same as man.
As for language is necessary not and then understand it, but also how the language is used based on the context. For example we can come with an interpreter but if he/she is not aware the way the culture of the other part, you can find could be misinterpretation of what. This also can happen even if both people speak the same words; the use of words is affected by culture.
Culture at the task place you can read more about in the section about "the hub".
As stated before in the negotiation process through the planning process we develop the knowing of cultural dissimilarities that can influence the overall process.
We have to think about what ideals and culture means in order to understand social differences
According to Kluckhohn (1951/1967) beliefs is a "conception, explicit or implicit, distinctive of a person or characteristic of a group, of the desirable which influences the choice from available modes, means and ends of action".
We define culture as:
"Transmitted and created content and patterns of ideals, ideas and other symbolic significant system as factors in the shaping of individual patterns, and the artifacts produces through habit. " (Kroeber and Parsons 1958)
Therefore we conclude that might promote the same beliefs but the patterns that form our behavior will vary. Including the value of need to satisfy basic needs as food, shelter and health for survival is general. But culture will recommend how we action how corresponding to a particular value. For instance loyalty to a husband; to face and handle adultery is different among cultures, in some cultures you signal a divorce to finish the partnership and in other adultery girl are wiped out with stones. The methodology for assessing and deciding to do something differs because the action will be affected by our social values. According to our cultural prices we will respond and react during the negotiation procees. It's important to determined our cultural distinctions in order to discovered the strengths and only our negotiation and the weakness that can cause us problems.
There are several cultural differences that we will face in an international negotiation and we conclude that the most importante are:
Communication: Verbal and non verbal communication
Differences in verbal communication can be induced by different terms that the other party speaks. , or can also it be that we reveal the same words however the use of words has another meaning since it is influenced by the other party culture. Nonetheless it is important to learn that also non-verbal communication has an important role because it is part of behavior that communicated without words.
As we'd already identified that culture designs behavior, therefore it is useful to identify the mains such variations in order to decide which can cause a risk or a weakness in our negotiation process and which can help us as opportunities and advantages. One of the approaches that people identified to be very useful for the prep is Richard Lewis Model of cultural types. This model has been based on the Hofstede's Value Sizes
"Is the levels of approval by a culture of the unequal syndication of electric power in companies". (Deresky p. 112)
Therefore where we find a high electric power distance among individuals means they have the need for hierarchy and position of their culture. FOR INSTANCE USA vs. Norway
Individualism - Collectivism:
"It refers to the degree to which individuals are integrated into organizations ". The first one pertains "to the inclination of people to provide for themselves and their immediate households only also to neglect the necessity of contemporary society" (Deresky p. 113) and the next one if the contrary.
So in the individualistic cultures commitment among individuals is much less strong as in collectivism cultures. For instance Japanese are collectivist and People in america are individualistic.
Refers to the circulation of roles between the genders which is another important issue for any modern culture to which a variety of solutions are located
Masculinity is cultures where the gender functions are clearly defined: Men have to be assertive and concentrate on material success. Women should be humble and affectionate and also have to keep up a good quality of life. In femininity represents a world, there is absolutely no difference: Women and men are equivalent and both are accountable for keeping life quality. A good example of masculine culture is Mexican and a womanly culture is Norwegian.
"Refers to the degree to which people in world feel threatened by ambiguous situation. (Deresky p. 112).
The degree of uncertainty that individuals allows in the daily lives. For instance higher level of uncertainty avoidance are Japanese (laws are very strict with formal guidelines) and with low degree of uncertainty like THE UK; protest are tolerated, administrator take more dangers)
Long Term Orientation.
The scope to which culture programs its members to accept delay gratification with their material, sociable, and emotional needs. (Deresky p. 114)
Short term cultures tend to consider principles that are relevant for past and present (customs and fulfilling communal obligations). The long-term tend to give attention to future success and determination.
Examples for LONG RUN Oriented will be the Chinese and SHORT-TERM are the Us citizens.
According to Richard Lewis it is possible to divide ethnicities in 3 categories (See number 1).
Linear effective: Task-orientated and special planners
Multi lively: People orientated and polychromic romance people,
Reactive: Introverted and respect-orientated listeners
Some of the characteristics of every culture are:
Accepts favours reluctantly
Seeks for favours
Protects face of other
Confronts with logic
Dislikes burning off face
Has good excuses
Must not lose face
Does one thing at a time
Does a number of things at once
Reacts to partner's action
Partly conceals feelings
Plans ahead step by step
Plans grand outline only
looks at general principals
Polite but direct
Polite and indirect
Sticks to plan
Makes slights changes
Talks have time
Talks most of the time
Listens the majority of the time
Truth before diplomacy
Diplomacy over truth
Uses mainly facts
Feeling before facts
Statements are promises
Works set hours
Works many hours
This stand helps us to recognize how each culture reacts and can help us to create the negotiation, and have the ability to be more adaptable if we have to bargain in case there is necessary for our curiosity about the negotiation or solve a turmoil.
According to Richard Lewis the world's cultures had been labeled in 3 categories:
"Linear Actives: those who plans, schedule, organize, pursue action chains, do one thing at the same time. "
"Muti-actives: those energetic, loquacious people who do a lot of things simultaneously, planning their priorities not regarding to a period schedule, but in line with the enjoyment or importance that every appointment brings with it. "
Reactives:those cultures that prioritise courtesy and admiration, lisening silently and calmly with their interlocutors and reacting carefully to the other side's proposal
To succeed in a cross-cultural negotiation it's important to:
Analyze our own culture and our partner's culture.
Know your personal negotiation profile and exactly how it fits in the model
Adapt the communication and negotiation style in line with the cultures expectations
Understand how trust sometimes appears in various countries.
In the planning time use this elements to create your strategy
The Steering wheel of Culture identifies critical cultural variables that shape just how that associates of society conduct problem resolving and negotiate to achieve interests and take care of disputes.
Over we have the shape of the steering wheel of culture by C. Moore (2004). One can divide the Steering wheel into four parts; the hub, the inner rim, the outer rim and the spokes.
Here we've individuals and categories which interact in discussions. In different ethnicities people can be focused toward individuals or groups. As mentioned previously in the newspaper, we've Hofstede's value measurements, in this part we will focus on one of these; individualism versus collectivism.
Individualism is by Hofstede (2005) defined as: the opposite of collectivism; along, they form one of the measurements of national civilizations. Individualism means a society in which the ties between individuals are loose: many people are expected to take care of himself or herself and his / her immediate family only.
Collectivism is thought as: the contrary of individualism; alongside one another, they form one of the sizes of national ethnicities. Collectivism stands for a society in which people from beginning onwards are built-into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's life-time continue to protect them in trade for unquestioning devotion.
According to C. Moore (2004), "before going into negotiation it is effective to learn whether a culture is oriented towards individualism or collectivism - compared to your personal or organizational culture".
The following had been identified as distinctions between Collectivism and Individualism orientation :
Contrasting views of the nature of conflict.
For individualists turmoil is as an all natural part of individuals interaction and for collectivist is the contrary.
Effect of notion of turmoil on contribution in mediation.
Individualists acknowledge discord and participate without experiencing pity.
For collectivists acknowledgement of turmoil cause a loss of face
Types of mediators preferred.
Individualists tend to favor professional mediators specialised in negotiation.
Collectivists prefere thta the mediator is an insider, who understands both celebrations or at least the context of the dispute.
Expectations of mediators
For individualits mediators should assist in communication, negotiation and decision making
For collectivists prefer mediators who are aware of the context of the people' dispute and who is able to suggest resolutions that will restore tranquility both to the disputants and their relevant ingroups
Individualists the get-togethers to a dispute as those who are directly involved with it.
For collectivists may view members of these ingroup who are not directly engaged as get-togethers to a dispute.
Individualist negotiantion usually takes place indoors/formal office setting up, mediators tend to treat informally with the disputants, (first name bases)
For collectivist, outdoor and casual indoor settings are normal, but will not treat the other gatherings in an casual way.
Individualistic start with the mediator and the disputants in the same room. The disputants have the opportunity to explain the foundation of the dispute to the other person using their personal perspectives. Immediate communication is considered appropriate, as it provides the chance to be noticed and supports the mediator in the responsibilities of interest identification and issue clarification.
Collectivists, have avoidance strategies, prefere to possess private meetings between your mediator and one party. The mediator is similar to shuttle diplomat taking information and pay out ideas in one get together to the other. After the general outline of the agreement is come to, the disputants may agree to meet in order to make a deal the finer details.
When some may be preparing for negotiation it is important to know about the dissimilarities between ethnicities. In individualistic ethnicities there is an "I" mentality, people think about themselves, make decisions based on specific needs, are self-oriented and think that everyone has the right to private life. In collectivistic cultures people are group oriented, have a "we" mentality, decisions derive from individual needs and expect utter commitment to the group. The group isn't just the family, but also extended family, like aunts and uncles, caste and group.
United State governments is on the top of the individualism index, which scored 91, Mexico 30, China 20 and Pakistan 14. As you can plainly see from the volumes Mexico, China and Pakistan are collectivist ethnicities. United States is an individualist culture.
In a collectivist culture an workplace never hires just an individual, but rather a person who belongs to an in-group. The worker will act based on the interest of this in-group, which might not exactly always overlap along with his or her individual interest. Earnings frequently have to be shared with relatives.
In an individualist culture used persons are required to act matching with their own interest, and work should be organized in such a way that self-interest and the employer's interest match. Workers are supposed to act as people who have an assortment of economic and psychological needs, as individuals with their own requirements.
In collectivist workplaces management is management of teams, romance prevails over job, in-group customers get better treatment and harmony, and loyalty in the company is important and confrontation should be prevented. In China and Japan it isn't a good idea to disagree with someone's thoughts and opinions in public areas. In individualist workplaces every customer should get the same treatment, management is management of individuals, hiring and promotion decisions should be based on skills and rules only.
Collectivism will have an impact on the need for stable romance between negotiators. Within a collectivist culture substitution of a person means a new relationship must be built, this takes time. Mediators offer an important role in preserving a viable design of relationship which allows progress. Within a reserve by Varner and Beamer there have been some Canadians representing a firm who were negotiating a sales with a Chinese company. In their previous meetings there have been other people from the Canadian company which had met the Chinese. When they were suppose to have the last conference, the Chinese wished to get to know the Canadians, because romantic relationship is important in the Chinese language culture. This is a delight for the Canadians, plus they were irritated. It ended up with a situation where the Canadians didn't have the sale, because they didn't understand the Chinese language culture. That is a good example that it is important to get ready.
"Distinctions in values associated with the individualism and collectivism sizes will continue to exist and also to play a huge role in international affairs. Individualism versus collectivism as a dimensions of national civilizations is in charge of many misunderstandings in intercultural collisions" (Hofstede).
In the Internal Rim either groupings or people who take part in negotiation process expose:
- needs or interests they wish to have achieved in the outcome of problem handling;
- situations, issues or problems that must be addressed;
- resources of electric power and influence".
As advice before, it's important to identify the other get together and our orientation, if it's individualist or collectivist, how the other get together consider electric power distance and uncertainty avoidance. Is the negotiation the beginning of an extended term relationship or not.
These are biological needs. They contain needs for oxygen, food, water, and a comparatively constant body's temperature. They will be the best needs because in case a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the individuals search for satisfaction.
For understanding others we also must understand ourselves. In fact, each culture has its way of viewing and doing things, based on laws, restrictions, and issues. "A significant element of planning for just about any negotiation is to build up a clear understanding of the way the other get together defines the problem and the issues to be reviewed". Should think about Hofstede sizes and Richard Lewis ethnical type to recognize cultural distinctions and how do affect the negotiation process and its own final result, so we can develop strategies that can help us to meet our goal.
It is very essential in negotiation to understand evidently what counterparts are to avoid problems when people who have various cultures add different meanings to similar situations. For example "With regard to the transitioning economy in Russia, a report by Elenkov discovered that Russian professionals stress security and belongingness needs instead of higher-order needs, such as home- actualization " It means that operating in countries such Russia professionals should be taken into account this factors. Additionally it is very significant to find financial dissimilarities between countries (high developed countries or less developed).
"Eastern cultures concentrate on the needs of modern culture alternatively than on the needs of individuals We have discussed earlier that for illustration Japan is much more collectivistic than US. Even as we understood in all cultures are the same basic needs, nevertheless they have different considerations about what is an sufficient satisfaction of the needs. So that it is really important in preparation stage also to find out a tentative understanding about hobbies and needs of other associates of negotiation. There are numerous differences between high- context civilizations and low-context ethnicities. "A lot of the difference in communication styles is attributable to whether you belong to a high-context ethnicities or low-context culture. " These differences can lead negotiators to discord situations. Corresponding to Helen Deresky there are two types of turmoil - instrumental - oriented issue and expressive - oriented conflict. Where in the neogitaiton circle would this be relevant? "In low-context ethnicities such as that in the United States, conflict is handled straight and explicitly. Additionally it is regarded as individual from the person negotiating - that is, the negotiators attract a distinction between the people included and the info or ideas they represent. They also tend to work out based on factual information and rational research. In high-context civilizations, such as in the Middle East, the situation is taken care of indirectly and implicitly, without clear delineation of the problem by the individual managing it. Such negotiators do not need to enter a confrontational situation since it is undoubtedly insulting and would result in a lack of face, so they tend to use evasion and avoidance if indeed they cannot reach arrangement through emotional appeals". Managers' activity is to understand ethnic contexts for taking care of conflict situations. They ought to decide the type of methods and styles they need to use along the way.
In the Internal Rim addititionally there is an essential idea of power and affect. "Power and effect have been thought as the ability to act, to impact an results, to get something to happen (never to happen), or to overcome amount of resistance"
When a celebration has more electric power it's important to know very well what types of ability exists. You will find five types of electric power: coercive, compensation, genuine, expert, and referent electricity. Having the ability to understand how the amount of power is recognized in both cultures can help us to design the strategies to ensure our purpose will be satisfied and if it's not can help us to safeguard us from the consequences of inability.
Coercive power is based on the ability to administer or withdraw consequence for undesired behavior. For instance in individualistic driven civilizations when writing a contract there are clauses which designate if an objective is not fullfiled you will see a cost-effective cost.
Reward ability derives from the ability to pay back people for desired patterns. For example in expense are lower then bonus could be paid or the contract will be prolonged for other assignments.
Legitimate power is dependant on subordinates' beliefs a superior has the right to recommend and control their tendencies, for instance based on his or her seniority or position in the business. In individualistic oriented cultures will ensure that their tactics are followed because they're more task focused.
Expert vitality may be derived from having experience, knowledge, or knowledge in a given area. In individualistic oriented there are highly degree experts use his knowledge to be able to enforce the way the task should be performed.
Referent power is based on subordinates' interpersonal fascination to, admiration of, and identification with an excellent. In individualistic focused ethnicities this is greatly use get consensus and achieve an objective. In collectivist focused ethnicities is not lobby charisma what is follow but value for his or her experience and knowledge.
Negotiators should be careful with vitality and influence. In some cultures a good slight person's partner can be considered a consequence of "commenter the 'cold shoulder' or perhaps an instant verbal retort" Uncertain what you say with this assertion. For some cultures it could be as an" harm on the spouse's honor that may be righted only by way of a physical struggle or, in extreme cases, the death of the offender. A follower of Gandhi who is convinced that his / her rights have been violated may reply with Satyagraha, or non-violent amount of resistance - a way different response than that of a guerilla fighter who is a member of the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. "
In final result, we can determine that to find what type of power and influence is very important to the procedure, the negotiators should provide a good cultural examination.
The outer rim elaborates how natural environment, history and cultural structure may influence the preparation process for negotiation, because each group or individual have an alternative encoding in their heart and brain on these factors hence may lead to cultural difference between the negotiation organizations or individuals on the way prep for negotiation can be done and, this is true to other area of the steering wheel of the culture map and, these distinctions emanate from physical location, Record and idea of the negotiating group or individuals (Falkenberg, A. W, 2010) as illustrated in Number. 3.
Figure 3: Illustrates how worth happen (from geography, record and viewpoint) and exactly how they become designed and inserted in the hearts and intellects.
The above figure assumes that culture program each group or specific into different set of values of which identifies the moral compass of every group or specific, that consist of affective aspect (the way the group or individual seems about right and incorrect) and the cognitive part ( the reason why of why something is known as right or incorrect). Therefore each group or specific will have a different thoughts on for example non verbal action and reasoning for the result of the non verbal action because of it counterpart. It is important to keep in mind that each get together has an alternative set of ethnic ideals, and these prices will advise what is wrong and right in their own culture. We must advise this to be able to avoid misunderstianding through the negotiation.
Therefore, it's important for the negotiating group or individual in the preparation stage to understand the cultural beliefs of its counterpart, such as what are the right and incorrect in their ethnicities or why people think and react the way they are doing. So knowing the foundation of the difference, it become possible for the part to learn and understand about the other culture, through background such as styles, occasions and adaptations which have occurred over time, their social structure both physical and intellectual which people created and modified or enabled them to survive in their environment, as well as how these factors has molded their ideals, Moore, C and Woodrow, P (2004).
The spoke of the wheel represents the ethnic notion, norms and tendencies that have increased impact in the relationships between the individuals and the group in the negotiation process. These also are damaged by the ethnical distinctions as shown in the shape 3 above. The spoke of the wheel are all worried about the problems such as,
Establishing, building and keeping relationships
Appropriate and effective communications
Problem-solving or negotiation processes
Preferred outcomes to problems or conflicts
Roles and functions of third parties
Management of your energy and timing
Use and set-up of location and space
Establishing, building and preserving relationships: it means how we can initiate these romantic relationships; with whom and which activities are sufficient according to both ethnicities. How exactly we can build-up a relationships and identify factors that can make it change.
Orientation toward assistance, competition and turmoil: how each get together will accept there's a turmoil and of there's a routine in their tendencies.
Appropriate and effective communications: How do we solve the negotiation or turmoil resolutions immediately or indirectly, in an explicit or implicit way. If it's appropriate emotional appearance or not, if interruptions are allowed, etc. It is ideal for communication to recognize if yours as well as your partner culture are high or low context. If any hesitation you can identify the ethnic type from Richard Lewis style of ethnical types.
Problem-solving or negotiation procedures: the way the role of romantic relationships and trust works, how pursuits are expressed and identify the bargaining styles, and exactly how each partner does during the negotiation stages.
Preferred outcomes to problems or conflicts: orientation towards winning or success, how emphasis the the different parts of the outcome if there are norms that can recognize or sanctioned the outcome.
Roles and functions of third get-togethers: it pertains about the engagement of each get together, if there are hierarchy levels or not, and exactly how much can be done to require.
Management of time and timing: how the parties feel about the concept of time, if there are concerns about how long the activities will take, how much time each party needs to attain an contract. Finally if the routine activities matching time or they can do several activities at the same time.
Use and set-up of place and space: how gatherings feels about their surrounding, can negotiation happen in indoors or will like in outside the house, formal places (like offices) or casual (restaurants)
Preparation is a fundamental part in the negotiation process since it helps us to identify cultural variations, and used can help us to benchmark the negotiation improvement to make adjustments on time.
It is essential to be able to acknowledge the culture of the counterparty, as well as, to fully understanding the effect of cultural distinctions of both parties in a negotiation process. In order to accomplish it, it's important to learn their public, religious, moral systems, words, education and culture at work. The main dissimilarities when we face an international negotiation are in communication -verbal and non - verbal communication and also in culture.
Differences in verbal communication are mainly induced by different dialect. So in the individualistic ethnicities devotion among individuals is much less strong such as collectivism cultures. For example Japanese are collectivist and People in the usa are individualistic. There are five measurements in culture contexts where negotiators should pay attention to - ability distance, masculinity/femininity, time orientation, individualism/collectivism, doubt avoidance.
To flourish in a cross-cultural negotiation it is necessary to analyze our very own culture and our partner's culture, know your personal negotiation profile and how it fits in the model, change the communication and negotiation style based on the cultures expectations, know how trust is seen in different countries and in the prep time use this elements to set-up your strategy.
The wheel of culture by C. Moore (2004) can divide it into four parts; the hub, the inner rim, the outer rim and the spokes. Matching to C. Moore (2004), "before coming into negotiation it is effective to learn whether a culture is oriented towards individualism or collectivism - in comparison to your individual or organizational culture".
When an example may be preparing for negotiation it is important to know about the differences between ethnicities because people from different cultures have different views, issues, and ethnic values, we can use Maslow's hierarchy to identify needs.
For understanding others we also must understand ourselves. A significant element of preparation for any negotiation is to develop a clear knowledge of the way the other party defines the situation and the issues to be discussed.
In realization, we can determine that to find which kind of power and impact is very important to the process, the negotiators should give a good cultural research. This may be accomplishing by a deep preparation of both cultures.