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How Cultivation Theory PERTAINS TO Racial Problems Marketing Essay


American cartoons include typically the most popular film product industry for children worldwide, and have gained substantial attention in conditions of educating children. As a fantastic medium for storytelling, children learn the basic concepts of what the world is similar to and what love and ethics are from the fairy stories they watch. I am presently learning one of the communication ideas, particularly, cultivation theory. American cartoons, specifically Disney movies, are classic objects of analysis.

The cultivation theory developed by George Gerbner and Larry Gross of the College or university of Pennsylvania says that "the more time people spend "living" in the television world, the much more likely they are to believe the social actuality portrayed on tv. " Therefore, heavy tv set viewers have an increased estimation for a specific social actuality (e. g. , assault, prostitution, affluence, job, and marital discord) than what real-world phenomena can justify. Thus, to help make the theory suitable to real life, the study emphasizes the injury that television shows might bring to people. In my opinion, early education is essential to the development of an individual's personality; it also establishes his/her later ideology. Thus, the consequences of cartoons on children's home development are worthy of studying.

American cartoons and animation movies have benefits, specifically in educating children the ideals of integrity, bravery, and camaraderie, and the actual fact that justice and good will overcome evil. However, we can also note that the protagonists often use assault to defeat bad. Along with violence, gender problems and religious issues also show up in most movies more than we think, and children find out about them without instruction. Children could easily confuse reality and fantasy, particularly in our current society where parents who are occupied with work and socializing use video gaming and television shows as alternative companions for his or her children. The bottom line is, studying North american cartoons is essential for all of us because they may drastically have an effect on children's upbringing by presenting negative emails.

The cultivation theory deeply focuses on the consequences of assault on the action of people. In such a paper, I am going to analyze the issue of racial discrimination in cartoons to make the research of the cultivation theory more complete. Discrimination is another essential topic that has been largely neglected due to the focus on violence in cartoons.

Literature Review

Dixon (2006) feels that heavy audiences of television will feel that an African-American think is guilty; they also view the world as a more dangerous place than it actually is. Television encourages assault and aggression. Durkin (1985) helps the view that children obtain home elevators gender jobs and racial views from tv and model their behaviors based on television set characterization.

Gerbner describe the procedure of "blurring, blending, and twisting" that has experience by people with heavy viewing practices. (Griffin, 2011). Heavy television viewers develop a common outlook through constant exposure to the same images and labels. In films, the heroes and the victims are always fair-skinned, whereas the criminals or villains are always dark-colored- or dark-skinned. Mastro and Stern (2003) add that races apart from whites are under-represented, adversely depicted, and are often targets of mockery.

From Larson's theory, the greater children watch television programs, the much more likely they are to build up and captivate more traditional gender and racial stereotypes predicated on what they view in the marketing (Larson, 2002).

Waver (2011) analyzes racial related-phenomena in American films and confirms that the competition of the stars clearly influences the wants of white audience customers to start to see the films. The bigger the percentage of black stars in the movie, the less interested white individuals were in witnessing the movie.


Most Disney videos feature stunning princesses, including The Little Mermaid, Snow White, and Rapunzel, who are depicted as Caucasians. The princess in the film The Princess and the Frog was dark-skinned but her prince was a white man. Most heroes in these films are fair-skinned, however the skin tones of the villains are diverse. In the films, the storylines usually start with a white man who breaks into a new social environment, changes the local people' tips of view and traditions, and leads them beat the theif, after which he becomes the hero. Tarzan even became king of the forest. This stereotype exists in various American movies. Based on the cultivation theory, children may subconsciously develop behavioral stereotypes, although what they view could be biased, distorted or misleading (Oliver, 2001 &, Smith, 1994).

American cartoon movies also add their own value to overseas cultures, which might adversely have an impact on children's understanding of the actual status of other nations. For instance, the track of the Disney movie Aladdin (1992) used unacceptable words to describe the hometown of Aladdin. Within the song, what "where they take off your ear if they don't like your face. It's barbaric, but hey, it's home" offended the Arab People in america, who presumed that the lyrics are a misrepresentation of the Arab culture and should be removed. In 1993, the New York Times shared a critique of the said movie, which was entitled "It really is racism, but hey, it's Disney. " The article pointed out that "To characterize a whole region with this type of tongue-in-cheek bigotry, especially in a movie targeted at children, borders on barbaric" (New York Times, 1993). Another Disney movie, Mulan, twisted certain facts of the Chinese language culture. Inside the movie, Mulan was characterized as an unbiased, liberal woman who suggested compared to that the princesses chase love bravely. Although this can be an accepted idea in modern society and could be considered proper by most people, it isn't the real ideology in early China; it is not part true history and real custom. In another computer animation movie, Pocahontas, the love account was exaggerated and deviated from what actually occurred in history.

The items of some American cartoons tend to be more suited to adults. For instance, the show South Area features sarcasm, soiled words, and poor content that may easily be misunderstood by children. Within an show in the 11th season of the show With Apologies to Jesse Jackson, the term "nigger" was used 43 times. Although the purpose of this episode was not to humiliate black people, as the episode was in fact highly accepted by blacks, children may misconstrue the purpose of this cartoon and find out a new phrase that they could misuse.

Another Disney movie entitled Songs of the South featured a melody called Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah, which earned the Oscar for Original Credit score in 1946. However, the movie experienced racist tendencies when seen from the criterion of today. The storyline takes place in the South following the Civil Conflict, and Uncle Remus, a freed slave, tells testimonies to children and makes them giggle. Adam Clayton Powell Jr. looked at the portrayal of the happy life as a slave with suspicion and posited that it is humiliating to minorities. Disney did not publish the Movie in the United States to avoid eliciting resentment from the general public.

Griffin (2000) represents the effects that marketing can have on the audience to be similar to a cue ball. The effect of the cue ball exists regardless of the distance of the cue ball to the other balls. A similar effect can be seen in the posters of all movies, where in fact the character's outlook is already published before the audience even views the movie. For instance, in the movie Aladdin, your skin tones of Aladdin and Jasmine are fairer than those of the other folks in the movie, and Jafar's appearance could already give a standard impression of his villainy even before the movie is looked at. Fair skin area can thus be mistakenly connected to purity and kindness, whereas dark-colored or dark pores and skin could be associated with criminality and craftiness.

The problem is not limited by movies exclusively. The audience has its personal interest, which causes the racial issue in movies to be an infinite loop. Based on the study by Weaver in 2011, white people are definitely more inclined to choose videos with white cast members than videos with cast participants from other races, in so doing lessening opportunities for white children to see more movies from different aspects, as well as the opportunities for them to change their stereotypes. White audience participants that practice selective avoidance if indeed they perceive that a film has a dark-colored theme is precisely the concern that black celebrities such as Will Smith have portrayed, in particular when it involves romantic leads in movies (Jones, 2005). Last year, only two of the 30 highest grossing videos featured major non-white character types.

According to the cultivation theory, when audience associates frequently view the same circumstance from various television shows and videos, they will affiliate it with the outside world in their head. Racism is a trend that can't be completely eliminated, especially in a country with so many ethnicities, like the United States. The high rate of positive roles that white people portray suggests the constancy of racism in the foreseeable future.


Children from worldwide watch Disney and other American cartoons. Thus, these videos and shows have far-reaching effects. Growing up subjected to many traditional and fantastic reviews have placed children well amused and educated, as they come to appreciate the reports being informed and the wonderful techniques and artwork used in the sharing with. The positive influences that these videos have on children are undeniably more enormous than the negative influences, as they teach children to be unbiased, tough, and patriotic. Advocating liberty, real human protection under the law, and American ideology is necessary for a nation to unite and teach people. However, praising American culture while criticizing others is not respectful. Racism is not really a principle that children should learn. We can strengthen their idea of equality utilizing the cultivation theory, that could lead to a reduction in conflicts between races, genders, and other issues.

As embodied in the cultivation theory, when tv set predominates the lives of children, its influence can permeate the tendencies, terms, thoughts, and activities of children. Moreover, negative messages tend to be received easier than positive communications. Thus, the effects of press on children should be analyzed, and possible adjustments should be unveiled.

Recent American cartoons already express some changes. For example, the main figure in the movie Megamind has blue skin area, and the traditional image of the superhero is the main one being mocked. An upcoming movie entitled Break free From Planet Earth will feature reports of several blue people.

Guidance from parents is also essential in reducing or mitigating the influence of cultivation influence on children. A child's knowledge of the earth and his capacity to tell from wrong aren't yet older, so parents can help their children understand what is on display screen by explaining the details of tv set shows to them. The movie rating system should be utilized worldwide. The cultivation theory also plainly posits that the cultivation result occurs only after long-term, cumulative exposure to tv (Weimann2000). Thus, lowering the amount of time children spend viewing tv set is also necessary.

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