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How Citizenship education is educated

How Citizenship education is informed and integrated within Scottish institutions.

1. Abstract

This project aspires to investigate how Citizenship education is shown and integrated within Scottish academic institutions. Scotland differs from the rest of the United Kingdom in that citizenship as a subject is not formally introduced, rather it is seen to be dynamic and should be taught in all subjects over the school curriculum, thus impacting both inside and outside the school.

The data shown I this project was gathered through the six weeks of my second position in 2008 in a non-denominational status college in East Lothian and was completed by means of staff interviews and a pupils focus group. During the personnel interviews, their views on the various elements of learning within Citizenship education; knowledge & understanding, skills & aptitudes and beliefs, were talked about. A pupils focus group was create and the group talked about; citizenship in the institution: cultural & moral issues, protection under the law & responsibilities, the institution & wider community, politics & democracy and the surroundings.

The results show that, the institution are actively promoting the components of citizenship in most regions of its subjects curriculum. Through such subject matter classes as sociable education, chemistry and music, the school offers pupils with the knowledge, awareness and skills to handle the most common citizenship issues that took place within it and the wider community. However, if the pupils are going to be led into become productive citizens, more effort needs to be produced to make sure they are aware of just what citizenship is and more importantly, why it has been educated to them.

2. Summary

In Sept 2002 citizenship education was released through a Citizenship order to the Country wide Curriculum in England. The order emphasised that teaching should ensure that knowledge and understanding about being informed citizens are essential and applied when expanding skills of enquiry and communication, and participation and in charge action. (Arthur and Wright, 2001:11)

Rather than introduce citizenship education as a precise subject into its Country wide Curriculum, Scotland has opted to make its benefits, knowledge and understanding; skills and competences; ideals and dispositions; and creativeness and enterprise, an integral part of each subject trained. Thus citizenship skills are integrated across the complete school.

In the Scottish Executives 2004 newspaper, A Curriculum for Superiority - the Curriculum Review Group, universities and professors are asked to make a curriculum that will ready the junior of today for adulthood, that may be less crowded and will offer more choice and satisfaction.

Our aspiration is to allow all children to develop their capacities as successful learners, self-assured individuals, responsible people and effective contributors to modern culture. (Scottish Executive, 2004:6).

The reason for this project is to research the execution of citizenship education in Scottish classes at this moment. For this inspection I used qualitative research; this engaged interviewing members of staff at all levels and mediating a pupils concentration group,

The consequence of my project means that, whilst the successive government authorities and educational institutions realise the value of citizenship education in giving pupils the data, skills and understanding to experience an efficient role in modern culture at local, national and international levels, (QCA, 1999 cited by Kerr, 2006: p5) the majority of the pupils who needed part in the target group acquired no understanding of the word citizenship or the concepts behind it and because of this they failed to recognise its elements within the classes curriculum. The pupils also revealed that their knowledge of politics or democracy was regrettably lacking.

However when the various regions of citizenship were discussed with the pupils, they realised that they do recognise them and were actively involved in with them. This shows that, although the term citizenship has little or no conceptual interpretation to the pupils, they may be gaining working experience of it through things in the universities curriculum as well as through the institution all together.

3. Assertion of purposes or objectives

In its paper; A Curriculum for Superiority - The Curriculum Review Group, the Scottish Professional states:

Our aspiration for all those children and for each and every young person is the fact that they should be successful learners, self-assured individuals, responsible people and effective contributors tosociety and at work. By providing framework, support and path to young peoples learning, the curriculum should enable them to develop these four capacities. The curriculum should accentuate the important contributions of individuals and communities. (2004:12)

Through the Curriculum for Superiority, the Scottish Exec suggests four capacities of education that will be the basis of Scottish education. These are: Successful learners, self-assured individuals, responsible residents and effective contributors.

Since it's the responsibility of the whole school to develop the four capacities in every their pupils, the drive toward building responsible citizens shouldn't improve in isolation rather is should be provided across the complete curriculum. Activities such as organization, citizenship, ecological development, health and creativity, which are often viewed as add-ons, can be included in the curriculum platform. (Scottish Executive, 2006:8).

Because of these changes teachers will need to think about the curriculum and exactly how they present it in different ways. Representation will be essential for their personal development. Instructors won't be able to be insular in their own subject matter, for as well as keeping in mind to implement the four capacities in their own subject matter, they must also be familiar with presenting them over the school all together.

Since the Curriculum for Excellence has still to be presented, the main purpose of this project is to research how citizenship being offered and applied in Scottish institutions currently. In order to addresses this question, it was needed for me to also investigate the next sub questions:

  • How the institution provided citizenship?
  • Did all topics in the universities curriculum contribute to citizenship?
  • Were its pupils aware of the word citizenship and performed they understand the idea behind it?
  • Was citizenship marketed across the college all together?

In carrying out this project the author hopes that it will help him in the implementation of citizenship education in his own subject thus enhancing his own teaching practice.

4. Literature Review

The question of what is citizenship? is very difficult to define; David Kerr argues so it. . . is a contested principle. At the heart of the competition are differing views about the function and organisation of culture. (Kerr, 2006:6). Kerrs definition of citizenship education is to. . . encompass the preparation of young people for their jobs and duties as individuals. (Kerr, 2006:7). Audrey Osler and Hugh Starkey state that Citizenship is a niche site of political struggle. (Osler and Starkey, 2005:11). They go on to identify it as having two essential aspects, first a status and a couple of duties and second a practise and an entitlement to rights (Osler and Starkey, 2006:6). Olser and Starkey also argue that. . . citizenship is most likely immediately experienced as a feeling of owed. (Osler and Starkey, 2006:6). An explanation in a Scottish Professional paper offers the reason that Everyone belongs to numerous kinds of community, both communities of place, from local to global, and neighborhoods of interest, rooted in a common concern or goal. (Scottish Executive 2000:8) Concluding that Citizenship will involve enjoying privileges and exercising tasks in these various types of neighborhoods (Scottish Executive 2000:8). Based on the Citizenship Foundation, It [citizenship] relates not only to rights and duties laid down in regulations, but also to standard forms of behaviour - cultural and moral - which societies expect of their citizens. (The Citizenship Foundation 2006:2).

These different definitions do seem to recognize a typical theme of citizenship, specifically that, to become a seen as a full member of their community, people need to positively exercise their rights and duties in three areas; civil, interpersonal and political. (Marshall, 1964 cited by Kennedy, 1997:67).

Historically the origins of citizenship are available in Sparta, old Greece where civilian duty conscientiously performed was also expected of the good citizen. This might involve virtuous obedience to the laws and participation in the Assembly (Heating unit, 2004:11). This earliest form of citizenship, that was also a feature of historical Rome, may befar taken off the concept of it even as understand it today but it performed signal a definite movement away from the prior autocratic form of governing.

Throughout the age groups citizenship continued to build up and have found expression in many diverse societies and civilizations as far apart as post-revolutionary France and post-independence USA - where it was enshrined in the constitution and served as the catalyst for societal change - to europe of today where in fact the proposed single constitution is intensely predicated on the thought of a Western european citizen as a system to galvanise the various disparate ethnicities.

Before Citizenship was intro into the curriculum in Britain in 2002 as a discreet subject matter, it had been previously recommended for inclusion double before. Both times noticed Britain in crises of war. In 1918, by the end of World War 1, the Primer of British Citizenship was publicized by Frederick Swann. . . to endorse the moral persona of the British Resident. (Brandom, 2007:269). The Relationship for Education in World Citizenship, (AEWC), was installation in 1935 to, preserve the democratic fabric of modern culture in response to the surge of totalitarianism. (Brandom, 2007:269). Regardless of the AEWCs idea of citizenship being honored in universities in the post-war years, there was no standard addition of citizenship as a topic in to the curriculum.

According to Anne-Marie Brandom, citizenship was presented with some form legislative recognition (2007:270) in the 1988 Education Reform Function but the curriculum time-table was so overcrowded that it failed to be carried out.

Recommendations were also manufactured in a 1990 report, Encouraging Citizenship, concerning means of facilitating communal citizenship through institutions, voluntary attempts and public services (Arthur and Wright, 2001:7) but again there was sparse program of it.

In the last mentioned part of the 1990s politicians were worried about the gradual decline of British culture and modern culture. This deterioration was specifically prevalent amongst the countries youth and because of computer, there is a noticeable increase in anti-social behavior, truancy and high school exclusions. To counter this, an advisory group chaired by Professor Bernard Crick was formed to establish the seeks and functions of citizenship ion schools. (Brandom, 2007:271) The Crick statement, (as it became know), categorised citizenship in three lines: understanding public and moral responsibility; becoming mixed up in community; developing political literacy. (Brandom, 2007:271) The Crick statement greatly relied on the earlier mentioned Marshall explanation of the three elements that make up citizenship; the civil, the interpersonal and the political. These elements were underpinned by the idea of the kid as another resident. (Brandom, 2007:272)

One of the suggestions from the Crick report was that citizenship education should get 5% of curriculum time. That and other tips helped form certain requirements for citizenship education in the Revised National Curriculum 2000.

The Revised National Curriculum 2000 comes with three strands: understanding public and moral responsibility; becoming mixed up in community; and growing political literacy (QCA/DfEE, 1999:6 cited in (Brandom, 2007:272). Due to these three strands, pupils are to: become knowledgeable residents; develop skills of enquiry and communication; develop skills of involvement and accountable action. (QCA/DfEE, 1999:6 cited in (Brandom, 2007:272)

Unlike most Britain, most of Europe, THE UNITED STATES and Australia, citizenship hasn't ever been officially introduced into the Scottish classes curriculum.

In the 2000 consultation newspaper Education for Citizenship in Scotland stated that citizenship education in Scottish colleges would not involve the creation of a fresh subject matter citizenship education - or the version of any solitary existing section of the curriculum. (Scottish Executive 2000:16) Instead it would be done through combinations of learning experience occur the lifestyle of the school, discrete regions of the curriculum, cross-curricular activities and activities involving links with the local community. (Scottish Exec 2000:16)

The papers regular membership of the review group was chaired by Teacher Pamela Munn of Edinburgh School who recognized the opinion of your whole-school approach to citizenship education, commenting that:

To seem to locate citizenship education in one particular post-14 course of study seems to be inconsistent with the extensive view of education for citizenship being advanced in this paper. (Scottish Executive 2000 cited in Arthur and Wright, 2003:16)

The review group concluded that citizenship education in Scotland is integral to the training of students and consisting in the complete curriculum and ethos of the school. (Arthur and Wright, 2003:16).

The soon to be unveiled curriculum for superiority shares the same views of the non-introduction of citizenship education as a discreet subject matter. In the 2004 curriculum review group paper a curriculum for superiority, citizenship education is still presented to be a whole-school approach but it also includes the family and the community:

They should be successful learners, self-confident individuals, responsible people and effective contributors to world and at work. By providing composition, support and way to young peoples learning, the curriculum should allow them to build up these four capacities. The curriculum should match the important contributions of people and communities (Scottish Executive 2004:12)

In 2006 a curriculum for excellence progress and proposal was publicized. This newspaper was follow-up to the 2004 curriculum review group paper previously talked about. Again the whole-school way is advocated, this time with exterior support from other organisations, making citizenship education totally productive not just over the whole school or local community but internationally.

The complete university has responsibility for growing the four capacities atlanta divorce attorneys child and young person. It has implications for the contributions of each adult who helps children and young people, as well as for whole-school plans, planning and partnerships with other organisations. (Scottish Executive 2006:8)

5. Outcomes

The focus of this project was to check out how citizenship was both offered and implemented in my second placement school. I further looked into its implementation in my own subjects office and also viewed for evidence of cross-curricular activities. For the purposes of researching this job, I conducted staff interviews and mediated a pupils concentration group. This allowed me investigate which components of citizenship were included by the staff whilst educating their own subject. In addition, it provided me with as gage regarding the amount of the staff and pupils knowledge and understanding of citizenship.

In looking at teaching citizenship in my own subject matter I designed four lessons on world music. This gave my school and I the chance to examine other cultures and their music. The materials produced that have been specific to the cultures we were looking into; Brazil, Cuba, Indonesia and Ghana. From the lessons the school were able to; discuss the backdrop to the music and the way the music made them feel, develop their functional skills by playing the music both singularly and as an organization and understand how to listen effectively. (To most pupils music is a record noise; they notice music in a lift, in a shopping centre and on the MP3 players as they study. ) Coaching music and citizenship in this active way allowed me much scope for personal representation, requesting myself; what went well, what would have to be advanced and what would do in different ways next time? This in turn helped with my very own personal development not just as a music educator but as a entire teacher.

6. Methods

In researching this project I made a decision to use a variety of different methods. My main reasons because of this was that in my own previous research study I used observation as the key type of my exploration and I noticed that easily used a variety of research methods this time around I could expect better reactions from both personnel and pupils likewise.

6. 1 Personnel interviews

Through the academic institutions regent, meetings were established with users of staff who were willing to comment on how citizenship has been put in place in their department in the institution. The staff members I attained up with were: the Citizenship Co-ordinator, the top of the Division for Science, the top of the Office for Social Education and a instructor from the music team.

A meeting of fifteen to twenty minutes with each one of the above staff members was arranged. I had developed well prepared and circulated lots of key questions in advance of the conferences. (Appendix 1). The questions centered how citizenship is sent in both their department and through the institution all together. I asked each member of staff for agreement to tape the interviews I conducted and everything agreed. This enabled me to check on the facts I wrote down up against the recordings, thus making certain my analysis was accurate and presented a true reflection of their views.

what are the Advantages/negatives?

The interviews with the staff members became very successful, with all my seeks and objectives being met. By the end of each interview they also decided to make themselves available by email to clarify any issues that might have arisen whilst I had been writing up the study.

6. 2 Pupils focus group

With the classes permission, a emphasis group consisting of a cross section of S1 to S6 pupils was assemble to occur one lunchtime. A sheet including the main theme headings of the conversation was given to the pupils taking part in order to give them time to prepare for this. (Appendix 2).

My activity as the mediator of the group was to keep carefully the discussion open concluded whilst keeping it on the topic. To help keep them further on subject and help point their thinking I had written the subject headings of the subject areas to be discussed on the rooms whiteboard. A high level of pupil connection ensued, from which the data because of this report surfaced.

This method of gathering data from the pupils has it benefits and drawbacks. Advantages being that it permits a non-threatening way thus leading to an wide open uninhibited discussion. The usage of this method also provided the pupils a way to discuss in case need be, challenge each others views in a safe, friendly, non-threatening environment.

The Drawback of performing the emphasis group was a several stronger personalities started to impact and dominate group discussion therefore making it difficult for the quieter pupils to air their views. As a result of this I frequently asked the group if everyone decided with a comment made or asked if that was what everyone thought. I also called on several pupils by name to discover their viewpoints on responses made.

I again asked and received agreement from the school and the pupils to track record the concentration group debate; this allowed me to mediate the group without having to quickly jot down what was being said. In doing this I could accurately summarise this content of the conversation at a later time.

Twelve pupils, two from each year, attended the focus group and their efforts to it will be analysed in the next chapter.

7. Analysis

From the outset it needs to be recognized that with only four staff members interviewed and one pupils focus group conducted, the findings offered in this professional job can only just be thought to be being primary, however, my research does uncover lots of interesting studies concerning the execution of citizenship within the institution. The remainder of this section will analyse the views and thoughts made during both the interviews with the workers and the pupils focus group. Because only four staff members were interviewed, their views are offered separately, thus enabling a more detailed exploration of these.

7. 1 Staff interviews

Meeting One: Coordinator of Citizenship

This staff member was genuine in told me that he was not used to the school and this although part of his tasks included being the Planner of Citizenship he was still seeking to familiarise himself with the obligations and duties regarding it. He is at the moment undertaking an audit on Citizenship within the school where he was taking a look at; where the school reaches with it, what repetition between the departments there exists and what the school need to do more off. He knew from meetings he had attended within the institution that departments possessed Citizenship stated as something they were to check out in their improvement plans but until he understood the consequence of his audit he wouldnt know if or how it had been implemented.

He told achieved the school was trying to integrate Citizenship rather than own it seen as a bolt on. Various strategies have been introduced this university season such as junior and mature college student councils, both of which experienced a budget, the re-establishment of residences and house captains and the execution of activity days such as succeed and enterprise through-out the entire year.

Meeting Two: Head of Section for Science

This employee expressed that she was bothered when she agreed to be interviewed that her office would be found to be lacking in integrating the components of citizenship education into their teaching, however, the audit she have on her division proved these dread to be unfounded.

Knowledge and Understanding are advertised in Science using issues such as; eco chemistry, genetics and nuclear chemistry. In eco chemistry the pupils study the environment, the consequences of pollution on it and global warming. Genetics deals with the moral issues of genetic executive. Nuclear chemistry talks about nuclear electric power and what alternatives can be found.

Skills and Aptitude: it was told me that the institution ran their Higher curriculum over 2 yrs, thus gave the section time to include developing the pupils skills of showing, discourse and debating.

Through group work where the pupils should think critically about the issues covered and the experiments they are really asked to execute. They should learn and discover through research, evaluation and exploration and their email address details are presented to all of those other groupings/teams where they are simply argued, mentioned and debated. An example of this is the genetics unit where genetic executive and test tube babies are reviewed. Informed arguments receive for and against, the pupils should realise that there surely is no right or incorrect here only their judgment.

Values: the technology department has a set of rules for admiration; pupils are encouraged to respect themselves and their peers and educators. They are taught to value the classroom and the gear within it. They are also educated to value the thoughts and opinions of others, as all tips of view are valid. Value for the wider community, the environment and the earth are among other values taught.

Meeting Three: Brain of Team for Community Education

This member of staff was very experienced in presenting and providing the cultural education program, he shown an obvious knowledge of how citizenship should be included in the curriculum and across the school all together.

Knowledge and Understanding: Public Education is timetabled for one hour a week for 1st to 4th year pupils and for just two hours weekly for 5th and 6th. Within Social Education knowledge and understanding are promoted using such issues as; money and the world of banking, gender education, right and tasks, similar opportunities, personal development, occupations education, social development, where the school sits within East Lothian, within Scotland and the entire world all together, drugs and alcohol education and keeping safe. Inside the rights and duties unit pupils are taught the academic institutions anti-bulling plan, any major bulling situations cause the issuing of the rights and bulling agreement, this has led to a 95% success rate of them being fixed in college.

Skills and Aptitudes: promoting and producing skills in pupils to cope with a changing multi-cultural world, being taught admiration for others and toleration through a partnership with themselves, the institution, their parents and the authorities, that their university is a reflection of modern culture - what they learn in institution can mould and condition society, communication and group work/ teamwork, body gestures and coping skills for both classroom and contemporary society - skills and strategies are provided to help the pupils deal within their peer group and also help them to avoid being coerced into intimacy, taking drugs or alcohol consumption, critical thinking - pupils should realize that during debates there are no right or wrong answers, they receive relevant information in order to make an informed choice, they are simply taught to believe, pair and talk about - pupils are asked to think of their own view on a subject, match up with somebody and discuss it, be a part of a group debate, feed back again to the school thus promoting effective contribution and critical thinking.

Values: within the Sociable Education lessons pupils are expected to respect themselves, their peers and their teachers. They are taught to value the classroom also to create a protected climate for everybody within it. Through their relationship with the authorities, the institution and their parents they are simply taught to respect the law, democracy and justice. They are simply taught to stand up for themselves and protect their own perspective.

Meeting Four: Music Teacher

This member of staff was not used to the section and spoke of her experience both in that and her earlier school. Disappointingly, she expressed doubts as to why world music should be educated as part of the curriculum.

Knowledge and Understanding are marketed in music through using such subject areas as world music. In world music the pupils study music from Cuba, Brazil, Ghana, India and Indonesia, learning about their culture, the equipment they use and the variations between their music and music from the West. Pupils are also trained not to waste materials the planets resources by transitioning off electrical equipment when it is not used.

Skills and Aptitude: a huge part of producing skills and aptitudes in music is done through the involvement in different incidents with locally. The music office has used pupils to entertain the older persons at The holiday season, had pupils participate in the Rotary clubs young musician of the entire year contest and has been asked to sing/perform at the opening of a new primary university and housing association. Pupils are encouraged to join the various orchestras and rings that the institution runs this provides you with them the opportunity to work in organizations and build team work. Viewpoints can also be communicated through music writing.

Values: pupils are trained to value themselves, their peers and both the class room and instrumental educators. The division also train pupils to respect all genres of music and have value for the school room and the equipment within it.

7. 2 Pupils concentration group

As was outlined earlier in this project, a concentrate group period was carried out in order to look for the pupils knowledge and understanding of citizenship and how it was educated to them both officially and informally. At the on-set of the time the meaning of citizenship was quickly talked about with the group, after which there is a directed dialogue on six different issues involving it. The conversation produced the next results:

Issue One: Citizenship in the school

The pupils outlined lots of activities that they though had helped them to build up both in my opinion and socially. These included contribution in school travels to Germany and Switzerland, ethnic visits such as a stop by at the Royal Scottish Museum and a community commitments program, which engaged picking right up litter, venture, presentations and university shows.

Issue Two: Public & Moral issues

The Pupils mentioned their involvement in applying the classes anti-bullying initiatives which initially had started out as a 5th year community task. They believed that racism had not been issues in the school. The pupils submit one point of grievance of not being permitted to run any fund increasing activities in the institution. They felt they might like the possibility to raise money for valuable causes.

Issue Three: Privileges & responsibilities

The pupils thought they had a words in the school through both the junior and mature pupils councils. Their reps were democratically elected and went to regular conferences of the councils provided a vehicle where pupils issues could be elevated. Pupils are also put into houses, that have house captains. The houses are awarded details for good behavior, attendance, competition is victorious etc.

Issue Four: The institution & wider community

There was much evidence of an involvement in the wider community. As part of the previously mentioned community commitments program some pupils had sang at the beginning of a fresh primary institution and acquired read poetry read poetry the residents of a vintage people home.

Issue Five: Politics & Democracy

There was little evidence of any knowledge of politics or democracy apart from the pupils who got or were studying Modern Studies.

Issue Six: The environment

Pupils mentioned that, the institution works an Eco Membership in which both instructors and pupils discuss way of saving the environment, (local, countrywide and world). They sensed that more recycling could be done within the school. There was only 1 recycling bin which is at the teachers carpark. The group had asked for money to provide departments with the own recycling bin but their get was refused.

8. Conclusions

In collecting the evidence from pupils and personnel and through observation of the delivery of citizenship at whole institution level, it is clear that the opportunity of citizenship is far-reaching. Areas such as rights and duties, politics and democracy, community welfare, prepared decision-making, admiration for others and a range of participatory activities, provided a wealthy source of proof.

The pupil focus groups and tutor interviews exposed clear research that elements of the above topics were protected through the delivery of discrete subject matter content. Specifically, the content of Modern Studies included a far more comprehensive analysis of political establishments and politics democratic processes more finitely than another curricular area. However, curricular themes such as British and Background provided issues which examined rights and tasks and politics and democracy through the study of conflict and the moral issues involved. The analysis of Geography and the discrete sciences also provided review of the surroundings.

Religious and Moral Education explored social and moral issues and inspired thoughtful and responsible action and an understanding of expanding countries, evaluating poverty, famine and drought. Home Economics developed pupil knowledge and understanding of nutritionary issues, healthy eating and the value of cleanliness. Physical Education inspired healthy standards of living and the understanding of the idea of healthy brain, healthy body.

Subjects included in the Business Education and IT office, for example, Business Administration developed an gratitude in pupils of money management and organization and, also, allowed pupils to think about the impact of technology on daily lives. Modern Dialects developed awareness of the value of different ethnicities and the service to travel in another country enhanced the development of foreign language skills and the gratitude of foreign civilizations at first palm. Art work and Design allowed pupils the possibility to develop creative capacity and provided an alternative solution means of manifestation.

However, but the above curricular topics delivered aspects of citizenship through permeation, the non-public and Public Development (PSD) programme allocated dedicated time to numerous aspects of citizenship, including protection under the law and duties, for example, in relation to smoking, alcohol, intimate issues and moral dilemmas. Furthermore, this subject provided the chance for open talk, encouraging pupils to be tolerant of disagreement and minority views and also to enhance their decision-making skills through working with others.

In addition, the starting of work experience placements marketed a direct connect to the world of work. This is further enhanced by the service of mock interviews for pupils by reps of the business community prior to leaving school. The assistance of Employment opportunities Scotland also impacted on pupils attitudes to leaving university.

My observations of citizenship at whole-school level disclosed citizenship doing his thing to that your pupils involved looked totally determined. Activities noticed included Education Action where reps from expanding countries resolved whole-school assemblies. This is a result of a teacher at the institution having stopped at Uganda, which led to pupils becoming actively involved with fundraising for Uganda. The set up provided the ability for pupils to hand on the cheque as a result of these fundraising activities.

A further assemblage demonstrated S4 pupils offering whole-school presentations on the work experience, allowing them to develop their personal attributes and skills and to make a good contribution to their fellow pupils. The pupil council, to which category staff were elected, also provided the ability for pupils to participate and donate to the wider life of the school. Unfortunately, however, I had been unable to view meetings within my placement as these were postponed due to initial examinations.

Other whole-school activities included Young Business, pupil involvement in a variety of competitions, debating and Duke of Edinburgh Prize, all designed to develop the abilities included in the development of citizenship.

In final result, it is my view that pupils often didn't appreciate when citizenship was being delivered. It was only through conversation at focus groups that they emerged to realise totally what citizenship entailed. This perhaps shows that, in Scottish education, citizenship is often implicit in its delivery through discrete curricular areas. As indicated earlier, PSD is a lot more explicit, in both content and delivery, yet pupil notion of this subject matter is perhaps not as high as other subjects, which are assessed at nationwide level.

However, my overarching final result is that pupil engagement in citizenship was at its best through active involvement by pupils. When allocated a definite activity or, indeed, when this task was suggested by the pupil, so when given responsibility to see the task through to a successful final result, pupils responded with drive, determination and passion. Such activities included pupils in enlightened decision-making, showing esteem for others, being sensible and producing personal skills and attributes. From my observations, however, I'd conclude that the best void is the absence of developing political literacy in pupils. Unless pupils study Modern Studies, and numerically very few do, i quickly fear many pupils will leave institution politically illiterate to a larger or lesser amount. This, I will suggest, is an inadequacy in Scottish education, which needs to be tackled.

9. Implications and Recommendations

This job has investigated the demonstration and implementation of citizenship in Scottish classes. The research accumulated whilst evaluating citizenship in both the subject curriculum and the school all together would seem to aid the idea that citizenship is educated more successfully when it's spread through out the complete curriculum alternatively than being provided as a discreet subject. Although most pupils didn't know the word citizenship, they gained working experience of the components of it through the schools subject matter curriculum and through the institution as a whole.

The college curriculum is already overcrowded; a consultation newspaper called Education for Citizenship in Scotland concluded on the issues of subject matter choice in Scottish classes that, the response to this situation shouldn't be to stipulate any solo course of review of citizenship education within each students key programme. (Scottish Executive, 2000: p26).

In concluding this job there are three recommendations its publisher would make to help take citizenship education frontward in Scottish education:

  • Pupils need to be actively involved with citizenship education, taking part in debates, discussions, initiatives and jobs.
  • Rather than leave politics and democracy to modern studies, (which after second calendar year becomes an optional subject matter), some research of them needs to be included somewhere else in the curriculum. Not to achieve this task, will produce pupils who are politically uninformed.
  • Rather than make citizenship education a discreet subject matter, as it is in Britain, Scotland should continue putting into action it as part of the ethos of the school and part of the curriculum as a whole.

Bibliography

Andrews, G. (1991), Citizenship. Lawrence and Wishart Small, London. pp. 21 - 26.

Arthur, J. and Wright, D. (2001). Teaching Citizenship in the Extra University. David Fulton Publishers Ltd London. pp. 5 - 16.

Cogan, J. J. and Derricott, R. (1998). Citizenship for the 21st Century: A GLOBAL Point of view on Education. Kogan Site Small, London. pp. 2 - 4.

Kennedy, K. J. (1997). Citizenship Education and the Modern Status. Falmer Press, London. pp. 67 - 69.

Scottish Professional Education Department Record. (2001). Education for Citizenship in Scotland: A Newspaper for Discourse and Development.

Scottish Professional. (2000). National Priorities in College Education. [online]. Crown Copyright, Scottish Statutory Instrument No 443. Available from: http://www. scotland. gov. uk/education/nationalpriorities/priorities. asp, (p. 1).

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