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How Businesses Operate: Key Functions and Theories

AC. 1. 1 Describe the types of organisations within the general public and private industries in a called country.


A social product of men and women that is organized and managed to meet a need or even to pursue collective goals. All organizations have a management composition that determines relationships between the different activities and the associates, and subdivides and assigns assignments, responsibilities, and expert to handle different responsibilities. Organizations are open up systems--they influence and are affected by their environment.

There are different types of company:

1- General population sector

2- Private sector

3- Voluntary sector

4- cooperative organisations

Private organizationrefers to anybody, partnership, corporation, connection or company which is not a public body that is operated for profit. It's rather a self-sustaining, non-federal entity, constituted or established and functioning on Government property, by individuals performing outside any standard capacity in the federal Government.

A general public sector organizationis one which is controlled by the government. This contrasts with private sector organizations, which can be manipulated by private entities. People sector organizations often provide services for people regardless of the person's capacity to pay. For instance, the public institution system is open to all children, irrespective of their parents' income. This makes the general public schools completely different from private universities, that the child's parents must pay a rate.

Public Sector


A legal form of business operation between two or more individuals who show management and profits. The federal government recognizes several types of partnerships. Both most usual are basic and limited partnerships.

Sole Traders

As a only investor, you run your own business as a person. You can keep your business's profits after you've paid tax with them. You can employ staff. 'Single trader' means you're in charge of the business enterprise, not that you have to work by themselves. You're personally responsible for any loss your business makes.


An authorization awarded by a federal government or company to a person or group permitting them to carry out particular commercial activities, for example behaving as a realtor for a company's products


A Company is a legal entity consisting of an association of individuals, be they natural, legal, or an assortment of both, to carry on a commercial or industrial enterprise. Company people share a common purpose and unite to be able to focus their various skills and set up their collectively available skills or resources to accomplish specific, announced goals

The Partenership

A partnership is an arrangement where get-togethers, known as associates, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual hobbies. The lovers in a relationship may be individuals, businesses, interest-based organizations, academic institutions, governments or combinations.

Types of organisations within the public sector

Public sector's are possessed and run by the federal government and the money is employed to fund most the general public sector for example:

NHS (Country wide Health Service) - they provide free services to the general public such as free healthcare and medication which is funded by the Taxpayer.

State Institutions - funded by the government for free education from the age of the age of 4 to 16.

Private Sector Organisation

Private organization identifies any person, partnership, corporation, relationship or agency which is not a public body that is operated for profit. It's rather a self-sustaining, non-federal entity, constituted or founded and working on National property, by individuals behaving outside any standard capacity in the federal Government.


The description of business environment means all the internal and exterior factors that influence the way the company functions including employees, customers, management, source and demand and business rules.

An exemplory case of an integral part of a business environment is how well customers goals are found.

CSR helps business organisation to:

  • 1. Improves Community Image
  • 2. Increases Press Coverage
  • 3. Boosts Employee Engagement

Organisation Types

There are three main types of organizational structure:

  1. Functional: is setup so that every portion of the business is grouped corresponding to its purpose
  2. Divisional: typically is used in bigger companies that operate in a wide geographic area or which may have individual smaller organizations within the umbrella group to hide different kinds of products or market areas
  3. Matrix composition: is a crossbreed of divisional and practical structure, typically used in large multinational companies, the matrix structure allows for the benefits associated with useful and divisional buildings to exist in a single organization

Macroeconomic Influence

Macroeconomic factors are occurrences or situations that have an impact on the economy on the broader level, influencing the economical final result of large teams of people on the national or regional level.

Some macroeconomic factors include:

  • unemployment
  • savings
  • inflation
  • Investments

Microeconomic Effect

Microeconomics will involve factors of resources supply and use that impact individuals and businesses. As the company operator, understanding the core microeconomic factors affecting your business assists with planning and prep, as well as long-term business strategy development.

Six microeconomic business factors that impact almost any business are:

  • customers
  • employees
  • competitors
  • media
  • shareholders
  • suppliers.

Task 2 - Business Functions

AC. 2. 1 Explain the value of accounting for business success

Accounting is also called the "language of business. " since it communicates so a lot of the information that owners, managers and investors need to assess the financial performance of the company. The goal of accounting is to help stakeholders better business decisions by giving them with financial information. Accounting employ a financial assertions such as Balance Sheet, Income Declaration and CASHFLOW Statement. These assertions help business professionals to assess the ratios such as gross profit, net revenue, current, quick, ROE, ROI, inventory turnover and asset turnover ratios.

Data analysis

Part of parcel statistics is easy and simple part when all you have to do is start the accounting softwer site. What is the hardest is examining, interpreting and interacting information.

Business strategy

Accountants ensure that stakeholders understand the importance of financial information and working with individuals and organizations to help them use financial information to meet business problems.


Planning means managers to find the company's aims with the resources available. The ability of a supervisor to plan costs depends developed by accountants.

AC. 5. 1 Describe the various functions completed by the HR office in a business


Recruitment is dependant on the principles of creating a picture of the vacant workplace by using the supervisors, inviting prospects for interviews that later the potential to be elected. It is vital in expanding the workforce of the employer.


Safety at the job is very important. Due to occupational health and safety legislation of 1970, employers are obliged to provide a safe working environment for employees.

Employee Relations

HR Employee Relationships is discipline that handles strengthening employer-employee romance by measuring job satisfaction, employee engagement and turmoil resolution at work.

Compensantion and Benefits

Compensation and benefits functions of HR can be manipulated by a human resources specialist twice experienced. For the compensation, human source functions play a role in determining compensation structures and diagnosis routines competitive wage


Compliance with labor legislations and employment is a necessary function of HR. Noncompliance can lead to complaints in the workplace predicated on unsafe conditions and general dissatisfaction with working conditions that can affect productivity and in the long run, profitability. HR personnel must know federal and state regulations.

Training and development

The training and development site helps improve the candidate characteristics and skills that contribute to personal development. HR discovered deficiencies and prepares individuals for training those features that must be developed.

AC. 5. 2 Outline key features of employment legislation


The amount of the holidays that a person can take it in a season would rely upon how many days and nights is he focusing on a week. In the UK there is a to 5. 6 weeks of paid total annual leave capped at 28 days and nights.

Contract of Employment

The contract of employment is performed when one get together agrees to pay the other for services offered. The contract is usually written one, but could also be verbal, by letter, or implied by other activities. This figure became lawfully binding between your parties

Minimum wage

In the UK, the minimum wage is the hourly rate to be paid to all or any employees aged over 16 years.

The least wage change every Oct in the UK. As the national wage rate changes in Apr.

Hours of Work

The maximum time that can normally a worker can execute a week is 48 hours. This law is sometimes called "regulations on working time. " You are able to choose to work longer giving up to 48 time per week. Those who find themselves under 18 cannot work more than 8 time each day or 40 hours per week.

Sick Leave and Pay

In the UK any staff is eligible for paid tired leave. Somehow the staff can ask for medical expenses or doctor's agreement if the unwell leave exceeds a period of 7 days. The holiday times is made up while an employee is off work unwell. Any employee may take their twelve-monthly leave as long as they are off sick. For instance when they do not fit for the sick pay.

Rest Period

It requires a slumber of 11 consecutive hours in any period of 24 hours. When the working day is higher than 6 hours the employee will need to have 20 minutes for the others. At least one day off every week. Night workers have a limit of 8 time of work every 24 hours and the right for night personnel to receive regular medical assessments.

Task 3 - Accounting Workshop

AC. 3. 1 Interpret the information on the revenue and loss account


Is the amount of money a company receives throughout a given period by advertising products or providing services to the clients.

Cost of Sales

It is the full total of all costs used to help create a product or service that is sold. Retailers use this term.

Gross Revenue

It represents the quantity of money a business gets before any expenditures. Net gain is gross income the value of any company including negative items of income.


Represents investment property or costs incurred if an organization's initiatives to generate income toward the cost of conducting business. Costs may take the form of actual cash payments (wages and wages), a calculated expired part of a secured asset or a lump removed from revenue.

Operational Income

Represents net income of any company with no any financial activity or impact fees. This solution highlights of the business's ability to create income from its operational activities. Formulation operating income is really as follows: World wide web sales - Cost of goods sold - Operating expenditures = Operating income

Taxes and Interest

"The deduction of interest" is a deduction for taxpayers who pay certain interest. Interest deductions reduce the amount of income at the mercy of tax. Both main types are deductions for home mortgage interest and interest home equity loan, and the interest margin accounts.

Net Income

Business net gain represents earnings less cost of goods sold to a company charges and bills for an accounting period. And yes it is called as the web increase in equity resulting from procedures of any company.

Task 4 - Teams

AC. 4. 1 Carry out an analysis to ascertain your and others' jobs in a team. Article the results of your work

I did some research and from then on I found out that for a team to be successful it needs to get access to each of the 9 Belbin Team Assignments. Most people have several team jobs with that they feel comfortable. They are really Source Investigator, Teamworker, Co-ordinator, Vegetable, Monitor Evaluator, Specialist, Shaper, Implementer, Completer Finisher. Source of information Investigator side are using their instinctive in finding ideas to bring back to the team. They are incredibly enthusiastic and can easily develop contacts. Team worker use their adaptability to recognize and complete the work required with respect to the team. They are incredibly cooperative and diplomatic. The Co-ordinator must concentrate on team goals, to find associates and delegate work consequently. The defining characteristics are confident, mature, identify talent, gaps clarify. The Seed tends to be very creative and proficient at resolving problems in unconventional ways. It presents the features that are creativeness, creativity, free thinking, generating ideas and resolving difficult problems. Monitor Evaluator is the part that handles reasoning, making impartial judgments only when necessary and weighed options within an uninterested team and is also got the benefits of being sober and tactical. They find all selections and judgments effectively. Specialist increases in-depth understanding of key areas for the team. His talents are: self-starting, dedication, single-minded. It offers knowledge and skills specialist. Shaper ensure the required drive to be sure that the team persists to travel rather than lose concentrate or momentum. The basic qualities are: challenging, vibrant and gets the courage to conquer road blocks. Implementer plan a feasible strategy as efficiently as you possibly can. His benefits are functional, reliable and effective. Result in the fulfillment of ideas and coordinate their work they must do. Completer Finisher are used most effectively at the end of jobs to polish and control help errors. His features are diligent, conscientious, anxious. Is in constant search of errors.

AC. 4. 2 Describe the stages of team development

Dr. Bruce Tuckman developed the first model used, which resulted in the publication of the four levels of team development: Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing model in 1965. Dr. Tuckman added a fifth step, postponement in during the 1970s.

Forming: an organization of people collect together to attain a goal. Their first success will be based upon their knowledge of each other's style of working, their experience on past teams and clearness of their given objective.

Storming: Disagreement about quest, vision and methods to address the challenge or assignment is continuous in this stage of development. This struggle is combined with that the associates become familiar with each other, learning to cooperate with the other person and growing acquainted with discussion and communication group customers.

Norming: The team created so consciously or unconsciously associations that allow improvement on team goals work. Members decided consciously or unconsciously, to comply with certain rules and they become practical group working jointly.

Performing: This is actually the level that true teamwork advances. Relationships, processes team, and the team's efficiency working altogether to apply the successful operation of the team.

Ending: The team has already reached the prospective that proposed which is time for team members to pursue new goals or jobs.

AC. 4. 3 Assess three drive theories

Frederick Taylor's theory of motivation

Frederick Taylor motivation theory says that a lot of workers are encouraged entirely by salary they receive for the task they are doing. He realized that a lot of employees do not benefit from the work they certainly and perform only once administered directly pay back of monetary repayment. His ideas were implemented by Henry Ford and other industrialists who paid manufacturing plant workers depending on the amount of items produced. This theory lost favour of staff became frustrated and development was halted scheduled to frequent hits by disgruntled employees.

Elton Mayo's theory of motivation

Elton Mayo's theory of inspiration examined the cultural needs of the employee. He was the only person who believed that the payment is not sufficient to encourage employees to strive. He assumed that cultural needs of the employees were also very important. He encouraged employers to take care of their employees in a humane and considerate, displaying an interest in the average person, in order to create their best work.

Abraham Maslow and Frederick Irving Herzberg theory of motivation

Abraham Maslow and Frederick Irving Herzberg believed strongly that psychological forces driving individual tendencies. Their theory postulated a graduated range of human needs, from basic physical, like craving for food and thirst at the very top level, like the need to aulto-fulfillment and also to be love. These were of the view that employers will obtain satisfactory results from employees if they recognized the different needs of specific workers and their compensation if they assorted depending on person.

AC. 4. 4 Describe different kinds of leadership style


Laissez-faire leader gets the disadvantage direct guidance of employees and does not provide regular reviews to those who find themselves under his guidance. Even employees with a huge experience and trained supervisors need in this type of command. However, not all employees have these features. This form of leadership hamper the employees who need guidance. Laissez-faire style does not make any work management or guidance from professionals that cause lean production, insufficient control and increased costs.


Managers using transactional leadership style have certain responsibilities to perform and offer rewards or punishments for team members based on performance results. Professionals and team members predetermined established goals collectively and the employees agree to follow the course and command of the supervisor to accomplish these goals. The manager has the capacity to review the results and also to teach and instruct employees when team members fail to meet their focuses on. Employees obtain rewards such as bonus items when they achive goals.


This kind of leadership depends on a high level of communication from management to meet up with the objectives. Leaders motivate employees and increase productivity and efficiency through communication and high awareness. This includes participating leadership style of management to meet goals. Leaders give attention to the big picture within an organization also to delegate smaller team to achieve its goals.



http://yourbusiness. azcentral. com/three-major-theories-motivation-1260. html

http://www. belbin. com/about/belbin-team-roles/

http://smallbusiness. chron. com/six-main-functions-human-resource-department-60693. html

http://www. slideshare. net/asad50/leadership-report-31491301

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