The 1950's are appreciated for the highly publicized Joseph McCarthy hearings that centered on exposing the communist supporters and sympathizers which were living in the United States. However, it is important to examine the interpersonal and politics changes that began 3 years prior with the establishment of HUAC. The House Committee on Un-American Activities, or HUAC, was a committee created and backed by the United States government that subpoenaed and questioned individuals of the Hollywood community in regard to their alleged communist affiliations. The group that received the most attention referred to ten Hollywood screenwriters and directors who have been marked as communists while employed in the film industry through the past due 1940's. This band of men, known as the infamous "Hollywood Ten", was subpoenaed by HUAC on October 1947. The Hollywood Ten defended themselves throughout their hearings by utilizing one of four rhetorical strategies. (1) They emphasized their loyalty and devotion to america, (2) they in the beginning cooperated with HUAC but refused to answer questions scheduled to HUAC's bantering and constant interruptions, (3) they defended themselves by providing HUAC with brands of other people with the purpose to clear their reputations, and finally, (4) they counter-attacked HUAC for his or her un-American approach to the allegations.
In late October of 1947, there was a nation-wide crackdown on communism in America; numerous historians analyze the communist infultration in Hollywood, centering specifically on the Hollywood Ten. John Cogley's reserve, Blacklisting: Two Key Documents (1971), contends that blacklisting violated the civil liberties of the people who were requested to take part in HUAC's reading. Cogley participated in a report known as The Account for the Republic, that was a series of studies that analyzed the damage triggered by anticommunism. He interviewed professionals of the motion picture industry, unions, actors, reporters and firms to get information about how the HUAC hearings violated the civil liberties of these who have been subpoenaed for alleged communist activities. He argues that the founding rules of blacklisting aren't popular and that these missing fact is important to fully understanding why civil liberties were violated. This publication helps know how the civil liberties of these subpoenaed by HUAC were violated. Cogley implemented oral record interviews and authorities documents to aid his research. This publisher does not addresses the rhetorical strategies employed by Hollywood Ten associates.
Stefan Kanfer's booklet, A Journal of the Plague Years (1973), summarized that show-business is not independent from the nationwide environment and this Hollywood personnel will be more accurate interpretations of the Age than politicians. Kanfer's research targets the entertainment occupation, particularly movie theater and broadcasting, but addresses blacklisting in Hollywood as well. This booklet ha He keeps that historians mistakenly concentrate their focus on authorities investigations and their witnesses, such as HUAC and the Hollywood Ten. The writer believes that by looking at the entertainment career, one can see all the aspects of national politics through the sight of Hollywood personel and not politicians. Kanfer's publication supported this topic by providing history information on that which was taking place in Hollywood and the entertainment world during this time period ever sold and also helped answer the precise explanations why the Hollywood Ten were targeted. Kanfer's research included information that was extracted from dental histories, testimonies, and administration documents. This creator does not treat the rhetorical strategies employed by Hollywood Ten associates.
In the book, The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960 (1979), written by Larry Ceplair and Steve Englund, the authors maintain that as the days improved from 1940's liberalism to the 1950's McCarthy time. Those considered Hollywood activists would be primary focus on for communist speculation, due to their radical activities in the Hollywood community. Ceplair and Englund viewed the politics and professional contexts of the Hollywood Ten; they declare that many historians overlook the idea at how successful the Hollywood Ten were as radicals; because they were struggling to create alliances with liberals. According to these two historians, those that were targeted in the later 1940's had put in almost two decades professionally and economically participating in a bunch of intensifying and radical causes. Ceplair and Englund's e book contributed to this research by discussing the importance of the radical activity the Hollywood Ten people were involved with before these were subpoenaed by HUAC. The info that was gathered for their research on this particular topic came from local and nationwide papers, pamphlets for nationwide interest groupings, and authorities information documents. This author does not addresses the rhetorical strategies used by Hollywood Ten participants.
Victor Navasky in Naming Names (1980) asserts that by looking at the HUAC informants, one can gain a far more accurate understanding of the conditions of the time period. The 1940's, an interval, he explains was one where good men do things they recognized were wrong, such as betraying their fellow comrades to save lots of themselves from the sociable stigma that came with being labeled as a communist. Navasky retains that the political system of the 1940's was portrayed as a system that violated the prices of an Republic and seen specific Americans as foes of the state. This author will not addresses the rhetorical strategies used by Hollywood Ten customers. Navasky's information for his research was put together though the use of dental histories, interviews, and politics documents.
Kenneth O'Reilly's reserve, Hoover and the Un-Americans: The FBI, HUAC, and the Red Menace (1983), concludes that the FBI's romance with HUAC helped promote the anticommunist movements by working with HUAC. O'Reilly asserts that the progression of anti-communism was accelerated through the FBI's relationship with HUAC. Based on their uncovering of communist activity in Hollywood, FBI informers were hurrying to appear before the committee and testify against alleged communists. The support of the FBI in the hunt for communism heightened the strength of detecting communist infiltration as well as increasing the energy of HUAC of these hearings. O'Reilly's research helped the analysis of this matter by providing track record information of the FBI informants who assisted HUAC in the hearings contrary to the Hollywood Ten. During his research, O'Reilly used authorities records, certain extra sources, testimonies, plus the Independence of Information Action for FBI data related to informants of the HUAC hearings. This publisher does not dwelling address the rhetorical strategies used by Hollywood Ten people.
Otto Frederich in City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the 1940's (1986), demonstrates how through the start of WWII, Hollywood individuals all used differing social, politics, and social views of Hollywood. He argues that unlike other historians, he will not want to solely focus on personal interviews because he feels that alleged communist affiliate marketers have already discussed their hardships and connections with HUAC. To support to his theory, Friedrich read over five-hundred books which range from scholarly studies to analyses of memoirs to confirm that the views of each specific of the Hollywood Ten and HUAC was completely and distinctively different. Frederich's extensive research of this subject matter is important to the paper because it provides numerous thoughts and ideas of people who have discussed the Hollywood Ten which particular time frame. Frederich also used extra sources of prior historians to find major sources for his research. This author does not address the rhetorical strategies used by Hollywood Ten users.
Gabler's e book, An Empire of Their Own (1988), shows that individual participants of the Jewish populace in Hollywood, were thoroughly involved in expertise agencies and movie productions, and then targeted by Red-Baiters because of the perception that Judaism was a number of communism. Gabler views the Hollywood Jewish community as a homogenous group that helped build the movie industry. He argues that since Jews weren't socially accepted, that they had to generate their own empire through film and development agencies. The films created by these firms had the principal goal of portraying American values through the eyes of the Jewish community. This historian concludes that because of the Jewish community creating this empire, movies defined American ideals of that time period period. This reserve gave an intensive knowledge of the Jewish community in Hollywood; the majority of the Hollywood Ten participants were Jewish and this book helped light up why there was a stigma positioned on the Jewish community. Gabler applied oral histories, extra options, and movie/film reviews to aid his research because of this topic. This publisher does not addresses the rhetorical strategies employed by Hollywood Ten participants.
Bernard Dick, in his publication Radical Innocence: A Critical Analysis of the Hollywood Ten (1989), demonstrates that to be able to understand the Hollywood Ten participants, one must transfer from the politics of the Hollywood Ten and concentrate more clearly on the work to fully understand if their films suffered therefore of their political positions. Dick targets the fiction, non-fiction, takes on, poetry, and motion pictures of the Hollywood Ten- he experienced that by analyzing their materials he could interpret their logical and ideas behind their art work. He thought that by looking at the memoirs and histories, it overshadows a lot more significant work of the Hollywood Ten; Dick concludes that some historians and critics who have explored the Hollywood Ten still treat the group with the same scrutiny and criticism that they experienced during their blacklist times. Dick's book aided my topic by focusing on the works of the Hollywood Ten and provides supportive background information on the works that are stated in their testimonies. Dick also used personal memoirs, some secondary resources, and histories of the Hollywood Ten participants to aid his research.
Ronald Brownstein's publication, THE ENERGY and Glitter of the Hollywood-Washington Connection (1990), illustrates that Hollywood's effect on nation-wide politics and its altering role during the period of time helped illuminate the truths of American politics life and provided a more personal understanding of the importance of Hollywood in nation-wide politics and the individuals who were blacklisted. Brownstein centered on the world of show-business and politics; he didn't look at political themes or templates in films as he experienced other historians have. Instead, he analyzed how individuals in the Hollywood community were intertwined with the politics of that time period. Brownstein's research helped this paper by providing record information on Hollywood politics and how they were intimately associated with national politics during the 1940's; this gives ample detail as to the reasons the Hollywood Ten were targeted. The materials and resources Brownstein found in order to accumulate credible information for his research included authorities documents, dental histories, and newspaper articles.
Lastly, Gerald Horne in School Struggle in Hollywood, 1930-1950: Moguls, Mobsters, Actors, Reds, and Trade Unionists (2001), argues that the Conference of Studio room Unions (CSU), that was a federation of art unions, was locked out in 1946 due to a alleged labor dispute. However, Horne argues that is what initially placed the stage for the emergence of the blacklist in 1947. Horne thinks that Hollywood labor disputes show that the Second Red Scare affected an strike on militant "unionism". He is convinced that the labor management issue in Hollywood during 1946, involving the CSU plus the International Alliance of Theatrical Level Employees, was only a cover-up to disguise a dispute between alleged communist activities within the unions. Horne's book greatly contributed to the research by offering an alternate take on information and ideas as to the reasons the blacklist emerged in the late 1940's. This reserve also provided considerable track record information that is pertinent to understanding the Hollywood Ten's blacklist experience. Horne used labor documents and oral histories as most important options for his research.
Although scholars have analyzed the effects of communism within Hollywood and how the HUAC hearings influenced the users of the Hollywood Ten, they may have not completely explored how each of the HUAC hearings was unique. This paper will give attention to the rhetorical strategies of the Hollywood Ten members who were positioned under inspection by HUAC. It is important to understand the significance of this matter because it talks about the popular cultural issues of the time period and how each hearing was not the same in its rhetorical proceedings. This research will be exploring an uncharted proven fact that is not commonly associated with this subject. The study being done will address some of the ideas that other historians have already written about but will give a greater focus on the uniqueness of each individual HUAC reading. However, this paper will be utilizing some of the primary options that some historians who've already covered this theme have used because of their research.
Researching the Hollywood Ten was important to understand that the Hollywood Ten were not the first group to be singled out by our federal government. The practice of blacklisting reaches as far back as the early 1920's. During the Hays commission, there have been scandals on films made by Arbuckle and Chaplin. Anyone associated with writing, acting on and off of the screen was scrutinized. Next, in 1938, under the chairmanship of Texas Congressman, Martin Dies, a committee was began and called The House Committee on Un-American activities. It had been utilized to review groups that were susceptible to communistic ways or techniques. At that time, the group that was targeted had Marxist ideologies. Also, other various organizations that were representing Marxist views or affiliations were under scrutiny.
Keep at heart, after WWII, blacklisting hit a optimum when communism, fascism, and democracy clashed throughout the world. Hostility in politics became a perfect mix to place paranoia around all regulating regimes. So, after WWII, our government authorities decided to squash all communistic or dictator trends and prevent it any place in our claims.
Then, ironically with a twist of fate, The United States and Russia become allies. It was also noted that anti-communistic investigations lessened too. At this time, movie makers created movies depicting moral on the home front to boost the People in america and the Soviet people as well. Among the Soviet films was called "Song of Russia". It was extremely popular. Eventually, Soviet videos would be misconstrued as pro-communist support or red propaganda. It got two years following the war for the films to be cleared of communism purpose. This under taking occurred by the chairmanship of Representative J. Parnell Thomas. He was a Republican from the express of New Jersey. He was also a veteran of the Dies age and a nonjudgmental politician.
The first influx of the invasion contrary to the Hollywood Ten arrived at the insistence of committee member John Rankin. He had announced as soon as 1945 that he had term of, "One of the most dangerous plots ever before instigated for the overthrow of this government. It has its head office in Hollywood. We're on the path of the tarantula now and we're going to follow through. The best people in California are aiding us. " The Hollywood Ten were called to testify and the investigation started out. The first witness called, John Howard Lawson, established the firmness for the group by refusing to answer the fatal question straight. The Committee found Lawson in contempt, as it have the rest of the witnesses who refused to answer to "Are you currently now or perhaps you have ever been an associate of the Communist Get together?" Lawson, along with Dalton Trumbo, Samuel Ornitz, Alvah Bessie, Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole, Adrian Scott, Albert Maltz, Wedding ring Lardner, Jr. , and Edward Dmytryk became known as the Hollywood Ten.
The first rhetorical strategy utilized by Albert Maltz was a remarkable emphasis on his patriotism and commitment to america. Maltz was an Ivy Group graduate who started his profession as a playwright for the Theatre Union during the early on 1930's. In 1945, he was nominated for an Academy Honor for Writing Adapted Screenplay but was later blacklisted and assumed to participate the communist motion in America. On October 28th, 1947, Maltz began his hearing during the HUAC investigations. He was given permission to read his personal affirmation to the committee; in his declaration, Maltz said that that he was pro-American and that the committee was aiming to challenge him by causing statements that he was Un-American and subversive. Maltz also said that the committee was the only thing un-American. He supported his claims of being pro-American by stating that his work had been reprinted by over 30 American web publishers. Maltz also questioned the committee as to why he'd be classified as being subversive when his work have been recognized by the American federal government on many occasions. He used quotations from American presidents to support his American patriotism in his memoirs. Maltz also explained that the committee made statements against previous American presidents, such as FDRs' New Deal policies and how they were communist-like in their goals and agendas. His citing of HUAC's commentary supported his cases of HUAC's un-Americanism, with them going so far as focusing on an American chief executive and countrywide icon that acquired done so much for the united states. Maltz also claimed that the committee assumed the KKK to be a satisfactory American institution, because of the pro-American ideals. This case ultimately suggested that the committee looked at racism and interpersonal assault as valid American ideals. Maltz made a statement that Us citizens were ultimately left with two options: to either choose between the Invoice of Protection under the law or HUAC's ideologies and that one cannot choose both. He insisted that the committee proceeded to go after organizations they personally did not like which the primary point for concentrating on the motion picture industry was credited to problems that had been around between Washington and Hollywood for a long time.
The second rhetorical strategy centered on individuals who initially were cooperative with HUAC but then refused to answer any longer questions due to HUAC's constant interruptions. Dalton Trumbo was just one more important person in the Hollywood Ten whose rhetorical strategy dropped into this category. Trumbo was a renowned American screenwriter and novelist who acquired his begin working with Vogue mag. His 1940 film, Kitty Foyle, acquired him an Academy Honor nomination for Writing Designed Screenplay. Trumbo's ability to hear took place on October 28th, 1947. Trumbo asserted that the committee's increased power was something that designed over time, following WWII. In discussing the energy and persuasion of HUAC, Trumbo said that they were more powerful, more feared, and much more determined than ever before and that eventually HUAC's ability would in the end make life difficult in American culture. In his memoir, Trumbo areas that the only way to eliminate the committee was to challenge them and refuse their questioning. He goes on to say that one may either collaborate with "members of destruction" or damage the committee's ability and mark their limitations. He was intimately involved with Hollywood labor unions and when questioned about his communist participation, Trumbo contended that the labor unions have a right to secrecy relating their account lists. Trumbo creates in his memoir that he will not believe in the thought of "mite limited" free screen, referring to restrictions of what can and can't be presented in movies. Trumbo cooperated to the best of his capacity with HUAC's questioning; however anticipated to HUAC's bantering, he refused to answer any more questions. This is backed with the committee confronting Trumbo on his insufficient cooperation by asking, "Will you be refusing to answer the questions!" Due to Trumbo's resilience to HUAC's questioning, he was then excused and his ability to hear came to a finish.
Dalton Trumbo was not the only Hollywood Ten member to utilize silence during his questioning; Adrian Scott was another member of the Hollywood Ten who comes into this rhetorical category. During the level of his profession as a Hollywood company, Scott's movie Crossfire (1947) was nominated for an Academy Honor for Best Picture. However, scheduled to his blacklisting, then wrote under an alias for the English television set series, The Activities of Robin Hood. Adrian Scott's hearing occurred on October 29th, 1947. The assertion that Scott posted was based on anti-Semitism and his engagement with the movie Crossfire. Because the film received the Academy Prize nomination and was extensively accepted by the American general public, Scott claimed that the committee's allegation of the movie being a pro-communist propaganda tool was a conspiracy directed towards eradicating good people. After Scott read his affirmation to the committee, the committee described his statement as "one of the most severe" they may have ever read, further illustrating HUAC's goal to downgrade all who compared their views of that which was communist and what was not. During his testimony, HUAC regularly bombarded Scott with questions and didn't accept his reactions as valid answers. Scott became upset in this point in his reading in support of responded with "I beg your pardon?" to HUAC's questioning. In the future, Scott refused to answer any more of the committee's questions and was therefore asked to leave.
Like Scott, Samuel Ornitz attemptedto answer the committee's questions but was also constantly interrupted during his testimony. Ornitz was born in NEW YORK to a Jewish family. He acquired his start in the film industry by taking part with the writing of any film in 1929 and then later became one of the founding participants of the Display screen Freelance writers Guild in 1933. His testimony and memoir shown his view point that communism was ways to be creative through the arts, which capitalism spoils contemporary society. Ornitz described in his memoirs that he viewed capitalists as unconscious scientists who try to exploit people to make them public types of communist affiliations. Initially, Ornitz continued to be cooperative with the committee during his hearing that occurred on Oct 29th, 1947. However, he wanted to answer the questions in his own way but HUAC constantly interrupted him during his explanations. When HUAC started requiring answers, Ornitz responded, "I am replying compared to that question to the best of my capability and regardless of the interruptions. " While Ornitz never actually refused to answer any of the committee's questions, he had not been able to elaborate or give any proper element to his answers, because of the committee's continuous interruptions. His testimony clearly illustrated his attempt to cooperate with HUAC but his answers were regularly cut brief and continued to be unanswered.
Lester Cole was the ultimate member of the Hollywood 12 who didn't comply with HAUC's assertive questioning. Cole started out his profession as an professional but later became a screenwriter. He became a member of the North american Communist Get together in 1934 and was later convicted of contempt of Congress, that he served a ten month word in prison. He viewed HUAC as a Stalinist group, an organization that possessed a quest for vitality and abused ability to be able to exert affect over those who opposed them. Cole assumed that if one didn't abide by HUAC's demands, they would be viewed as anti-American. Cole alleged that humanity's background would not get started until racism was destroyed, the exploitation of man was abolished, and this impediments, such as political affiliations, were removed just about everywhere. Lester Cole's hearing took place on Oct 30th, 1947. Like Ornitz, Cole also wanted to answer the committee's questions in his own way, not with the standard "yes" or "no" as the committee preferred him to. While starting to clarify his answers to the committee, Cole was consistently interrupted and accused to be uncooperative. Similarly to Samuel Ornitz, Lester Cole was excused from his ability to hear with no properly answered any of the committee's questions.
The third rhetorical strategy concentrated on how Edward Dmytryk defended himself by delivering HUAC with the titles of other individuals, with the purpose to clear his reputation and expose others. Dmytryk was an American film director who was simply born in English Columbia, Canada. Like fellow Hollywood Ten member Lester Cole, Dmytryk was convicted of contempt of Congress and dished up time in jail for his communist affiliations. During his reading on October 29th, 1947, Dmytryk proved to be exceedingly cooperative with HUAC and testified against fellow Hollywood Ten member, Adrian Scott. Dmytrk was very near Adrian Scott for their collaboration on the movie Crossfire; as recently stated, HUAC viewed this film as a kind of pro-communist propaganda. Dmytryk's close affiliation with this film and its manufacturer, Adrian Scott, would instantly place him at the guts of pro-communist activity in the Hollywood community, thus placing him under strong scrutiny. To be able to escape and steer clear of these problems with HUAC, Dmytryk made a decision to briefly convert against his former co-worker and projected the majority of the accusations on Scott. When questioned by HUAC regarding his political affiliations, Dmytrk claimed that really the only reason he joined up with CPUSA was to help benefit America and that the Democratic and Republican celebrations didn't have such a program. He stated that the Communist party (CPUSA) was also associated with a great many other organizations, like the Educational Center, Authors Mobilization, and the Hollywood Citizen's Committee of the Arts. During his ability to hear, Dmytrk continuing to argue his pro-American position and also claimed that he was no more associated with the CPUSA. Dmytryk's strategy engaged positioning the blame on other individuals and other organizations which were allegedly associated with pro-communist activity in America, rather than concentrating on the political aspect of the testimony.
The final rhetorical strategy employed by some members of the Hollywood Ten was a blatant counter-attack against HUAC for his or her un-American method of the allegations. One of the Hollywood Ten users to utilize this strategy was John Howard Lawson. He was an American writer and brain of the Hollywood department of the North american Communist Party. Lawson, by using Lester Cole and Samuel Ornitz, set up the Screen Authors Guild. During his reading on October 29th, 1947, he became hostile with HUAC anticipated to committee's rejection of his affirmation reading. Lawson made the statement, "you have spent seven days vilifying me prior to the American public and you refused me to produce a declaration as an American citizen. " Lawson made it clear that he wished to operate for the protection under the law of not only himself however the American people. He protested up against the unwillingness of the committee to obtain claims read when other witnesses were allowed to own their statements read to the committee. When questioned about his affiliation with the Display Authors Guild, Lawson stated he was a member of the Screen Writers Guild but asserted that it was no business of the committee to probe his affiliation with the Writer's Guild as being pro communist. Throughout his ability to hear, Lawson was very disruptive and made it clear that what the committee was doing was un-American and could ultimately have an impact on all Us citizens. He wanted all Americans to have heed and issue HUAC on their un-American strategies and undemocratic reasoning. Lawson made the statement, "it is clear that you're threatening and intimidating the see, " he connected this to Hitler. Saying that the things HUAC acquired done incorporated techniques Hitler would have used during his reign of tyranny. As Lawson continued his testimony, he discussed movies he had written for, such as Blockade, and exactly how they were seen as pro-American before the hearings. Lawson persisted to counter strike the committee, talking about his declare that HUAC continually tried to expose the affiliations of anyone to get information about who and that which was un-American or not. He concluded his hearing by boasting that HUAC would go to any measure to get answers, even if it meant destroying people's lives. The committee acquired very upset at Lawson's insufficient respect for his or her exploration and was escorted by police force while giving his reading.
Like Lawson, Hebert Biberman counterattacked HUAC during his hearing by saying that HUAC was an un-American institution. He was an American screenwriter and film director and after his blacklisting, was compelled to work separately. The consequence of his independent job was his film, The Sodium of the planet earth, which was deemed culturally significant by america Collection of Congress and was stored in the Country wide Film Registry. Biberman, during his testimony on October 29th, 1947, spoke about his history, North american patriotism, and his birthplace, Philadelphia, PA. He spoke intently about being delivered "in a stone's toss of Freedom Hall". He mentioned that he was born as an American citizen that inherited specific privileges and freedoms. He voiced his opinion vehemently, claiming that HUAC was aiming to destroy Hollywood and the American people all together. Biberman also said in his testimony that he noticed that the committee's main goal was to cause discontent in Hollywood against him and his colleagues. While Biberman spoke, a shouting match erupted between himself and the committee. At that time, HUAC committee chairman Thomas Parnell, was portrayed as ferociously pounding his gavel frequently and shouting for order. To focus on a factor, the word patriot was used to describe Biberman's' demeanor during the testimony, with Biberman using words such as "I am going to not enable, " representing that he was there to defend the American consumer. Biberman's testimony further layed out his point by focusing on that no matter what he said, "He'd be shocked if it could please the committee".
Ring Lardner Jr. was another Hollywood Ten member whose rhetorical strategy fell into this category. He was informed at Phillips Academy, Andover, and Princeton College or university. Afterwards, he became a reporter for the New York Daily Reflection and later became a screenwriter. Lardner was cooperative during his October 30th, 1947 reading, but made it clear that he didn't want to aid the committee in smashing or dividing any particular guild in Hollywood. He looked at HUAC as a business who controlled American public propaganda. Chairman Thomas recommended that he cooperate and "never to do what others had done, " referring to not answering their questions. The chairman made it clear that if he didn't answer the questions properly, he wouldn't be able to read his assertion to the committee. This verbal action was noticeable of "red-baiting. " A explanation of "red-baiting" is always to effectively obtain answers by goading an individual and persuading him to answer in a particular way. Alas, Lardner didn't follow their needs and questioned the committee about the intention of questions. The Chairman told him that "any real American would be happy to answer their questions". Lardner stated that during his questioning, the committee was looking to use him to discredit the film industry as a whole. He believed that, as an American citizen, he was eligible for ask questions about the validity of the committee's analysis. Since HUAC didn't like Lardner's frame of mind or defiance with their questions, he was dismissed from the reading by force.
The final person in this group who counter-attacked HUAC was Alvah Bessie. Bessie was a novelist, journalist, and screenwriter who received his education at Columbia College or university. He was involved with the Abraham Lincoln Brigade through the Spanish Civil War and after his go back from Spain, composed about his experiences in Men in Struggle. During his October 28th, 1947 hearing, Bessie was cooperative and acquired a quiet demeanor to him when he was questioned by HUAC about his politics affiliations and Display Writer's membership. Bessie counterattacked the committee's questioning by using to his security that Chief executive Eisenhower didn't uncover his politics affiliations and that was considered "okay" by the American open public and HUAC. Bessie confirmed his intent showing the committee that they were inappropriate in interrogating people predicated on affiliation; he said that the committee was un-American and commenced questioning their motives for the exploration. Bessie attempted to answer the questions offered by HUAC to the best of his ability however the committee started to hammer him because he wasn't responding to the questions the way they preferred. The committee stated that Bessie's refusal to answer their questions towards their choice illustrated Bessie was following "communist lines"; he was responding in a fashion that could have been typical of an communist response. This aspect supported Bessie's declare that HUAC was an organization who founded their judgment on the basis affiliation. Although Bessie was primarily cooperative during his hearing, he utilized his rhetorical strategy to battle HUAC's accusations.
The Hollywood Ten weren't enemies of the state of hawaii as HUAC made them out to be. The ten blacklistees were cooperative with the committee but HUAC deprived them of the chance to protect their accusations. Many of the Hollywood Ten made themselves out to be patriots and defenders of America modern culture. They all appeared to have a standard goal of educating the public in what was going wrong in American modern culture. Wrongs which were so detrimental that these were looking to persuade the American people that that which was happening to them could in fact happen to regular American citizens. A number of the Hollywood Ten, claimed that the committee's actions and words were nothing short of a Stalinist group which HUAC was doing the same type of things that these were supposedly out to avoid. These people were targeted and sometimes acquired their lives ruined if not destroyed by the allegations of HUAC.