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History of Muhammad al-Ghazali

Muhammad al-Ghazali has been acknowledged nowadays among the top notch scholars in the history of Islam. His expereince of living was devoted to philosophy and his work has encouraged many. His theory and research on jurisprudence, theology and mysticism has been his benchmark. Al Ghazali was educated in his hometown in Tus with his brother Ahmad who later became a famous preacher and Sufi scholar (http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/al-ghazali/). He was encouraged by the task of falasifa and in exchange he wrote his book on the Incoherence of the Philosophers. His assault against the idea of the fantastic Aristotle was his best work. Al Ghazali defined his work in the Incoherence of Philosophers as a major movement against the rest of the philosophers. He will this by exhibiting "demonstrative confirmation" being superior to theological knowledge. Further in this his work up against the teaching of falasifa were criticized in twenty steps.

Basically Neoplatonism is a term introduced by the great Plotinus. This term was presented based on plato's coaching also. Here the neoplatonists makes many interpretations of plato's work and tried out to disagree with him. Plotinus was the introducer of your spiritual philosophical tradition(http://www. kheper. net/topics/Neoplatonism/Plotinus. htm). In essence there are two distinctions between Platonism and Neo-Platonism. A philosopher who agrees with Plato and his theory are named platonists. Neoplatonist on the other side acquired no basic university. Neoplatonism essentially in a complete talks about spiritual beliefs. In philosophical terms it is the idealistic monism. To mention a few a few of the neo Platonists in the history were Ammonius Saccas, Plotinus, Porphyry, Proclus and Emperor Julian. Platonus motivated many religions. Among them was Islam. He said to say that there is ONE supreme vitality, with no multiplicity and distinction. This "One" he described as not an existing being nor amount of all things.

Now discussing the Islamic idea behind the Plotinus theory, this is said to be said was found unintentional. His work called Theology of Aristotle provided surge to Islamic philosophical ideas. Enough time he wrote this subject, was one of the medieval times where Aristotle was regarded as very highly. Since them many philosophers relocated towards Islamic idea and one of the works was Frithj of Schun, that was motivated my Sufism and mysticism and had many similarities to Plotinan's metaphysics.

Muslims before the time of Al Ghazali were in the bewilderneess of Islamic philosophy of different philosophers. Many research workers had to be performed and in the end it was discovered that Plato's coaching were inconsistent using what Islam had to state. In order to show the light Al Ghazali had written many documents to prove the inconsistency of the earlier philosophers and noted it in the name of Incoherence of philosophers. Quite simply he has proved some beliefs from for example Aristotle and Plato to be wrong and against Islamic studies.

Plato being a pupil of Socrates thought the concept of all material part of the world to be not existing. On the other hand platonic theory says that he who sees with his sight is blind. Then arrived the platonic theory of Neoplatonism which is convinced that there is only One supreame God or electricity. This symbolizes the all mighty Allah in Islam. He talks about it to be all knowing, all powerful, existing but with no existence etc. each one of these characteristics comes in Islam.

Ibn Sina who was simply also called Avicenna, was one of the Islamic philosopher of old times. He his famous work was of philosophical work he do writing mainly on Al Ghazali's idea influencing Islam. (http://www. muslimphilosophy. com/sina/). His work were criticized to be following a structure of Aristotle and Neoplatonism as he mixed both teachings. His works can be regarded as of those who mislead the real meaning of Islam. Muslims in those times of 10th century were perplexed by many theories associated with God or the supreme "One".

Al Ghazali was a company believer of Islam and the Quranic theory of God. He was a sunni Muslim and he helped bring forward the truth. The words of Quran soon proved to be right and slowly and gradually trashed the other Greek Islamic philosopher's ideas. His theory of experiencing god was from the energy of God and angels called mysticism. Analyzing Al Ghazali's works in his publication called Intro to the Incoherence of philosophers shows many encounters he designed to protect Islam against other philosophers. Al Ghazali encountered many natural facts such as about the planet to become extinct. Others philosophers argued that the globe would stay as it is forever. Al Ghazali on the other hands counters with clinical reasons stating that the sun experienced burst once and made this world, and then this world may be disrupted once.

Above was one of the things he refuted against other philosophers. In total he previously twenty points proving that there is merely one God and the likelihood of experiencing two God is impossible. The following will make clear all the rest of the twenty explanations of Al Ghazali interpretation against other philosophers. First of all other philosophers thought that world is eternal. This was proved wrong by him as its Allah's will to keep this world if there is a starting to this world. Subsequently he proven that the planet is established by God, which other philosophers disagreed by saying that the globe is eternal. Al Ghazali turned out them wrong by saying that the planet is a product of God. Just like these listed below are the reason of Al Ghazali counter attacking other philosophers. Ghazali also attacked the concept of multiple gods of the greek philosophers declaring that if one was necessary then it might not be dependent on another for its own need. Old philosophers have a contradicting theory that the world is eternal and at the same time there's a creator. Ghazali attacks this as if there is a creator, the planet would have a new and an end. Denial of Divine Attributes: Old Philosophers deny that there may be many capabilities to God. Ghazali disorders their argument expressing that a single electricity of God can have lots of qualities. Divine can't be divided: Old Philosophers think that the Supreme Being can be split into multiple powers, by means of angels, in the form of humans on earth etc. Ghazali episodes them saying that the Divine power of God can't be divided.

Another instance where the old philosophers claimed that the foremost is a simple unqualified being : Ghazali attacks the philosophers declaring that accusing God to be an unqualified being is not a self evident fact and does not have strong theoretical research to confirm it. Then was the inability to show that the First is not body: A is subject to change over time, stated by him. Affirmation of eternity of the world, but deny the Inventor: other philosophers say that eternal systems on the planet have a reason but Ghazal problems that by saying it has a reason nowadays also has a Inventor. Then was the Inability to maintain that the first is aware anyone but Himself: Here Ghazali disorders the idea of the philosophers that the First knows about all but himself. The universe is known to him as it has been created upon his will. Then your Inability to keep up that he knows himself: Old philosophers say that God is alive and also say that he who does not know himself is lifeless. Here Al Ghazali says that if God will not know himself then how do he be looked at alive?

Other philosophers declare that first does not know particulars. Upon this Al Ghazal attacks the argument that God does not know particulars by explaining the facts of the eclipse and other happenings in space and exactly how God knows it all. They also declare that heaven is a full time income being whose motions are voluntary: The philosophers say that the Heaven is alive as it goes and Ghazal attacks the argument stating that such movements is not a sign of religious life and the heaven does not have a soul of its own. Next, the goal of heavens motion was misunderstand, the activity of heaven to have something regarding it creating a life of its own, but Ghazali episodes that the motion of heaven is an indicator of many features of God.

Furthermore Al Ghazali against the souls of the heavens has learned all particulars: The philosophers say that the angels know all about the particulars plus they know about the pen and the tablet. Ghazali disorders them by stating whether they can prove some of it? He says that it can be proven that such details and particulars can be disclosed to a prophet by means of a dream. Just like these the devastation of human soul was questioned. The philosophers believe in the concept that the souls will be destroyed when the body is destroyed. Ghazali attacks that by saying that the souls are eternal and your body is not area of the actual spirit.

Lastly however, not minimal the resurrection of the physiques was questioned by the old philosophers. They didn't believe in the resurrection of body, infact they presumed only the heart would be resurrected. Al Ghazali said by the assistance of the Quaran that the body will either be resurrected to heaven or hell. According to the prophet he said, "I've reserved for my virtuous worshippers what no vision ever saw, what no ear canal ever heard, and which never happened to the center of man. "

Above were his interpretations from the other philosophers and he demonstrated that they were all wrong and were endeavoring to make non Islamic values appear to be Islam. Thus Al Ghazali was a large influence to numerous Islamic philosophers and Islamic faith. He showed the real journey of Islam through his work.

References

al-Ghazali (1058-1111) Tahafut al-falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), ed. M. Bouyges and M. Fakhry, Beirut: Dar al-Mashreq, 4th edn, 1990; trans. S. A. Kamali, Tahafut al-falasifah (Incoherence of the Philosophers), Lahore: Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1963. (Al-Ghazali's harm on the philosophers. )

http://www. muslimphilosophy. com/sina/

http://www. kheper. net/topics/Neoplatonism/Plotinus. htm

http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/al-ghazali

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