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History Of Color And Symbolism English Literature Essay

Color is regarded as such through our sense of sight, much just like a scent is recognized through our sense of smell. For instance, when our noses identify a chocolate scent or a strawberry scent, numerous molecules form the blend that the nerve cells inside our noses identify as either "chocolate" or "strawberry. " Similarly, many combinations of wavelengths form colors. (Learning much more about how exactly our minds see color. ) The nerve cells in our eyes interpret all combinations of light as being red-or-green, and yellow-or-blue. These are the four primary colors for your brain. One of the combinations of these 4 primaries, we perceive a lot of variation between yellow and red (the oranges) and between blue and red (the purples). In case the intensity of the wavelengths is more similar, then we percieve neutrals. Plenty of light yields whites, and very little light the blacks. Inside the natural world, there are a great number of neutral tones predicated on browns as a result of abundant iron in the earth, therefore we also include a family group of browns above.

Painters didn't will have pigments for each color. Actually, the historical selection of primary colors was limited by the availability of suitable pigments, which until the late 19th century was lacking in vivid greens or purples. Instead of bright greens and purples, pigment mixtures (for example, mixing blue and yellow) have been used since ancient Greece in order to get closer to a specific hue.

The History of Purple

The word "purple" comes from the Old English word "purpul, " which hails from the Latin "purpura" and from the ancient Greek "porphyra. " This is the name of the Tyrian purple dye manufactured in classical antiquity. In human color psychology, purple is associated with royalty and nobility because Tyrian purple was only affordable to the elite. Byzantine empresses gave birth in the Purple Chamber of the palace of the Byzantine Emperors. Therefore, being named Porphyrogenitus ("born to the purple") marked a dynastic emperor, instead of a general who won the throne through effort.

Purples will be the shades of color occurring between red and blue. On the chromaticity diagram, the line connecting the extreme spectral colors red and violet is recognized as the "type of purples. "

Some confusion exists concerning the color names "purple" and "violet. " Purple is normally defined as a mixture of red and blue light, whereas violet is a particular spectral color (approximately 380-420 nm).

Purples can be formed by mixing red and blue pigments, however the first truly violet pigment was cobalt violet, prepared in 1859.

Purples and magentas are "colors" we see, but they do not match pure wavelengths of light. On a chromaticity diagram (a CIE Luv diagram), spectral colors correspond to pure wavelengths of light, and wrap from the most notable and left ledges. On underneath right diagonal, the line connecting the extreme spectral colors red (630-740) and violet (380-420 nm) is recognized as the "type of purples. "

The first synthetic dye was discovered by a teenager in 1856, who accidentally made a purple dye that would soon become the height of fashion in Victorian England. William Henry Perkin formerly set out to discover a synthetic alternative to quinine. As he cleaned up his experiments with aniline, he noticed a thick black residue at the bottom of any flask. After further experimentation with diluting the sludge, Perkin realized that the mixture could be used to dye silk and that the dye would retain its color. Until that point, purple dyes always faded rapidly. Perkin at first called his new dye "Tyrian Purple, " but it was later known as "mauve. " Mauve quickly became all the rage in English high fashion

Symbolism of the colour Blue

Blue is the color of sky and water. From enough time of the ancient Egyptians, the blue depths of water personified the female principle, while sky blue was from the male principle. Blue is the colour of all heavenly gods and means distance, for the divine, and for the spiritual.

Blue is also the symbol of fidelity. Blue flowers, such as forget-me-nots and violets, symbolize faithfulness. According to a vintage English custom, a bride wears blue ribbons on her wedding gown and a blue sapphire in her wedding ring. Tiny flowers of blue speedwell are part of the wedding bouquet.

In the English language, blue sometimes refers to sadness. The phrase "feeling blue" is linked to a custom between old sailing ships. If a ship loses her captain, she'd fly blue flags when returning to home port.

In German, to be "blue" (blau sein) is to be drunk. This derives from the ancient use of urine (which is produced copiously by the body after drinking alcohol) in dyeing cloth blue with woad or indigo. However, the color blue also had other associations in Germany. The Blue Flower was the symbol of German 19th century Romanticism, because of the novel fragment Heinrich von Ofterdingen, by the German poet Novalis.

Short History of Blue Pigments

The first blue pigment was azurite, an all natural mineral. Soon thereafter, Egyptians produced Egyptian blue, which quickly spread throughout the ancient world. Through the DARK AGES, the recipe for Egyptian blue was lost, so azurite and expensive ultramarine from Afghanistan were the sole resources of blue available. Within the 15th century, smalt, a finely ground blue glass, came into use for painting. The first pigment produced because of the advancement of modern chemistry was a blue, Prussian blue, that was soon followed by cobalt blue and cerulean blue.

Blue is a primary color in painting, with the secondary color orange as its complement. It really is in the visible spectrum at wavelengths in the range of 440-490 nm.

A perfect blue. Yves Klein (1928-1962), Blue Monochrome, 1961, The Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection. Yves Klein likened monochrome painting to an "open window to freedom as the opportunity to be immersed in the immeasurable existence of color. " He worked with a chemist to develop his own particular brand of blue. Made from pure color pigment and a binding medium, it is called International Klein Blue. Klein adopted this hue as a way of causing the immateriality and boundlessness of his utopian vision of the world. A student of Eastern religions, Klein

Symbolism of the Color Green

The word green is closely related to the Old English verb growan, "to grow. " Green is the color of life. It's the color of seasonal renewal. Since verdant spring triumphs over barren winter, green symbolizes hope and immortality. The Chinese associate green (and black) with the female Yin - the passive and acquiring principle. Islam venerates the colour green, expecting paradise to be filled with lush vegetation. Green is also associated with regeneration, fertility, and rebirth due to its connections with nature.

In Alchemy, solvents for gold were named "Green Lion" or "Green Dragon" by the alchemists. Such liquids were instrumental in the beginning of the alchemistic Opus Magnum. Transparent green crystal symbolized the "secret fire, " which represented the living spirit of substances.

In some cultures, green symbolizes hope and growth, while in others, it is associated with death, sickness, or the devil. Additionally, it may describe a person who is inexperienced, jealous, or sick.

Short History of Green Pigments

In painting (substructive color system), green is not a primary color, but is established by mixing yellow and blue. Green pigments have been used since Antiquity, both in the form of natural earth and malachite, used generally by Egyptians. Greeks introduced verdigris, main artificial pigments. Copper resinate was introduced in European 15th century easel panting, but was soon discarded. Because of chemistry, a fresh generation of greens was introduced beginning in the late 18th century: cobalt green, emerald green, and viridian.

The perception of green occurs with light at wavelengths of roughly 520-570 nm.

The Impressionists revived the use of the colour green. The depiction of the green color of nature was revived in Impressionism partly due to advent of tubes for pigments, which made it possible to paint on location, and partly thanks to the manufacture of new and brighter green pigments. In his painting "JAPAN Bridge, " 1899, Monet uses the colour of hope together with the symbol of the bridge. The bridge means the uniting of individuals and revives hope for a peaceful future. Incidentally, Monet's use of Emerald Green pigment, which contained arsenic, may have contributed to his blindness in later life

Symbolism of the colour Yellow

The word yellow originates from the Old English geolu. Yellow is associated with sunshine, knowledge, and the flourishing of living creatures, but also with autumn and maturity. The yellow sun was one of humanity's most important symbols and was worshiped as God in many cultures. According to Greek mythology, the sun-god Helios wore a yellow robe and rode in a golden chariot drawn by four fiery horses across the heavenly firmament. The radiant yellow light of the sun personified divine wisdom.

In China, yellow is assigned to the active and creative male Yang principle, while ancient Egyptians ascribed yellow to the female principle.

In the English language, yellow has traditionally been associated with jaundice and cowardice. In Italy, "yellow" ("giallo") refers to crime stories, both fictional and real. This association started out around 1930, when the first published group of crime novels had yellow covers.

Yellow is also the color of caution. Yellow lights signal drivers to decelerate in anticipation of stopping. Construction scenes and other dangerous area tend to be enclosed by way of a bright yellow barricade tape repeating the word "caution. "

Short History of Yellow Pigments

The oldest yellow pigment is yellow ochre, that was amongst the first pigments used by humans. Egyptians and the ancient world made wide use of the mineral orpiment for a more brilliant yellow than yellow ochre. In the Middle Ages, Europeans manufactured lead tin yellow. They later imported Indian yellow and rediscovered the technique for the production of Naples yellow, that was utilized by the Egyptians. Modern chemistry led to the creation of many other yellows, including chrome yellow, cadmium yellow, lemon yellow, and cobalt yellow.

Yellow is light with a wavelength of 570-580 nm, as is light with a suitable mixture of somewhat longer and shorter wavelengths.

Both the yellow sun and yellow gold shared the qualities of being imperishable, eternal, and indestructible. Thus, anything portrayed as yellow in Egyptian art generally carried this connotation. The skin and bones of the gods were thought to be made of gold. On this image of Ra, note the gold skin tone of the god. Compare this to the musician, who has the classic reddish-brown skin tone of humans.

In early 20th century Germany, Franz Marc ignited a back-to-nature movement, a central tenet of which was that animals possessed a certain godliness that men had long since lost. Marc wrote, "People who have their lack of piety, especially men, never touched my true feelings. " On the other hand, he also wrote that "animals with their virginal sense of life awakened everything that was good in me. " Marc developed a theory of color symbolism in order to communicate the ideas of his movement. Yellow symbolized femininity since it is "gentle, cheerful, and sensual, " while blue symbolized masculinity because it is "spiritual and intellectual. " The cow in his painting, The Yellow Cow (1911, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum), could therefore be considered a depiction of Maria Franck, his wife, as the triangular blue mountains could be Marc's abstract self-portrait.

For over a century, it was believed that the commonly used Indian Yellow pigment was created from the urine of cattle in India that were fed only mango leaves and water. Allegedly, the dried urine was collected and formed into balls of pigment. There is no concrete evidence to suggest that cow urine was the real origin of Indian Yellow pigment. Today, a synthetic Indian Yellow hue is produced using a blend of nickel aso, hansa yellow, and quinacridone burnt orange.

The title of Turner's painting "Light and Morning after the Deluge, Moses writing the Book of Genesis" (1843) pointedly describes the role of the color yellow: the radiant yellow sun ends a long period of darkness and commences a new pure era of light after the all-devouring deluge. The painting is interpreted as an allegory of light, with Moses depicted slightly above the guts in the vortex of light.

Symbolism of the Color Orange

The color we realize as orange was described in Old English as "geoluhread, " this means yellow-red. The term "orange" was adopted following the eponymous fruit was introduced to English via the Spanish word naranja, which originated from the Sanskrit word nraga. Orange conveys energy, enthusiasm, and balance. It offers less intensity or violence than red, and is also calmed by the happiness of yellow. The colour orange often relates to autumn, when the leaves turn shades of orange and brown. Orange is also tied to Hinduism and Buddhism. In Hinduism, the colour orange represents fire, a metaphor for the inner transformation that is experienced by swamis donning orange robes.

Orange is also used for safety purposes as a warning color. Orange are available on dangerous machinery, high visibility clothing, and traffic cones.

Short History of Orange Pigments

The pure orange pigments realgar and chrome orange were favored by the Impressionists. Less pure tones of orange were found largely in the ochre family and lately in the cadmium family. Cadmium orange is a popular color in oils, acrylics, and watercolors. The recently developed Azo orange is cheaper than cadmium orange, is non-toxic, and retains the same amount of lightfastness.

The color orange occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum at a wavelength of about 585-620 nm. The complementary color of orange is azure, a slightly greenish blue.

In this Impressionist painting, sunlight is set contrary to the dawn, a captivating orange color rising from the gray setting of its motionless surroundings. The movement's name was engendered by this Monet paining, "Impression: Sunrise" (1873, Musee Marmottan, Paris), when critics called Monet and his comrades "Impressionists. "

Vincent van Gogh said, "There is no blue without yellow and without orange. " Influenced by prints from Japan, he painted dark outlines around objects, filling these in with regions of thick color. He was aware that juxtaposing complementary colors made each color appear brighter, so he used yellows and oranges with blues and reds with greens.

"To exaggerate the fairness of hair, I come even to orange tones, chromes and pale yellow. . . . I make an ordinary background of the richest, most powerful blue that I can contrive, and by this simple mixture of the bright head up against the rich blue background, I get a mysterious effect, such as a star in the depths of the azure sky. " That is exemplified by his self-portrait (1889, Musee d'Orsay, Paris).

The ingredients of Antonio Stradivari's orange varnish remain a mystery even today. Stradivari was a renowned maker of stringed instruments in 18th century Italy, and 300 years later his violins can fetch $2-3 million at auction. It really is now believed that the orange varnish is what gives Stradivarius violins their exquisite sound.

Although madder is commonly associated these days with pink and red, it can even be used to build orange. Madder roots, when heated in a vat and mixed with a mordant such as alum, can be used to generate a deep orange dye. The color intensity of the dyed fabric will fade over time through repeated contact with sunlight and environmental elements, but if well-preserved, the brilliant orange can last for centuries.

"Flaming June" by Lord Frederic Leighton, 1895. This Victorian era painting depicts a sleeping woman wearing a flaming orange dress. Painted in a classical style, "Flaming June" celebrates the vibrancy of the colour orange contrasted against the key figure's quiet repose.

Symbolism of the Color Red

Red is the colour of fire and blood. Hebrew words for blood and red have the same origin: "dm" means red and "dom" means blood. Blood and fire have both negative and positive connotations: bloodshed, aggression, war, and hate are using one side, and love, warmth and compassion on the other side. In ancient Egypt, red was the color of life and of victory. During celebrations, Egyptians would paint their bodies with red ochre. The normal skin tone of Egyptian men was depicted as red, with no negative connotation.

Ancient Greeks associated the bright, luminous red with the male principle. Red was also the colour of the Greek gods of war, Phoebus and Ares. In prehistoric cultures, however, red was associated with the female principle. NATURE provided the Neolithic peoples with red ochre, that was credited with life-giving powers. The association of the red color with the female principle in Japan survives for this day.

In Catholic churches, altars are decorated in red for the Feast of Pentecost to symbolize the Holy Ghost. Christ's head is surrounded by a yellow glowing corona: Christ defeats darkness and leads the best way to light.

Short History of Red Pigments

The oldest pigment was probably red ochre, which was found in cave art. The ancient world had red madder lake, artificially-made red lead, and vermilion (natural mineral cinnabar). Artificially-made vermilion was the most prominent red pigment before manufacture of cadmium red in 1907.

Red is one of the subtractive primary colors. Red is light of the longest wavelengths discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength selection of roughly 630-740 nm. Longer wavelengths constitute infrared light and can't be seen by the naked eye.

Statue of Seth

Redheads tend to be stereotyped as having fiery tempers. The god Seth, associated with destruction, was depicted as having red eyes and hair. Seth was victorious over Apep, but murdered his brother, Osiris. His red coloration could mean evil or victory, depending upon the context where he's portrayed. In most cases, in ancient Egypt red was an ambivalent color. It had been associated with health insurance and vitality, but also anger and violence.

Christ must have been buried in a white shroud but in the Isenheim altarpiece resurrection, painted by Matthias Grјnewald in 1515, Jesus wears a vermilion red robe representing some symbols: A martyr's red blood; power over life and death; faith; fulfillment; and love. The red robe invokes a blazing flame striving towards heaven and the divine.

The color carmine red is produced from cochineal, tiny insects within SOUTH USA and Mexico. The insects are grown on plantations and raised on prickly pear cacti until they reach their maximum size. They may be then collected and crushed to set-up carmine red dye, which is commonly used in cosmetics such as lipstick, blush, and eye shadow. Crushed cochineals also produce the color additive E120, which can be within Cherry Coke. While the current use of cochineal mainly pertains to color, in prior centuries cochineal was used for an array of healing purposes. and soothed physical ailments which range from headaches to heart disease.

Cinnabar is a type of red mercury ore that was mixed with an equal amount of burning sulphur to generate a pricey red paint that was highly popular with the Romans, where it was used for cosmetic and decorative purposes. Cinnabar was painted on the Pompeiian baths of Titus, as well as on statues of the gods. Prisoners were forced to extract cinnabar from mercury mines without proper ventilation or protection, so they would die after a few years of constant contact with the heavy metal. Starting with the Song Dynasty, cinnabar was used to color Chinese carved laqcuerware. Today, a safer, resin-based polymer can be used rather than the toxic cinnabar pigment.

Symbolism of the Color White

White objects such as clouds, snow, and flowers often come in nature, creating many references within our human culture to the color white. In a few cultures, like China's, the colour white represents death and illness. In lots of cultures, however, white represents freedom, purity, and innocence. This is why, for example, white is worn by brides in Western countries.

In ancient Egypt, white suggested omnipotence and purity. The name of the holy city of Memphis meant "White Walls. " White sandals were worn at holy ceremonies. Ritual objects, such as small ceremonial bowls, were often white.

The high contrast between white and black is often used to represent opposite concepts, such as night and day, and good and evil. In Taoism, which has great influence in Eastern culture, yin and yang are usually depicted in black and white.

Toxic lead white was utilized by artists for more than 100 years before it was widely banned in the late 20th century. Lead white was popular not only as a canvas primer, but also for creating tints of varied colors as well as highlights. Lead white was also regularly used in cosmetics, often with fatal consequences.

Wassily Kandinsky, a Russian painter and art theorist, describes his perception of the color white: ". . . white, although often considered as no color (a theory largely due to the Impressionists, who saw no white in nature), is a symbol of a world from which all color as a particular attribute has disappeared. This world is too far above us because of its harmony to touch our souls. An excellent silence, like an impenetrable wall, shrouds its life from our understanding. White, therefore, has its harmony of silence, which works after us negatively, like many pauses in music that break temporarily the melody. It is not a dead silence, but one pregnant with possibilities. White gets the appeal of the nothingness that is before birth, of the world in the ice age. "

Short History of White Pigments

Lime powder and gesso where the first whites available in prehistoric times. The most important contribution to art materials from Greece was lead white, a pigment that would become ubiquitous in Western art. Modern whites are zinc white and titanium white. Thanks to its excellent qualities, titanium white has largely replaced lead white in both art and industry.

The perception of white is because of light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells in the eye in nearly equal amounts and with high brightness.

Piet Mondrian fell in love with white. Mondrian's most well-known paintings are made of pure red, yellow, black, white, and blue as in Composition A (1923, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Rome), at left. Over time, though, his artwork became simpler and white became progressively more important. Wider fields of color dominated his paintings, separated by large parts of pure white, as in the Composition with Red, Blue and Yellow (1930, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, CT), at center. Just five years later, in 1935, white itself became the focus, such as the Composition in Blue and White. Mondrian's fascination with white was described by Charmion von Wiegand, when he visited the painter's studio in New York: "Everything was spotless white, just like a laboratory. In a very light smock, with his clean-shaven face, taciturn, wearing his heavy glasses, Mondrian seemed more a scientist or priest than an artist. The sole relief to all the white was large mat boards, rectangles in yellow, red and blue, hung in asymmetric arrangements on all the walls. Peering at me through his glasses, he noticed my glance and said: "I've arranged these to make it more cheerful. " Art conservators aren't totally sure what pigments Mondrian found in his paintings. His artwork has undergone in-depth scientific analysis in the hopes of discovering the chemical compositions of the pigment used, which is essential knowledge for conservation purposes.

Symbolism of the Color Brown

The word brown originates from Old English "brєn, " used for any dusky or dark shade of color. Brown represents earthiness. While brown might certainly be a little dull set alongside the other colors, brown also represents simplicity, health, and dependability. UPS (United Parcel Service) long ago adopted brown as its corporate color, and companies today often use brown paper to denote a natural product.

Although brown may well not be as glamorous as other colors, its importance in painting is highly recognized by artists, who use browns such as burnt sienna and burnt umber to generate subtle gradations from light to dark. The colour brown therefore enables artists to create a sense of realism on the canvas.

Short History of Brown Pigments

Humanity had pure brown pigments right from the start of art. Umber is a natural earth color with many natural (raw umber, raw sienna) and manmade (burnt umber, burnt sienna) variations, providing painters throughout history numerous brown shades to meet their visual needs. In the 17th century, another natural earth color came into use, namely Van Dyke brown.

Although earthy browns were available for artists' use, in the 18th and 19th centuries European artists popular a brown called "mommia" that was created from corpses. Egyptian mummies were exhumed and processed for commercial use as artist paint.

Another odd source of the color brown was the cuttlefish, whose secretions of dark ink were used to build sepia dye. These days, artificial dyes have replaced cuttlefish ink for sepia.

Brown may cover a variety of the noticeable spectrum because it identifies more hues (yellow, orange, or red) in combo with low luminance or saturation. Its shades are named using composite adjectives, such as red brown, yellowish brown, dark brown, etc. Browns can be made from primary colors, mixing blue with yellow to get green and then, mixing green with red. Browns can even be made by just mixing orange or red color with a bit of black paint.

The white to brown revolution

Top, Rembrandt, History Painting, 1626, Leiden, Stedelijk Museum.

Middle, detail.

Bottom, cross-section.

Ground is the term describing the layer applied to the support as a preparation for painting. In early panel paintings, the bottom contains inert white filler (chalk or gesso (mineral gypsum)) bound with animal skin glue.

In the first 16th century, artists started out to color their grounds dark brown because doing so made it possible to execute a painting quicker and freely. Darkish grounds were also exploited in the composition of the painting, either by leaving parts exposed, as can be seen in the detail of the shaded part across the forehead and nose, where the brown ground is partly visible. The evolution was complete by the 17th century, when it became unusual to paint onto a white surface.

Rembrandt used carbon black as the primary tinting pigment for the ground layer. In this cross-section from the top area of the white sash of the person on the extreme left of the painting, we can see from bottom to top the brown colored chalk and glue ground followed by a bit brighter second thin ground. Next, another dark mixture was used for the under painting and lastly the lead white layer of the sash

Brown and orange tend to be closely related than you might have imagined. The perceived color depends upon which white a color is compared with. That is particularly true for tertiary colors like brown, which is perceived only in the existence of a brighter color contrast; otherwise it looks orange. Orange is still regarded as such, regardless of the general illumination level. Look at both of these disks in the image. These are objectively identical, however the one in a brighter light looks brown, while the one in the shadow looks orange. The indefinable nature of brown could be the reason Japanese don't have a particular word for it but make reference to brown with names such as "tea-color" and "fallen-leaf. "

Symbolism of the colour Black

The color black represents opposing ideas: authority and humility, rebellion and conformity, and wealth and poverty. Black also signifies absence, modernity, power, elegance, professionalism, mystery, evil, traditionalism, and sorrow.

Black also implies submission. Priests wear black to signify submission to God.

In Western countries, black is the color of mourning, while in many African countries white is the colour worn during funerals.

In Japanese culture, black means experience, as opposed to white, which symbolizes naivete. Thus the black belt is a mark of achievement and seniority in many fighting techinques, whereas a white belt is worn by beginners.

The Russian painter and art theorist Wassily Kandinsky interprets the colour black as: "a completely dead silence. . . A silence with no possibilities, has the inner harmony of black. In music it is represented by one particular profound and final pauses, after which any continuation of the melody seems the dawn of another world. Black is something burnt out, like the ashes of a funeral pyre, something motionless such as a corpse. The silence of black is the silence of death. Outwardly black is the color with least harmony of most, a kind of neutral background against which the minute shades of other colors stand obviously forward. It differs from white in this also, for with white nearly every color is discord, or even mute altogether. "

Short History of Black Pigments

Carbon black was the first black. This dull black is the easiest to manufacture because it is constructed of charcoal. Another black is vine black, which is traditionally made by charring desiccated grape vines and stems, which produce beautiful bluish blacks. Bone black, made of burnt bones from prehistoric times, is the deepest available black. Rembrandt used bone black for the black clothing worn by his sitters to be able to tell apart them from the already dark night surroundings.

From prehistoric times for this day, artists typically use carbon black charcoal to sketch their initial designs prior to starting a painting. These preliminary charcoal sketches are often used to outline the composition and determine the relative values of the objects portrayed, thus forming an important area of the art-making process. From the charcoal bison drawings in the caves of Altamira, to the charcoal studies created during Life Drawing classes at art schools across the world, the black marks created by charcoal include a particular sense of freshness and immediacy that's not within colored artwork.

Black has been a fashionable color throughout history. For example, a black tie dinner is very formal and elegant. Wearing black is a present fashion trend because it is thought to make people appear thinner. Black was fashionable in the Medieval era also; it became the habit of courtiers and a symbol of luxury as plainly shown in this portrait of an youth in front of a white curtain, painted by Lorenzo Lotto in 1508.

Rembrandt loved blacks. His sitters' black clothes called for the most strong black pigment. Therefore, bone black is found everywhere in Rembrandt's paintings, but is obviously blended with other pigments and/or lakes. There are just a couple of exceptions. One case is the portrait of Aechje Claesdr (1634, The National Gallery, London). Rembrandt used brushstrokes of pure bone black for the darkest parts of the clothing.

Chinese ink, known for the rich depth of its blackness, is traditionally made from soot blended with animal glue. One of the most highly-regarded Chinese ink paintings are monochromatic because they're painted utilizing a single color - black. The values are therefore created by varying the quantity of water that is put into dilute the black, as well as altering the strength or lightness of the brushstroke after the paper. Colors were considered vulgar in the Tang dynasty because, in the right hands, black ink was fully with the capacity of expressing the artist's vision. Chinese ink is manufactured out of an assortment of lampblack, carbon black, and bone black pigment ground as well as hide glue.

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