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History and Evolution of Leadership

A head. as always said, exists, not made, but command is certainly a continual development process of characteristics like vision, dedication, discipline, trust, integrity, invention, motivation, authority, determination, humility, imagination etc. , within leaders. Many of these qualities, if not absolutely all, in a head donate to the success of an organisation. For just a reputed business institution like Cardiff Business School, choosing a head who can form the dreams & enlargement of the organization to be ideal Business establishment is very vital. & at the same time intricate. Choice of new Dean to displace Professor McNabb should be inspired & motivated by the reality that how much the new Head can contribute towards institution's achievement & perform greatly in the new role. To judge this we have to have a short idea about control theories & performances.

A look on the history of leadership finds that the books on authority & performance can be broadly grouped into a number of important stages. (Ogbonna, 2000; Harris, 2000). Early on studies on the authority skills concentrated on figuring out the personality attributes which characterized successful market leaders, and are known as ˜characteristic' studies (Argyris, 1955; Mahoney et al. , 1960). Trait theories presume that successful leaders are ˜given birth to' and that the first choice has certain innate features which identify them from non-leaders (Stodgill, 1948). Ralf Stodgill analyzed hundreds of trait studies (1948, 1974, p. 81) over a period of time, which can be summarized as the personality qualities and other in-born features of the first choice can be recognized & you'll be able to choose those individuals & promote them into command positions, then they emerge to consider power, whatever the social business or historical context. Another group of methodology is ˜Place' & ˜Behavioural' ideas. It summarises about the behaviour & style a leader selects or adopts to solve problems. (Hemphill and Coons, 1957; Likert, 1961). Similarly the Viewpoint of theories like situational & contingency is that leadership effectiveness is dependent on the leader's identification & knowledge of situational factors, accompanied by the adoption of the correct style to cope with each situation. (Ogbonna, 2000; Harris, 2000).

All the ideas reviewed above illustrate that leader plays an essential role in the improvement & performance of the organisation. But if one critically evaluates the impact that a head is wearing the company then, one can say that the decision a leader can take can often be restrained by certain factors. Some people argue that constraints located on leaders are anticipated to situational factors. Although there have been few studies that contain a direct bearing upon this important issue, research on athletics organisations has tended to aid this argument. In practice however, this debate has rested heavily on the studies of just one single major study that of Lieberson and O'Connor (1972), which has become the mostly cited evidence of this issue and which is broadly thought to be the major counterpoint to the proposition that leadership makes a difference. (Thomas, 1988)

One more key aspect to discuss here is that of sex differences in leadership, as our main concern is to consider the leader that may be Brain of Cardiff Business College, we have to not be biased to only 1 gender. Male leaders are ranked as far better & conscientious then feminine leaders, but A Meta-analytic overview of 17 studies evaluating sex distinctions in leadership signifies that male and female leaders exhibit identical levels of initiating composition and consideration and also have evenly satisfied sub-ordinates. (Platz, 1986). More & More women are becoming managers; this rise in craze is because of the national implication which prohibits gender discrimination in job. Despite this surge a lot of people still believe that men are better leaders. (Bass, Krusell, & Alexander, 1971; Bowman, Worthy, & Greyser, 1965; Rosen & Jerdee, 1978; Schein, 1973) there are some research to refute this argument indicating that women and men may differ in personality characteristics which influences the leadership styles & performance. (Hoffman, 1972; Maier, 1970; Megargee, 1969; O'Leary & Depner, 1975; Templeton & Morrow, 1972) Furthermore several studies have demonstrated that men and women differ in management behaviours also. (Bartal & Butterfield, 1976; Petty & Lee 1975)

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