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Hemispheric Expertise: Effects of Drugs on the Brain

  • NANA KOFI BONSU AKUFFO

LANCASTER UNIVERSITY

INTRODUCTION

The body is divided into many parts called organs. All the parts are managed by an organ called the brain, which is positioned in the head. The mind weighs in at about 2. 75 pounds. The mind is made up of many skin cells, and I the centre of the body. The brain directs messages to all or any the other parts of your body ("The Human Brain. " 123HelpMe. com. 19 Feb 2015).

The mind sometimes appears to be in a spherical form. A hemisphere is half of a sphere, which means this means, the brain divided into two parts or hemispheres. You have the right and the still left. These hemispheres seem to be indistinguishable, but closer evaluation reveals that they are highly specialized areas that provide different functions.

The left hemisphere enables our ability to express ourselves in terms. In over 95% of right-handed people the left hemisphere is prominent for conversation. The figure is relatively lower for left hander's, approximately 70%, but still highly significant. The still left hemisphere is preferable to the right at realizing sequences of words and letters. It manages our reasoning, our reasoning, and our analytical thought techniques. It can give attention to details, nonetheless it has difficulty comprehending the complete picture.

The perceptual functions of the right hemisphere tend to be specific for the examination of space and geometrical shapes and forms, elements that are all present at exactly the same time (not so sequential like terminology). The right hemisphere is the creative 1 / 2, it can "see" the whole out of parts, that is allowing us to hook up puzzle parts jointly. The proper hemisphere also takes on an important role in the comprehension of feelings.

However, the control of drug intake from years as a child stages to past due adulthood increases gradually in life. Even for medical purposes, the consumption of drugs may not just help a patient recover but can also have other negative part effects that down the road uncover themselves. Drugs affect brain pathways including compensation, that is, the dopamine system in the prize pathway. Within seconds to minutes of getting into the human body, drugs cause remarkable changes to synapses in the mind.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Hemispheric specialization identifies the study of cognitive functions, dividing them up by the hemisphere of the brain responsible for them (www. ask. com/ knowledge/define-hemispheric-specialization). Cognitive function identifies a person's ability to process thoughts. Cognition primarily refers to things like memory, the capability to learn new information, speech, and reading understanding. In most healthy individuals the brain is with the capacity of learning new skills in each of these areas, especially in early on child years, and of developing personal and specific thoughts about the earth.

The brain has two halves orhemispheres. Both sides appear to be mirror images. This is calledbilateral symmetry. The wordbilateralmeans two-sided, while symmetrymeans the two attributes look the same. So bilateral symmetry refers to the fact that the mind contains two halves that are practically mirror images of every other. Some function locations differ depending on the dominant side of the patient. In general conditions, literary functions are targeted in the kept hemisphere, especially in right-handed people, while creative and figurative functions middle in the right hemisphere.

Also well-known is the fact that the mind is"cross-wired", with theleft hemisphere controlling motion on theright side of the body, and theright hemispherecontrolling theleft area of your body. Most, but not all, of the several buildings, lobes and organs of the mind have a remaining and right hemisphere component, andcommunication between the hemispheresis attained by means of a thick pack of nerve tissue known as thecorpus callosum, which effectively makes a complete brain out of two half-brains.

HANDEDNESS AND Vocabulary PROCESSING

It was the French physiologistPaul Brocain the 1860s (as well as his less well-known countryman and in close proximity to modern, Marc Dax, almost 30 years before) who mentioned that, at least in general terms, someone's handedness tends to signify aspecialized hemisphere on the brain's opposite side, so that a right-handed person probably has a left-hemispherelanguage expertise, andvice versa. Indeed, for almost a hundred years, until theWada test(a technique relating to the anaesthetizing of one side of the brain using a medicine such as sodium amytal or sodium amobarbital) was released in the 1960s, a person's handedness was nearly the only idea an operatingneurosurgeonhad about which hemisphere of an patient's brain was probably the one specific for words.

Following Broca's conclusions, it was in the beginning assumed thathandedness and the hemispheric dominance of conversation handling were inextricably and intimately connected. However, it soon became apparent, even to Broca, thatexceptions and mismatches existed, and that possibly the association wasnot as fixedas he had initially thought. However the incidence of right-hemisphere terms dominancedoesincrease more or less linearly with the amount of left-handedness, as it happens to be nearly as simple as that.

In fact, after the work of Springer & Deutsch, Damasio & Damasio, yet others in the 1990s, we have now know that, although about 95% of right-handersdo haveleft-hemisphere dominance for terminology functions, only around19% of left-handershave right-hemisphere terms dominance, with another20%or so digesting language functions inboth hemispheres(the incidence of language syndication inambidextrous peopleis broadly similar to that within left-handed people). Other studies record percentages for left-handers of 70%, 15% and 15% (somewhat than 61%, 19% and 20%), but the finding all suggest that, perhaps unexpectedly, some60% - 70% of left-handers process terms in the left hemisphere, exactly like right-handers. Indeed, around 93% of all people have kept hemisphere words dominance (http://www. rightleftrightwrong. com/brain. html).

One half-brain is not "logical" and the other "intuitive, " nor is one more "analytical" and the other more "creative. " Both halves play important tasks in logical and intuitive thinking, in analytical and creative thinking, etc. All of the popular distinctions involve complex functions, which can be achieved by multiple processes, some of which may operate better in the left hemisphere and some of which may operate better in the right hemisphere, however the overall functions can't be said to be totally the province of 1 or the other hemisphere.

And far from having independent lives, both halves interact. They are not isolated systems that compete or take part in some kind of cerebral tug-of-war; some may be not an undisciplined child, the other a spoilsport that throws schoolyard tantrums. Rather, as we've stressed, the mind is an individual, marvelously complicated, and deeply built in system. Like those of a well-maintained bike, the parts of the brain do have different functions but, like the parts of a bicycle, they are made to interact.

Finally, as we discussed earlier, there is certainly solid proof that none folks relies primarily using one or the other hemisphere. We all use all of our brains; none folks are truly "left-brained" or "right-brained. "

DRUG ADDICTION

A medicine is, in broadcast terms, a substance that has natural effects on human beings and pets. In pharmacology, a drug is a substance used in the procedure, cure, protection, or examination of disease or used to in any other case enhance physical or mental well-being. Pharmaceutical drugs can be utilized for a limited duration, or frequently for chronic disorders.

Recreational drugs are chemical substances that influence the central stressed system, such as opioids or hallucinogens. Alcohol, nicotine, and levels of caffeine are the most widely used psychotropic drugs worldwide.

They can be utilized for effects on perception, consciousness, personality, and behavior. Many recreational drugs are also therapeutic.

Some drugs can cause addiction and habituationand all drugs have side effects. Many drugs are illegal for recreational purposes and international treaties like the single convention on narcotic drugs can be found for the purpose of lawfully prohibiting certain chemicals (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Drug).

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