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Health And Basic safety In A Technicians And Office Construction Essay

Occupational Safety and Health is one of the main concerns of employers not only because of the human dimension engaged but also because of their legal responsibilities. The objective of the Mauritius Employers' Federation in this key area is to build greater recognition among both employers and employees about the need for a safe and healthy work environment. This is essential for the enterprises to be able to play their monetary and communal role.

It can't be denied that, besides the legal requirements, there is a cost-benefit romance between OSH, on the main one hand, and production as well as profitability, on the other. We think that human and financial deficits maybe avoided through professional safeness management for the benefit of employees as well as corporations.

Health and Safeness in a workshop is vital. If an employee uses equipment, tools and equipment, he should get safety training. This will ensure that he feels confident in the utilization of machines and can operate them with no a major accident or causing an accident to other folks.

Before a worker can use equipment and machines or attempt practical work in the workshop the employee must understand safeness rules. These guidelines will help keep the employee while others safe in the workshop.

In order to make sure a safe system of work in the automobile mechanical repair workshop, results from a organized examination of a task in order to identify all the dangers and assess the risks, and which recognizes safe methods of work to ensure that the dangers are taken away or the remaining risks are reduced.

A automobile mechanical repair workshop constitute of several employees and many types of machineries that are being used. To be able to recognize the hazards that are present, there are several steps that can be taken into account:

Check the manufacturers' education or data bed linens for chemicals ( grease, benzene, engine motor essential oil, etc ) and equipment ( electrical power trolley, towing machines, over head lifting crane, etc ).

Walk about the garage and take notes of things that an employee may thought to cause a risk.

Talk to staff/employees to find out what work methods are currently in use, what training they had been given, and any particular requirements.

Listen to the employees own concerns about health and safety

Go through the accident book

In a mechanical workshop, health and safety will offer with biological risks, chemical risks, physical risks and ergonomics. Most accidents in mechanised repair involve outings and falls or poor ways of lifting and managing often resulting in serious injury. Incidents involving vehicles are repeated and cause serious accidents and deaths. Work on petrol tanks specifically causes serious uses up, hundreds of fires and some deaths.

Fire and explosion

Fires and explosions are the cause of most deaths and property destruction in motor vehicle repair workshops. Typically, they entail the mishandling of petrol when draining gas tanks and lines but situations have also occurred during 'hot work' (any process which creates flames, sparks or warmth) repairs on diesel container or the inappropriate use of paints/thinners e. g. to light rubbish fires. Make sure that safe methods of use flammable materials and high temperature ranges.

Some dos and don'ts

Use a proprietary energy retriever/adaptor when draining petrol from tanks and lines

Store storage containers of flammable liquids in a safe place

Before carrying out any 'hot work' on drums or other containers that could contain vapours such as petrol, diesel, paints, solvents etc carefully consider the potential risks. Safer options include using frigid lowering/repair techniques and upgrading rather than repairing.

Where 'hot work' over a container or drum is essential, reduce the hazards by emptying, cleaning, gas-freeing or inerting.

Don't drain petrol over or near pit or drain

Don't smoke cigars, weld or carry out other 'hot work' while handling petrol or flammable paints/thinners

Don't use petrol/thinners to melt away rubbish or unwanted materials

Hand-arm vibration

Power tools transmit vibration in to the operator's hands and forearms. Hand-arm vibration (HAV) can cause vibration white finger, a long term and painful numbness and tingling in the hands and arms, also painful bones and muscle weakening.

Hand-held portable electric power tools are being used extensively in automobile repair workshop. Purchase tools that contain been designed and made to reduce the chance of vibration, and are ideal for their intended use. Train employees to utilize them safely and securely and keep them properly looked after.

Plant and equipment

Plant and equipment can cause incidents if they are being used unsafely or inadequately maintained. Vehicles falling/rolling off incorrectly situated jacks or stands, particularly where they are not chocked, are one of the key causes of fatal incidents in automobile repair. Specifically:

lifting vegetable and equipment, including container/trolley jacks, axle stands

ensure they are simply regularly serviced, retained and, where necessary, extensively examined

use appropriate pins in axle stands

correctly position jacks and axle stands, and use chocks

ensure that vehicles are always properly supported

Guards and other basic safety devices must be managed in good shape and properly looked after.

Struck by. . .

Accidents will be the cause of about 20% of injury in motor vehicle repair. This category includes being struck by vehicles falling off inspection lifts, materials falling from elevated storage areas or the elevated forks on fork lift up pickup trucks, by tools and materials ejected from seed and equipment and by activity of vehicles under repair.

Tyre removal, replacing and inflation

Tyre removal, alternative and inflation should only be tackled by experienced staff. The primary hazards which can come up include:

manual handling injuries, which account for nearly a 50 percent of most tyre-related happenings reported;

tool-related traumas (which will make up a quarter of situations), particularly from handtools such as tyre levers; and

compressed-air crashes e. g. from a ruptured or burst tyre or violent separation of the component elements of the wheel. These accidents have a tendency to cause serious injury, including fatalities.

Safety during tyre inflation

Inflated tyres contain a big amount of stored energy, which ranges in line with the inflation pressure and the top section of the tyre. In the event the tyre fails, an explosive power can be released at an viewpoint of up to 45 diplomas from the rupture. This has resulted in numerous fatalities. It is very important that the air travel hose between your clip-on chuck and the pressure measure/control is long enough to permit the operator to stand outside the likely trajectory of any explosion during inflation. This will vary with respect to the size of the tyre and its positioning.

Car tyres generally contain less energy than pick up truck tyres and their size and profile make them less inclined to fail catastrophically. Wise precautions are still required, but a restraining device such as a safe practices cage is not normally necessary.

Welding fumes

Fume from welding, flame clipping and other 'hot work' varies greatly and could cause dryness of the throat, tickling, coughing, tightness of the upper body and difficulty in respiration. Long- term changes in the lung are possible. Damaging fumes and gases during welding in motor vehicle repair include those from primer and paint tiers, other surface coatings such as underseal, and from business lead in car physiques.

Use local exhaust ventilation e. g. mobile extraction unit with flexible exhaust hood and trunking, wherever possible and always in confined spaces.

Roadside repair and recovery: Highway traffic incidents (RTIs) and roadside safety

People at the job on the roadside either recovering or fixing motor vehicles, including tyre and windscreen alternative, are at risk from other motorists. Protection of staff and people of the general public from traffic dangers on public highways is mostly a matter for highway traffic law, which is enforced by the Police and other Agencies. However, existing health insurance and security legislation requires employers and self-employed folks to protect personnel and protect others jeopardized by their work activities. For instance -

safe systems of work should be devised to guarantee the safety of employees and the occupants of vehicles being recovered/repaired

vehicles and/or accessories e. g. winches, cranes etc may be subject to health and security legislation.


Working in the automobile repais industry exposes people to potential risks which is the duty of the workplace (or self-employed person) to recognize and decrease those dangers.

Health and safety in the woodworking industry

The woodworking industry has one of the highest accident rates in manufacturing, most of that are caused by connection with moving equipment. Around two-thirds of all accidents take place on just three types of machine:

circular saws

vertical spindle moulders

surface planers

Risk management

To decrease the chances of an accident occurring, you need to check out what might cause one and then determine what you ought to do to stop it happening. The ultimate way to do this is by a risk diagnosis.

Assessment of the workshop

Conditions will vary from clean to workshops where machines are buried under dust particles and off-cuts. The overall tidiness is usually a good barometer of how well other issues are being managed.

Machinery should all be well looked after and have the correct safeguards. It will also only be employed by those competent to do so and there must be evidence available to demonstrate this. There should also be good control of health threats from wood dirt (asthma, dermatitis), manual handling and noises, etc.

Safety topics

Working with machinery: Woodworking is the sole industry where machinery incidents cause more accidents than slips and trips. Around 25% of these are classed as major injuries. Incidents can be brought on by either connection with the moving parts, including tools, or kickbacks of timber and ejected cutters. This is really because of limited guarding and poor systems of work, often resulting from insufficient training.

Slips, journeys and falls take into account 19% of injuries in this industry.

Vehicles: major traumas to staff and members of the public were brought on by vehicles at work. So it is critical to put sensible precautions in place to reduce the risks that vehicles can cause.

Fire and explosion: Timber particles is highly flammable and you need to take care to extract it safely and securely and keep it away from resources of ignition.

Health topics

Health hazards in woodworking aren't as well known as the safety risks but it is important that they are also contained in the risk examination.

Key health concerns in the woodworking industry are:

Manual handling

Wood dust


Hazardous substances

Manual handling

Most accidents in the woodworking and furniture industry are caused during manual handling activities. There exists potential for harm present during:

handling of timber and plank material

machining and assembly

handling and storage of the completed product

Lifting and managing products can significantly decrease the risk of injury.

Wood dust

Wood dust particles can cause serious health problems. It can cause asthma, which carpenters and joiners are similar to to get.

Hardwood dirt can cause cancer, particularly of the nasal.

Settled dust contains the fine contaminants that are most likely to ruin the lungs.


Woodworking has a few of the noisiest work places in industry. Short exposure to high noises levels can cause non permanent hearing reduction, but longer exposures can bring about permanent damage.

Sufferers often do not appreciate their hearing has been damaged, as reading loss tends to be continuous. However, some effects such as tinnitus can develop more quickly. Tinnitus can be a permanent calling or whooshing audio in the ears which may be very distressing, particularly when it's quiet, such as if you are trying to go to sleep.

Hazardous substances

As well as creating asthma, wood dust, sap and the lichens associated with solid wood can have adverse health effects on your skin, respiratory tract (nasal and lungs), eye as well as the complete body.

Some chemicals used in the woodworking market sectors can have unfavorable health results. Particular attention should be taken when using dichloromethane (DCM), also known as methylene chloride. This solvent can be used to strip coloring from wood. Aswell to be classed as a carcinogen, the vapour can cause drowsiness and problems. In high concentrations this may lead to unconsciousness and loss of life.


Key elements to managing woodworking safely and securely include:

Risk management: To lessen the chances of an accident developing, it is advisable to take a look at what may cause one and then decide what you need to do to avoid it happening.

Training and supervision: By law, all workers must acquire training and guidance that is suitable to the equipment they'll be using.

Workplace management: Paying attention to layout, worker movement and keeping workshops and storage areas tidy can help reduce the potential risks.

Workers themselves should also be encouraged to be involved in health and safety as they are usually the best people to understand the dangers and help find solutions. Through worker engagement, employees and employers, can action together to lessen accidents and sick health within the office.

Health and Safety in the office


The modern office environment presents an array of potential hazards that can be avoided by taking simple safety measures. Although working in an office has always been considered relatively

safe, office personnel face occupational hazards that include vision strain, overuse syndrome, headaches, discomfort, excursions and comes and manual managing injuries.

The Function Occupational Health and Safety Take action 2005, aims to safeguard the health, safeness and welfare of most people atlanta divorce attorneys place of work. Under the Take action employers, employees and the self-employed must meet certain requirements of health, safe practices and welfare.

Employers must be sure the health safety and welfare of their employees. To comply employers must:

Provide or maintain equipment and systems of work that are safe and without hazards to health.

Ensure that equipment and chemicals are widely-used, stored and transported safely and without risks to health.

Provide information, instructions, training and supervision that ensures medical and basic safety of employees

Maintain their work environment in a safe condition including entrances and exits.

Provide enough information about any research and testing of chemicals used at the job.

Employers must ensure the health and basic safety of visitors to the workplace.

Employees must:

Cooperate with the employers in their attempts to maintain the necessary level of health insurance and safety.

Take sensible care of the health and basic safety of others.

The self-employed must ensure the health and safeness of visitors to

the place of work who aren't their workers.

Manufacturers and suppliers of equipment and substances must:

Ensure that their products are safe and not a risk to health when properly used.

Provide clear information about the safe use of these products.

Provide information about research and tests.

People in control of workplaces (e. g. building owners who are not the employer) must be sure that the work place including entrances and exits is safe without risks to health and safety.

Reporting and documenting workplace damage and dangerous occurrences

Employers and people in charge of workplaces must record serious workplace accidents, disorder and dangerous occurrences to the Take action Occupational Health and Safety Office on a "Injury and Dangerous Incident Statement Form". Employers are also necessary to maintain workplace details of employee accidental injuries or condition that lead to absences from work of one day or more.

Office environment

The office environment is a mixture of lighting, temp, humidity and air quality. The office can be considered a healthy and comfortable location to work if the right combination of these elements is managed.

Temperature and air conditioning

Office temperature can be localized. A table situated in direct sunlight will be much warmer than the average temperature in the office and a office situated straight under an air conditioning vent can be cooler than average.

Some older computers can generate as much heating as small electric bar heaters bringing up local conditions above the area average. This issue can be compounded by the clustering of computer systems in one particular section of the office.

Many of the claims of distress in air-conditioned offices occur in the winter time. The cause of the issues can be because if the environment temperature is about 24 level Celsius this feels hot to the worker getting into the building from the outside air. The issue can be produced worse if air movements is less.


Humidity identifies the amount of water vapour in the air. The perfect comfort range for relative dampness is 40-60 %. Low humidness can cause dryness of the sight, nose and neck and could also improve the regularity of static electricity shocks. Relative humidity above 80 % can be associated with fatigue and reports of "stuffiness". If comparative humidity is regularly high or low call in an air-con expert to conduct an assessment.


Ventilation refers to the movements of air and rate of oxygen input. Air movements of significantly less than 0. 1 metres per second can result in stuffy rooms whereas above 0. 2 metres per second draughts can be noticed.

Contaminated air

Air contaminants in the office can include bacterias, trojans, mould spores and dusts, solvent vapours or chemicals made or used in the building. Air conditioners that not provide adequate amounts of oxygen can cause high degrees of CO2. Stale air anticipated to poor ventilation and extreme heating build-up or wetness can also donate to air contamination. Appropriate control options for the reduced amount of air contaminants include:

Effective air purification.

Making certain adequate amounts of fresh air type in the building.

Maintenance of air conditioners, including regular cleaning.

Avoiding the blockage of vents.

Finding equipment using solvents in areas with substantive air motion and/or setting up local

exhaust ventilation.


Environmental tobacco smoke cigars is an indoors contaminant and there keeps growing acceptance that non-smokers may suffer adverse health effects through inhaling tobacco smoking. Organisations are significantly likely to limit passive smoking hazards in offices in the interest of their workers and clients. Several employers have fulfilled their legal obligations to

provide a safe and healthy work place by applying no-smoking regulations in their workplaces. Types of procedures such as appointment, education programs and the allocation of chosen smoking areas are advised for the development of a highly effective no-smoking coverage.

Plants in the office

United States NASA studies show that plants decrease the levels of toxins such as formaldehyde, benzol and carbon monoxide in the air.


The basic requirements for satisfactory lamps are that the work must be easy to see and the light comfortable to the eye. Illumination is measured in models of LUX - lumens per square metre.

Sharp differences in brightness between adjacent areas should be prevented. Ideally the encompassing area should be somewhat low in luminance than the duty area itself, except in special cases such as browsing outlines against a luminous qualifications. Light should fall from the medial side rather than from leading to avoid reflections on the work surface. Glare triggers visual discomfort and it is usually triggered by light options which can be too bright or inadequately shielded.

Safety in the office

Most office damages result from slips, excursions and falls, raising objects, punctures or reductions and

being trapped in or between things.

Slips are brought on by slippery floors, uncleaned spillages or gripless shoes. Outings occur over things lying on the floor or jutting out into aisles or inadequately maintained floor surfaces. Falls can be from ladders or from sitting on chairs to attain an object. Many of these mishaps can be avoided by simple planning and good housekeeping:

Traffic ways and aisles should be well lit, and become kept free from materials, equipment, rubbish and electric leads.

Surfaces should be level and the use of mats discouraged. Spilled liquids and other things dropped on to the floor should be immediately found or cleaned out away.

Free standing fittings should be completely steady or anchored to the wall membrane or floor. Processing cabinets should be put in order that they do not start into aisles and should never be kept with cabinet drawers open up. For stability load cabinets beginning with the bottom and don't open several drawer at the same time.

Office machines and equipment should be kept in good working order. Equipment using hand-fed functions such as electric staplers and newspaper guillotines should be guarded and staff been trained in their proper use.

Many pieces of equipment using electricity can mean trailing cables, overloaded circuits, shattered plugs and sockets. Ensure that these dangers are seen to by competent personnel.

Escalators and moving walkways

Escalators and moving walkways should function easily, be outfitted with any necessary safety devices, and become fitted with one or more emergency stop control buttons which are often identifiable and commonly accessible.

Manual handling

Manual handling is a term used to spell it out each day type activities such as transporting, stacking, pushing, pulling, rolling, sliding, raising or lowering tons. For office staff this may include duties such as moving boxes of stores, processing, getting equipment from cupboards and filling the

photocopying machine with newspaper. Traumas that are a result of a manual controlling event include twisted ankles, sprains and strains, torn ligaments or busted bones. Many hazards arising from manual handling can be managed by fairly simple solutions.

Reducing manual managing injuries

Stage 1: Risk identification

Where will be the manual handling accidental injuries happening at work?

Check out injury records.

Speak to employees and the place of work OHS committee.

Watch the task happening.

Stage 2: Risk assessment

What is leading to these manual handling injuries? Take a look at:

Drive applied

Activities and movements

Range of weights

How often, as well as for how long the job is done

Where in fact the load is positioned and what lengths it needs to be moved

Availability of mechanical aids

Layout and condition of the work environment

Work organization

Position of the body while working

Research of damage statistics

Age of the workers

Skill and connection with the workers

Aspect of the thing handled

Every other factor considered relevant.

Stage 3: Risk control

What changes can be made to prevent these manual handlinginjuries?

Redesign the job

Provide mechanised handling equipment

Provide trained in manual handling skills

Once this technique has occurred it's important to evaluate the potency of the changes which have been made. Any evaluation must assess whether the changes are being used correctly, lessen manual handling accidents and have not created new problems.

Chairs and good posture checklist for keyboard workers

Well adjusted recliners improve body position and blood flow, reduce muscular work and decrease pressure on the worker's back. Recliners should swivel, have five rims for balance, breathable textile on the seat, a rounded front edge and also have adjustable seat height and backrest for lumbar support.

Lighting for VDUs

Place VDUs aside of the source of light(s), in a roundabout way underneath. Make an effort to site tables between rows of lights. If the lamps is fluorescent remove lighting, the sides of the desks should be parallel

with the lamps. Try not to put the screen near a windowpane. If it's unavoidable ensure

that neither the display screen nor the operator faces the window. In case the VDU is well away from home windows, there are no other sources of dazzling light and continuous desk-work is typical, use a minimal level of service.

Using a mouse

A smartly designed mouse shouldn't cause undue pressure on the wrist and forearm muscles. A big large mouse may keep carefully the wrist consistently bent at an uncomfortable viewpoint. Pressure can be reduced by releasing the mouse at recurrent intervals, by selecting a slim-line, low-profile mouse and by using the mouse at an appropriate distance from your body.

Rest breaks and keyboard work

Frequent short breaks are most reliable in relieving the strain associated with keyboard work. For reasonably suffered keying activity an escape should be studied for a few minutes every 50 percent hour. During this break operators should walk around and perform whatever activity relieves the sensation of muscle tiredness. Movements that are an all natural response to fatigued muscles such as shrugging the shoulder blades are generally the most effective in working with the fatigue.

A especially useful approach to relieving muscle exhaustion is to once in a while alter posture. That is, to change from the recommended posture for brief duration. Some recliners have a forwards tilt control that allows the worker to be seated forward which will often help reduce fatigue to the muscles of the forearm, throat and shoulders.

Eye strain

Working with VDUs can produce tired and sore sight and eye stress. To lessen strain take brief rests and appearance into the middle distance or if necessary close the eye and cover them with the hands without pressing and inhale deeply eight or nine times.

Muscle care and attention and preparation

The pursuing exercise should be done before commencing work and after lunch breaks. However it is important to:

Never stretch out to the stage where pain has experience.

Refrain from doing these exercises if you have a medical condition that might be made worse by stretching.


Sanitary conveniences and washing facilities

Suitable and sufficient sanitary conveniences and washing facilities should be provided at immediately accessible places. They and the rooms including them should be maintained clean and become adequately ventilated and lit. Washing facilities should have working hot and frigid or tepid to warm water, soap and clean towels or other method of cleaning or drying. If required by the sort of work, showers should also be provided. Women and men should have split facilities unless each service is in a separate room with a lockable door and is also for use by only 1 person at the same time.

Drinking water

An adequate supply of high-quality drinking water, with an upwards drinking aircraft or suitable cups, should be provided. Normal water should only be provided in refillable enclosed storage containers where it cannot be obtained straight from a mains resource. The pots should be refilled at least daily (unless they may be chilled water dispensers where the containers are delivered to the supplier for refilling). Bottled drinking water/water dispensing systems may be provided as a secondary source of drinking water. Drinking water does not have to be marked unless there's a significant risk of men and women drinking non-drinking water.

Accommodation for clothing and facilities for changing

Adequate, suitable and secure space should be provided to store employees' own clothing and special clothing. So far as is fairly practicable the facilities should enable drying clothing. Changing facilities also needs to be provided for staff who change into special work clothing. The facilities should be easily accessible from workrooms and cleaning and eating facilities, and should ensure the privateness of the user, be of sufficient capacity, and be provided with seats.

Facilities for snooze and also to eat meals

Suitable and sufficient, conveniently accessible rest facilities should be provided.

Seats should be provided for staff to use during breaks. These should be in a location where personal defensive equipment need not be worn. Break areas or rooms should be large enough and have sufficient seats with backrests and dining tables for the number of workers likely to utilize them at any one time, including suited access and seating which is sufficient for the amount of disabled people at the job.

Where workers regularly eat dishes at work, ideal and sufficient facilities should be provided with the objective. Such facilities also needs to be provided where food would usually be apt to be contaminated.

Work areas can be counted as slumber areas and as eating facilities, provided they may be effectively clean and there is a suitable surface on which to put food.

Where provided, eating facilities will include a service for getting ready or obtaining a hot drink. Where hot food cannot be obtained in or fairly near the workplace, workers might need to discover a way for warming their own food (eg microwave range).

Canteens or restaurants can be utilized as break facilities provided there is absolutely no obligation to purchase food.

Suitable break facilities should be provided for pregnant women and nursing moms. They must be close to sanitary facilities and, where necessary, include the facility to lie down.

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