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Health And Illness ARE INFLUENCED BY Biological Factors

There is a sizable range of health and illness and there can be an overlap. A person experiencing depression may be in physical form very healthy nevertheless they are psychologically sick with depression. Medical sociologist Aaron Antonovsky (1979, 1987) recommended we consider health insurance and disease as ends of an continuum (E. Sarafino 2008).

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By considering health on a continuum it takes into consideration all areas of the person and gives a far more overall picture of these state of health.

There are many aspects affecting health and what sort of person experiences health or health problems. The Biopsychosocial modal of health care as produced by Engel (J. Ogden, 2012) takes into account the connections between your Biological, Psychological and Social factors. These factors all have an effect on each other, to demonstrate the interactions between your biological, psychological and public aspects an example will be used. The example circumstance is a 42year old female that was identified as having Fibromyalgia 10 years ago, hereafter known as Miss W. The problem has influenced more than just her physical express, it has completely changed her lifestyle. Her day to day activities are now completely different and it has had an effect on her behalf personality. Because of the physical problems she cannot maintain her job or communal activities. The drop in social relationships and her financial situation has influenced her psychological talk about which has intern exacerbated her physical symptoms. It has become a vicious cycle producing a drastic decrease in her natural and subconscious health.

Case History

Miss W acquired a physical job working with animals and put in her leisure time training/contending with her pups at dog agility. She got a strong cultural network and usually had a happy and cheerful disposition. She did not have much of a surplus income but managed her money well and was not in debt and enjoyed a full and interesting life. Pass up W began to experience common pain, she experienced fatigued even after rest, and she acquired trouble focusing and started to experience symptoms of Irritable bowel syndrome. I order function enough to visit work she reduced her leisure activities for an almost nonexistent level and after a short while could not manage to work and was given medical severance. It needed nearly 2 years for fibromyalgia to be diagnosed. By the time of diagnoses Pass up W got reduced her activities to a short dog walk everyday and her only cultural relationships were with friends that emerged to visit. She struggled get started in the mornings scheduled to pain and rigidity, she was constantly exhausted and experienced regular head aches. She had begun to experience depression and was struggling to pay family members bills.

Biopsychosocial effects

The biological ramifications of the fibromyalgia will be the pain, stiffness, fatigue, sleep disturbances and irritable colon symptoms. Physically her health has dropped but the significant ramifications of the condition are on Miss W's mental and sociable health.

Depression is associated with fibromyalgia but this may be due to the chronic pain. It's been discovered that 40 -50 % of persistent pain patients have problems with depression (Romano and Turner, 1985 as cited in serious physical disorders 2002). Miss W was used to presenting an active life so it would be sensible to expect her feel a reduction and grieve on her behalf previous lifestyle. The impact of her diminished relationships means that her communal support network has dwindled to a couple of friends that still take the time to visit her. It has been found that an absence of social support appears to be associated with the starting point of depression (Paykel E. S. 1994). The effect of the depression is the fact that Pass up W now no longer takes good care of herself. She has put on a considerable amount of weight and is now classed as morbidly obese. The weight increase is partially right down to the drop in physical exercise, but also due to the poor eating habits she's developed. She now comfort eats and eats out of boredom, she almost never eats an effective meal and the meals she eats is of poor healthy content and generally high excessive fat and/or saturated in sugar. Dietary components are suggested to impact depression (Rogers 2001), so her dietary intake by itself could exacerbate her problems. She is now unsatisfied with her appearance due to the weight increase and the lack of mental stimulation has led to low self esteem. Her once happy and cheerful disposition has truly gone and she now has an extremely negative and furious attitude.

The change in Neglect W's psychological health insurance and the fact she now leads what could be considered an unsafe lifestyle exacerbates her symptoms. Healthy life styles have been associated with feeling more awake and lively (Resnick et al, 2006). The excess weight puts more of a tension on her behalf body and her now sedentary lifestyle means her muscles are now weak. This means that when she does indeed try to be active, combined with the muscle soreness associated with the fibromyalgia, she experience rapid fatigue due to her poor conditioning level. Her now negative and furious attitude helps prevent her from making new friends and has led to the increased loss of some of her existing friendships.

Miss W's poor diet also exacerbates her symptoms as poor nutrition is known to have a poor effect on energy. She will even admit that whenever she eats better she feels better. The depression leaves her feeling unmotivated to help make the effort to provide for herself better and make the changes that could decrease her symptoms and improve her quality of life. In the few friends she's only 1 has any knowledge of the situation and has been struggling to persuade Neglect W that making some small changes would improve her standard of living. Sarifino (2008) mentioned that sociable factors, personality and mental state make a difference health related behaviours. Miss W is currently resigned to the being her life to any extent further and does not believe it can transform.

How it could be different

Informational support has been associated with positive morale (schaefer, 1981), which means lack of informational support in Pass up W's case will probably have contributed to her bad attitude and lack of determination. Her doctor does not look beyond the symptoms and snacks her only with anti depressants and pain medication. If the physician implemented a biopsychosocial modal of good care her treatment may likely have been different. By supporting Miss W to get a more positive perspective and helping her to increase her support network she may gain the determination to help herself. You will find support groups for many conditions, including fibromyalgia, and by talking to other folks with the condition Miss W would see others making changes and increasing their quality of life. She'd also be likely to gain comfort to make friends with other folks that understand her battles. Kunda (1990) proposed that motivation may affect reasoning and that individuals will arrive at the conclusions they want to.

There a wide range of non-pharmacological treatments considered useful with Fibromyalgia. Included in these are cognitive behavioural remedy (CBT) (Mease, 2005) which can be used to help learn pacing and pain management techniques. CBT can be effective in minimizing the sleep issues associated with fibromyalgia. With usage of CBT and other non pharmacological treatments Pass up W would be likely to have a far more positive view. With a far more positive attitude Pass up W is more likely to provide for herself better. Simply by having a healthy diet plan she'd increase her standard of living significantly. Her body would have the nutrients it requires to operate better and she'd lose weight. By losing weight some of the strain would be taken off her body and she would feel better about herself. By feeling better about herself she is much more likely to adhere to an exercise plan and improve her overall fitness level supplying her more stamina. Self-efficacy is key to making self management far better (Lorig et al, 2003). She would still have bad days and nights but with some training in how to rate herself she'd have a greatly improved upon activity level. By regaining some control of her life and increasing her activity levels it is likely she would either reduce her level of depression or no longer suffer depression. She would have more public relationships and gain more friends, increasing her support network.


A person's Biological, subconscious and social express all contribute to where they would be on medical continuum. Each aspect impacts the other, as seen in the example case a decline in one aspect can cause a decrease in another aspect. A vicious cycle will start, plunging their general health into decline. It can work in both guidelines, by improving one status the other areas can be improved and overall health can be increased. If only the natural aspect is viewed a person might not reach their maximum potential level of wellness. Pass up W has a limited understanding of her condition and therefore has a more negative prospect than she may if she totally recognized. By understanding the links between biological, psychological and communal factors the individual gains an component of control. The individuals biological health, emotional health and cultural interactions all create the entire picture of their health. By understanding these associations and looking at the individual all together their experience of health and condition can be quite different to only if their biology is considered.

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