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Health and disease in the community



Obesity is a worldwide public ailment and its prevalence is drastically increasing in Australia everyday. According to Jackson et al. (2007) two-thirds of mature men and over 50 % of adult women are overweight or obese. Over weight is a significant health matter to the Australian community as it drastically increases the threat of developing serious co-morbidities and which in turn sets great pressure on our health and wellness system. Throughout this conversation paper I plan to identify and discuss determinants of health including campaign, management and reduction strategies for over weight focusing on key, secondary and tertiary health advertising.

Although discussing implications of adulthood excess weight, I will starting my discussion newspaper on childhood over weight incorporating child targeted protection strategies used to avoid overweight in Australia. My goal of concentrating on children because of this discussion paper is based on the evidence that childhood weight problems contributes to adulthood obesity and therefore targeting children could reduce incidence of adult fatness in Australia. Corresponding to Larsen et al. (2006). 1 in 5 children are overweight and are in risk of overweight in Australia. This causes great matter for the Australian Health Ministers as fat children are suffering from bad life skills had a need to make an obese adult.

Throughout this dialogue paper I will identify health promotional campaigns aimed at growing awareness of fatness as an epidemic and protection programs in place directed at children and individuals about healthy life alternatives. Using secondary health promotion strategies I am going to explore management options availably for fatness whilst investigating early involvement methods and testing programs. I'll explore current management regimes targeted at minimizing reoccurrence of over weight.

Determinants of health

Obesity is a widespread and escalating health matter within Australia and can result in the introduction of other major co-morbidities both during years as a child and adulthood. "Obese children are in risk for a variety of cardiovascular health issues, including diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, orthopaedic problems, skin area disorders, polycystic ovarian syndrome, rest apnoea and mental distress related to self applied image and belief. Larsen et al. (2006).

Obesity is majorly associated with food selections, lack of physical activity and family diet plan during childhood. Growing unhealthy lifestyle practices during childhood can lead to a poor adulthood lifestyle and in the end bring about obese adults.

The Victorian federal government has recognized the significant reasons of weight problems to be poor food alternatives such as choosing foods high in fat rather than a healthy alternative. Insufficient physical activity, with Australian children spending extreme levels of time on inactive pursuits alternatively than being productive. "Several key factors underlie the child and adolescent fatness epidemic, including a rise in inactive behaviours like tv set looking at, computer and video gaming. Alongside an associated decrease in sedentary activities and changes in dietary patterns, large servings and junk food, advertisement of junk foods". Melnyk, (2008).

Overweight parents have also been linked to obesity, partly due to genetics and partially anticipated to children learning bad habits from mimicking their parents. With Overweight being such a prevalent health concern, protection strategies have been developed to lessen the chance and spread awareness.

Primary health advertising with regards to obesity:

Primary health advertising relates the avoidance and associated elimination strategies aimed at preventing the development and development of obesity corresponding to Melnyk (2008).

Many health promotional campaigns have been developed in Australia to improve knowing of the escalating problem of obesity and to promote and publicise healthy life style alternatives to children.

The Australian federal government has developed promotional campaigns directed at children such as "life maintain it" and "Get moving" which aims at promoting physical activity to children. These promotions aim to make exercise appealing to children and suggestively integrate involvement of the whole family. The "life maintain it" campaign encourages all types of active exercise from walking to horse riding and aims focuses on its engagement towards children. Promoting active exercise to children can eventually endorse a wholesome, productive lifestyle that will take them on into adulthood. Another campaign produced by the Australian federal government aims at instructing children to choose healthy foods and actively maintain a well balanced diet. "2 and 5" marketing campaign teaches kids to eat 2 functions of berries and 5 serves of vegetables every day with a catchy easy to keep in mind slogan. Introducing fruits & vegetables to young children is a vital component to maintaining a sensible diet through all phases of life whilst fuelling children with essential nutrients.

A health advertising program introduced to main age's school children has been developed in Australia to instruct children essential life skills both in your kitchen and in the garden. This program instructs children about preparing food well balanced meals and also how to develop and produce fresh fruits and vegetables. Producing a program into primary classes like this you can be beneficial as it can teach children to comprehend the hyperlink between good food choices and ideal health whilst promoting dynamic practical exercise. "The school lunch intervention was created to help students make healthy food choices and improve their taste preferences for fruits & vegetables. " Fulton et al. (2001).

Introducing these programs to children at a young era can help them to be actively involved in their own diets whilst teaching parents and children about healthy selections. "Teach parents to provide healthy, low-fat food alternatives reduce their child's time put in viewing television set and bring regular exercise into their child's and family's program. " Fulton et al. (2001).

Other promotions within neighborhoods are being developed to tackle this ever before growing general public health matter which encourages family members and children to get energetic exercise. The Walking institution bus is an application run within areas that nominates a meeting area where children and individuals can meet and then walk to school as a group. This Australian administration initiate program instructs children and families an alternative solution option to driving a vehicle.

Many Australian classes have discouraged or banned junk foods in school lunches or in university canteens. Banning of soft drinks and foods high in fat or sweets can be a tiny part of changing children's diets.

Health promotional promotions aimed at stopping obesity actively promote healthy life-style including well balanced diets and active exercise. "Prevention programs within key schools try to promote healthy eating and increase physical activity to prevent overweight whilst incorporating participation of families to market all round healthy living. " Fulton et al. (2001).

Most health promotional promotions related to excess weight use children and families as their main target audience. Teaching children to reside a dynamic lifestyle can significantly reduce the risk of adulthood over weight and associated co-morbidities.

Secondary health promotion with regards to obesity:

Secondary health promotion pertains to the management and protection of an illness, and looks at the development of screening programs to recognize early diagnosis. In relation to overweight, monitoring of weight and figuring out contributing factors is essential to predicting incidence of obesity regarding to Dastgiri (2006).

Although excess weight is primarily credited to poor diet and lack of exercise, other contributing factors can also enter into account. Family history and parental fatness are predominately from the development of fatness. Due to this contributing factor, avoidance tactics need to be aimed at family members battling obesity, mainly children. Relating to May & Buckman (2007). Obese parents with poor life-style endorse poor standards of living to their children. Screening process children of obese parents for early warning signs could help to target problem areas and break the overweight cycle.

School programs have been completely introduced into Australian classes targeting avoidance strategies at school aged children. Overweight is supervised by using BMI (body mass index) to evaluate elevation and weight relative to age matching to Jackson (2007). Programs have been developed that screen institution aged children's BMI and provide them and their families with education relating to their susceptibility. This is aimed at targeting excess weight at a age before it becomes issues.

An Australian government program "Get establish 4 life" provides health bank checks for young children aged 4 years which is aimed at early recognition for fatness. The get placed 4 life programs teaches parents and children the value of establishing healthy lifestyle and instructs useful life skills like planning healthy dishes and exercises that incorporate the whole families engagement. "Intervention in child years may be particularly effective to prevent obesity, control excess weight gain, and reduce excess weight when already present. " Barlow et al. (2002).

Early recognition of fatness is a vital component to managing the condition itself. Detecting weight problems in children is an integral factor as it allows action to be taken before obesity evolves beyond control. Weight-loss diets and exercise are designed and developed to minimise weight and promote a wholesome lifestyle, lowering further risk of co-morbidities. Lowering weight in the end diminishes undesirable effects. "By far the most successful weight reduction strategies include calorie reduction coupled with increased physical exercise and behavior- modification therapy made to improve eating and exercise habits. " Shortt, (2004).

According to Naser et al. (2006). General practitioners have developed screening process programs that screen weight and screen contributing factors that are renowned for triggering obesity. When obesity is detected healthcare ideas are developed that incorporate dietician advise to make a personalised exercise and diet program. This program has been found to be successful in minimizing weight and is a key component in monitoring trends within people. Continual education appears to be the primary component to managing fatness and promoting an understating of the value of choosing a wholesome lifestyle.

Tertiary health promotion with regards to obesity:

Tertiary health promotion relates to lowering the impact brought on by the excess weight epidemic and preventing reoccurrence of excess weight. Tertiary health campaign is targeted at individuals and young families with weight problems or those at risky of fatness. Children of obese parents run a very risky of developing fatness themselves. "Parental fatness increases the probability of over weight development in children. A high parental BMI is one of the strongest predictors for child years obesity". Larsen et al. (2006). These factors can be visible consequently of genetics and the importance of genealogy along with similar lifestyle alternatives found among families. Obese parents generally train their children poor lifestyle behaviors that follow them through life increasing their threat of obesity. "Although studies have indicated that a genetic predisposition to fatness may exist, it's the interaction of genetic and environmental factors that triggers excess weight because children often follow good examples set by their parents. Larsen et al. (2006).

Promoting nutritious diet and effective exercise at a age can reduce the likelihood of developing excess weight. When diet and exercise don't succeed, bariactric or gastric banding surgery is now a far more popular alternative. Corresponding to Shortt (2004). Gastric banding surgery is a surgical procedure that helps bring about weight damage by decreasing food intake after closing off or taking away part of the belly, or by forcing the food to be improperly digested or ingested. Although this process can significantly reduce weight, it is not necessarily the healthiest option as it alters nutrient absorption and noticeable reduced diet. Whilst this surgery can reduce weight in parents and decrease likelihood of developing fatness associated co-morbidities, it also instructs children an alternative to exercise and diet. We have to be directing our action at stopping the likelihood of developing such excess weight where gastric banding is a final resort.


Although many resources have been focused on the promotion of reducing fatness and promoting lively lifestyles, overweight remains to be a prevalent health issue and instead of reducing is ever before growing. I believe more health promotional promotions have to be aimed at children and parents to encourage lively living and reduce occurrence of obesity in the future. From my research I have nominated some potential areas in need of attention.

Screening and counselling individuals for probable of developing childhood fatness and directing education towards this example including potential health threats the youngster could develop in the foreseeable future.

Promote diet and physical exercise during early stages of life and adding it into basic school life. Introduce more lifestyle programs into most important schools that train children about healthy eating.

Incorporating parents and individuals engagement in healthy lifestyle and stimulating entire families to be engaged and promote healthy energetic lifestyles in any way ages.

Discouraging heavy television set seeing and children participating in video or video games for extended periods of time. Parents should keep an eye on and limit sedentary activities. I would also recommend parents restricting junk food absorption and prevent foods saturated in fats and sugars. I also think processed foods should be taken off all universities.

Despite recommendations, overweight is an ever before growing health concern impacting greatly on Australia. Though it cannot be removed completely, changing a child's lifestyle choices can impact on their adulthood and send them down a healthy path rather than hazardous one.


Obesity can be an ever increasing ailment is widespread in Australia. Upon investigation into the health promotion of obesity I could conclude much promotional material is targeted at children and preventing over weight and alter Promotion of energetic living. I have found that children have a tendency to be the target audience relative to obesity to market active exercise and diet at early age and ultimately slow up the risk of adulthood obesity. From this discussion paper I discovered promotional campaigns created by the Australian government to promote lively living among Australians. I've identified methods used to manage overweight in adulthood and explored the value of maintaining a wholesome lifestyle before associated co-morbidities destruction health. I really believe obesity is a proper promoted health concern but still requires more attention before weight problems expends uncontrollable.

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