Posted at 10.13.2018
The writer has determined this matter because of his involvement in a future career in food and drink industry. Part A has exhibited that he has good management and team building skills to become a leader in this registered. He seems that it might be imperative to have good understanding of food security if he'd like to be considered a chef after graduated from the school.
In Hong Kong, there are excellent proportion of people went out to get their meal. Relating to Hong Kong centre for health protection (CHP, 2007) the quantity of people eating out more than five times weekly are 30. 2% for breakfast, 51. 5% for meal and 10. 8% for supper respectively.
Having such culture of eating out, food safety should be considered as the first concern in the hospitality industry in Hong Kong, however, in recent years, food poisoning is regularly increasing. According to the World Health Business (WHO, 2007), the global incidence of food-borne diseases is difficult to calculate, but it's been reported that in 2005 by themselves 1. 8 million people passed on from diarrhoeal diseases. A great proportion of these circumstances can be attributed to contamination of food and normal water. In industrialized countries, the percentage of the population suffering from food-borne diseases each year has been reported to be up to 30%. Furthermore, polluted food could result from incorrect food handling, prep, or food safe-keeping.
Although HACCP can be an internationally regarded food safeness management system, there are excellent barriers to implement such system in the hospitality industry
Academic goals of project
This paper is designed to achieve the following targets:
1. To gain knowledge of HACCP and its own implementation in Hospitality industry.
2. To compare current academic literature on the meals safeness issues.
3. To recognize the obstacles of applying HACCP system in Hospitality industry.
4. To recognize the ways to strengthening the food basic safety culture within the Hospitality corporation rather than concentrating on creating an improved safe practices system.
Outline of sections
The books review will be divided into four parts. The fist part is approximately the launch of Hazard Evaluation Critical Control Point System (HACCP), including this description and its execution. The next part is about the obstacles of employing HACCP system in Hospitality industry e. g. sensible and psychological obstacles. The 3rd part is about the organizational culture which included its meaning and interconnection between HACCP implementation. The ultimate part is the ways to strengthening the food protection culture. For the reason that possessing a positive food safe practices culture within the business is more reliable that firmly follow the food security management system such as HACCP.
According to the globe Health Corporation (WHO, 2007) Food-borne diseases or Food poisoning seem to be to own been increasing globally in recent years. Food poisoning can be broadly thought as the illness induced by the consumption of polluted food or normal water containing various bacterias, trojans, parasites or even waste of biochemical or chemical type characteristics. The types of foods produced or served by way of a business combined with the management of how they are ready or produced are likely to contribute to the chance of an business causing food poisoning. (Griffith, 2010)
Although, there are food protection management system such as Risk Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), the implementation of the HACCP system requires additional resources for staff training, purchases on structures and equipment, extra purchase of items, as well as tech support team furthermore, in a business lots of sub cultures compete for concern and often the largest rival to food security culture is a culture of saving cash (Griffith et al. , 2010). The drive to cut costs at the expense of food protection maybe false overall economy and it ought to be known that businesses recognized as a source of food poisoning outbreaks can go through significant harm to brand personal information, financial losses and perhaps, in up to a third of instances, bankruptcy
(Griffith et al. , 2010).
What is HACCP?
According to a recent review (Taylor, 2008)The Risk Evaluation Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a science-based organized approach which identifies critical control details in the creation procedure that are essential to screen and control product basic safety. HACCP is a tool to assess dangers and build control systems that concentrate on prevention somewhat than relying on end-product testing. The system can be applied throughout the meals chain from principal production to final consumption, including most important manufacturers, food manufacturers, carry and storage providers to retail and food service outlets. The execution of HACCP system is a sign for providing safe foods to customers.
HACCP can be an internationally accepted system and is made on seven key principles:
1. Hazard Examination: Potential biological, chemical type and physical risks must be evaluated for each ingredient with each step of the making process.
2. Identify Critical Control Points: Those details in the process where control can be applied to remove or reduce an recognized hazard to an acceptable level.
3. Establish Critical Restrictions: Thought as the maximum or minimum parameter that must definitely be met to eliminate or decrease the hazard to an acceptable limit.
4. Establish Monitoring Requirements: Accustomed to assess if the critical boundaries are met and establish information for verification.
5: Establish Corrective Activities: The activities taken to bring a CCP back again in order and the steps taken up to prevent further contamination of the product as well as the steps taken to prevent the distribution of potentially contaminated product.
6: Establish Confirmation Procedures: Verification assures the program is effectively carried out and followed.
7: Establish Record Keeping and Records Methods: Includes record retention of types of documents kept such as the hazard analysis, the HACCP plan, support paperwork and operational data.
By focussing inspection at CCPs, HACCP boosts the clinical basis for basic safety and control operations. A CCP is "any point in the string of food creation from raw materials to completed product where the lack of control could result in unacceptable food safeness risk" (Pierson and Corlett, 1992). Monitoring of CCPs is performed best by using indications that can be measured easily. This focus on measurable indicators offers a more cost-effective method of control than product sampling and screening, which is more expensive and may not provide well-timed results. This is especially important for foodborne microbial pathogens, because their occurrence is low and the costs of screening are high. It's important to discover that HACCP is not made to replace management decisions weighing potential advantages from product qualities against costs, or the worthiness of improved basic safety versus the expenses of achieving it. HAC
CP facilitates better product safety, but management has the discretion to know what the ultimate product quality will be. These issues enter into the firm's deliberations in deciding CCPs and tolerance restrictions at CCPs. (The financial)
HACCP was formerly developed as a quality control tool in food processing, where top quality product liability creates industry incentives for threat control. It had been designed to be versatile enough to adapt to different firms, plant life, or techniques within crops. Its application as a regulatory standard to an entire industry or sector, or at different periods in the supply chain, is automatically different. (Unnevehr and Jensen 1999),
Why is HACCP important?
The Hazard Examination Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a food basic safety management system that is currently promoted internationally because it allows food business providers to regulate food safety dangers at all points along the production line, somewhat than waiting for microbiological assessment of the final product (Tuominen et al. , 2003).
It thought to be the most effective way to accomplish food security is to focus on elimination of possible risks and to improve the process (Swanson and Anderson, 2000;)
The HACCP system also relies heavily on confirmation and documentation to ensure that food safeness has not been affected during any step. HACCP therefore provides a structure for evaluating risks. HACCP therefore provides a structure for examining hazards or whatever could go wrong and placing the requisite handles in spot to minimize such risks. (Stephaniem et al. , 2009)
The advantage of HACCP based mostly systems is they can be designed to include all different types of foods, their recycleables (whatever their source) and associated dangers. (Griffith, 2010)
(Semos and Kontogeorgos, 2007) denoted that the implementation of the HACCP system to food control can cause advantages to industry, government and consumers, promoting, in this way, a potential improvement of food protection and elimination of food poisoning.
HACCP focus on measurable indicators offers a more cost-effective approach to control than product sampling and testing, which is more expensive and may not provide well-timed results. That is especially very important to food-borne microbial pathogens, because their incidence is low and the expenses of evaluation are high.
Requirement of utilizing the HACCP system in hospitality industry
Before HACCP can be implemented, prerequisite programs (PRPs) such nearly as good hygienic practices, personnel training, and recorded standard operating treatment should be more developed. HACCP's effectiveness relies on the knowledge and skills of both management and personnel. (Taylor, 2008), remarked that the main factor driving a vehicle the implementation of HACCP is the work of experienced, theoretically qualified folks. While versatility appropriate to the business enterprise is important, all seven rules must be employed in the HACCP system. This considers the type and size of the procedure, including the human being and financial resources, infrastructure, functions, knowledge, and practical constraints. The seven concepts can be employed in businesses no matter size and the type of the procedures. (Semos and Kontogeorgos, 2007)
Implementation of the HACCP system requires additional resources for personnel training, assets on buildings and equipment, extra purchase of items, as well as technical support furthermore, professionals or businesses should provide adequate and appropriate facilities for food handlers to be hygienic and this can affect their perceived behavioral control. (Griffith, 2000)
The efficacy of the machine relies intensely on the relevant HACCP knowledge and skills, management commitment, and understanding of HACCP along with changes in attitude and organizational culture - all requiring sufficient training to overcome obstacles related to human resources. (Adams, 2000)
Considering the results as a whole, staff training was the cost with the best mean score indicating that cost through the development and implementation of the HACCP system was the most significant cost. The next most important cost was the investment funds in new equipment. As has recently been mentioned, the majority of the respondents have used an external consultant to build up and execute the HACCP system in their company. Thus, it is not surprising that the expense of the external consultant is scored as the third most significant cost. (Semos and Kontogeorgos, 2007)
The cost of a HACCP system for some industries relies not only on the requirements of the system, but also on the improvement of the existing position of food safety-related methods in the company. Considering the price tag on HACCP systems, it's important to take into consideration the firm's long-term savings derived by way of a potential decrease in recalling contaminated foods (Taylor, 2001).
A food handlers' knowledge of food safety is crucial - they can not behave hygienically if they have no idea how to act and why. This has resulted in increased focus on training; however, knowledge of food safe practices/hygiene will not always result in implementation of food safe practices procedures. Training provides people who have the knowledge allowing them to handle food safeness when they are motivated to be hygienic (Griffith, 2010).
What will be the barriers in applying the HACCP system in hospitality industry?
Hazard Evaluation Critical Control Point (HACCP) is an internationally accepted system of handling food basic safety (Codex, 2003) and its use is advocated in the hospitality industry. Griffith (2000) mentioned that you of the major problems regarding the effective implementation of HACCP is the fact employees in food industry often lack interest plus they often have a negative attitude toward the meals safety programs. Taylor and Taylor (2004) found that the main barriers that hindered the effective HACCP implementation were due to HACCP being considered as difficult, burdensome and unnecessary. They discussed that the interplay of barriers at knowledge, attitude and behavioral levels could account for the issues in effective HACCP execution.
The made working meanings for the overall hurdle categories included: knowledge as a body of obtained facts; attitude as mental reaction to knowledge; and behaviour as the action considered as a result of knowledge acquisition and attitude development. Subcategories of the general obstacles included consciousness, familiarity and understanding for knowledge as the subcategories for frame of mind major barrier made up of agreement and dedication. Adoption and adherence were the subcategories going back major barrier, behaviour
(Obstacles of HACCP associates)
Furthermore, those obstacles separated into two types which can be practical and psychological. (Taylor, 2008) mentioned that there surely is an overwhelming range of practical and mental health obstacles to the HACCP implementation in hospitality industry (Taylor et al. , 2008).
The practical barriers in applying the HACCP system in hospitality industry
Although HACCP is an internationally acknowledged food safe practices management system, there are great barriers to use such system in the hospitality industry. Studies show that the major problems determined in the Hospitality industry were: insufficient knowledge, training problems, high personnel turnover, large variety of products, variant in potential demand and large numbers of part-time personnel (Ward, 2001)
Lack of appropriate facilities has been cited as a hurdle to implementation of good health (Clayton et al. , 2002). However even more highly cited was insufficient time and energy to be hygienic which may very well be even more important in food service or catering than in creation. The former work to order, with customers seeking fast service, potentially facing food handlers whilst in developing businesses usually work to stock. Strengthening a business' move patterns and staff statistics has helped to significantly improve hygiene implementation. Professionals or businesses may say that this costs too much money and this attitude directly links to the business' organizational food basic safety culture. (Griffith, 2010)
Eves and Dervisi (2005) mentioned that when HACCP is not properly executed it is because of time-related constraints and mainly due to the massive amount records required. Bas et al. (2007) and Panisello and Quantick (2001) stated that the volume of the paperwork required is one factor that hinders the HACCP performance, while Taylor and Kane (2005) and Taylor (2001) make reference to difficulties or lack of validation and verification methods. Aggelogiannopoulos et al. (2007) also brought up some other inner barriers in putting into action the product quality system such as the lack of money, lack of employees, human resource limits (insufficient skills or certification), time constraints because of the short operating horizon of the business enterprise, resistance of higher-level executives to change and resistance of employees to change.
(Taylor and Forte 2008) point out which the hospitality industry is mostly made up of very small businesses with numerous levels of staff training and high personnel turnover. With a few exceptions, staffs lack the competence to develop a food basic safety management system such as HACCP. Hospitality businesses do not hire a food technologist or microbiologist in kitchens, but craftsmen who aren't technically qualified to identify danger points or to use devices such as thermocouples and digital thermometers. An experienced chef is far more with the capacity of judging whether food is effectively cooked properly using more traditional methods, such as shade or consistency changes in food.
Second, unlike the making industry, the average hospitality outlet offers an extended product range (menu) to the client. It could not be possible to produce a flow diagram for each product offered as required by the international HACCP Rules (Codex, 2003). Furthermore, the average hospitality business is highly versatile and creative and there is a higher quantity of products offered, less use of standard quality recipes and often ad hoc reworking of ingredients.
Third, the first HACCP concept requires a detailed, technical hazard examination (Codex, 2003). Not surprisingly, many caterers do not understand the complex HACCP and microbiological "jargon" & most frequently have no ability to recognize critical dangers in food preparation and baking.
Finally, as food is created from a diverse and complex development blueprint (menu) and the clients require immediate use, the development process differs substantially from that of processing businesses. The working speed is changing and volatile which is unsuitable for many types of monitoring and records. Daily business forecasts tend to be unpredictable, leading to too little or too much primary food preparation, and requiring flexibility to manage alternatively than rigid regimens.
These variations create strong barriers to the execution of HACCP in the hospitality industry, and they are very difficult to triumph over. The level of the challenge can be demonstrated by analysing earlier attempts to develop HACCP guidance manuals for hospitality businesses (Taylor and Forte 2008).
The psychological obstacles in employing the HACCP system in hospitality industry
Beside the useful barriers, emotional factors are considered as the barriers to HACCP's successful implementation in Hospitality industry. A report (Taylor, 2008) explained that the internal barriers such as personnel motivation, attitude, and behaviour to the execution. Telephone calls have been made for more specific research on food security culture with the idea and its importance, poorly comprehended by all levels in the meals industry, including middle and top management. (Griffith et al 2010)
If managers have a negative attitude about pursuing proper food safeness and sanitation techniques, it'll be apparent to others with what they state and do.
For example, if the director of any foodservice establishment doesn't clean his hands before beginning work, how do he expect the employees to take action?
Instead, if the manager demonstrates a good attitude toward food basic safety through his words and action, the employees will more likely do the same. In companies with strong safety cultures, an effective attitude toward food safeness is more caught than educated. (Yiannas, 2008)
Food safety is not only a microbiological problem but which it also has a major behavioral part (Griffith and Redmond, 2009). It has been recommended that 97% of outbreaks traced to non-manufacturing food businesses involved a food handler error/malpractice (Howes et al. , 1996).
Although there was a noted HACCP system this was poor and inadequate, its content had not been communicated to the employees and was not available for inspection by the environmental health officer. There is no stock rotation process, cleaning paperwork was poor saying some items were to be washed daily the person accountable for their cleaning was only used two days a week with cleaning of high risk areas omitted. Many types of procedures such as cup and pest control procedures, considered essential to a meat processor chip of the kind, were not in place. However it is perhaps the food safety culture placed by the owner/manager which gives climb to the greatest concerns. This is a culture where went back spoilt meats was repacked and re-used and where saving cash had precedence total else. Staffs were asked to work when sick and follow the owner's exemplory case of moving between high and low risk areas without a change of clothing or hand washing. The dog owner falsified information, misled and lied to environmental health officers. (Griffith, 2010)
The interconnection between Organizational culture and the HACCP implementation
All businesses have a "food security culture" this can be on the continuum from positive to negative. Inside a positive culture, food protection can be an important business target and there is compliance with recorded systems. In a negative culture, food basic safety is not recognized of best importance with often other business priorities dominant (Griffith et al. , 2010) and there is poor conformity with noted food protection requirements. The formation or life of both types of culture may be monitored or unmanaged. A negative culture may be the consequence of lack of effort or inappropriate leadership and management. In a negative culture any tries by individuals to boost safe practices may be ineffective (Clayton and Griffith, 2008). Inability to adhere to quality and food protection management system requirements can be both widespread and problematic.
High accomplishing organizations consistently illustrate elevated levels of security culture, whereas low undertaking organizations show an unhealthy basic safety culture (Killimett, 2006).
What is Organizational culture?
Organizational culture is described typically in terms of the way people think, which has a direct affect on the ways that they react.
Organizational culture (OC) is the sociable or normative glue that keeps an organization along. OC is an efficient instrument of personnel motivation resulting in improved individual and organizational performance. The command of any type of organization has a very important inalienable responsibility in developing appropriate organizational cultures to improve performance and job-satisfaction of organizational people. If the control does not devote sufficient efforts to develop a positive culture and arrest the tendencies towards negative ethnicities, maybe it's a disaster for the business. (Anonymous, 2006)
In particular, organizational culture provides employees a common frame of guide for changes in an organization. When organizations have different civilizations, people have different perceptions and interpretations of organizational changes, which have an impact on employees' embracing changes. Therefore, organizational culture may be important for the success of tasks relating any organizational changes (Weiling and Kwok, 2008)
A strong organizational culture helps users develop a distributed sense of who they are and provides clear prices and beliefs to guide decision making and the formulation of long-term strategies (McGrath and Tobia 2008).
How organizational culture triumph over the obstacles in HACCP implementation in the hospitality industry?
The organizational culture could contribute to both success and obstacles of employing HACCP in the hotel.
An organizational culture will effect how individuals within the group think about food protection, their attitudes toward food safeness, their determination to openly discuss concerns and talk about differing ideas, and, generally, the emphasis that they place on food safeness. (Griffith et al, 2010b)
Individual food handler tendencies links right to the business' culture (Clayton and Griffith, 2008, Griffith et al. , 2010) and possibly how management create and support the meals safety culture in just a business maybe the most crucial factor in whether a business is or is not accountable for food poisoning. Food poisoning
An group needs to make certain that employees understand the meals safety performance targets of the job and that at all levels they are simply held in charge of them. The word accountability generally means that there are investigations and amounts being measured to make sure certain desired final results are being achieved. And in organizations with strong food security cultures, this is really true. For instance, an organization might conduct daily HACCP investigations and measurements, observe staff behaviours related to food basic safety, and provide reviews and instruction (both negative and positive) predicated on the results. However in organizations with enlightened safe practices cultures, they've determined ways to transcend or exceed accountability. They've figured out ways to get employees to do the right things, not because they're being presented accountable to them, but because the employees have confidence in and are committed to food safety. It's been said that identity is what you decide to do when you're only and no one is observing. In organizations with enlightened food safe practices cultures, employees do the right thing not because the director or customer is seeing, but because they know it's right plus they care.
Organizations with strong safe practices ethnicities know this. They take the showing of information beyond simple food basic safety training. They promote information often and speak regularly with their workers about food security utilizing a variety of announcements and mediums. They recognize that what we should see, that which we hear, and that which you read, if done effectively, can have a significant impact on us. If it didn't, marketers wouldn't spend the millions of dollars they do every year trying to attain consumers. Like in commercial marketing, organizations with strong food safeness cultures talk about information not merely to impart knowledge, but to persuade their workers to action.
Having an appropriate positive food safeness organizational culture is essential to maintaining a successful brand. Top management need to be alert to their own role and tasks in culture formation and to provide their professionals with the skills to create and keep maintaining an optimistic food safety culture in any way levels but especially at middle management /product level (Griffith et al. , 2010).
Safety culture appears to be definable and measurable in sensible conditions within high-performing organizations that regularly show high degrees of trust, effective communication, management credibility and a standard value of security (Killimett, 2006). A good security culture is said to can be found in organizations that acknowledge the risk for human error, but act to lessen such hazards by developing professional skills that promote safe work techniques (Nieva and Sorra, 2003).
Top management in one country were under the impression that compliance with systems was good, personnel understood the need to be hygienic and that food protection was crucial to the business. Product managers held an alternative perspective which differed in major ways from the views of shop floor staff who perceived the business' priorities to be quite different. Effectively this arranges employees into distinct organizational levels that stand for differing assignments in implementing, keeping and monitoring food safeness management systems and criteria. (Griffith et al, 2010b)
Yiannas (2009) argues that food security can be better attained by strengthening the food safety culture somewhat than focusing on building a bigger or better safety system. Thus a food protection culture can be viewed as the shared attitudes, values and beliefs towards the food safety actions that are routinely confirmed in food handling organizations. New employees will normally adopt the dominant manners that appear stable throughout the organization by simply learning from colleagues and leaders when they are recruited into the business, learning to be a distributed responsibility by all group participants.
Yiannas (2009) areas that organizations can pick to make a strong food safeness culture. He goes on to claim that leaders are accountable for instigating it because they may have the energy and influence to create a positive food security culture and therefore have the potential to reduce the global burden of food-borne disease. He postulates that setting up a positive food safety culture can support this process by actually changing the thoughts, conducts and beliefs of people within a group.
Summary and Conclusion
The Hazard Examination Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a science-based organized approach which identifies critical control tips in the creation procedure that are crucial to monitor and control product protection. The implementation of HACCP system is an indicator for delivering safe foods to customers. It regarded as the most effective way to accomplish food safe practices is to give attention to protection of possible dangers and to improve the process.
The benefit of HACCP established systems is that they can be designed to include various different types of foods, their raw materials (whatever their source) and associated dangers.
The execution of the HACCP system to food processing can cause benefits to industry, federal government and consumers, promoting, in this way, a potential improvement of food safeness and avoidance of food poisoning. Factor
Before HACCP can be put in place, prerequisite programs (PRPs) such nearly as good hygienic practices, personnel training, and documented standard operating process should be well established.
Caterers aren't qualified to recognize the many risks now within their operations and they cannot be likely to produce their own individual HACCP programs.
HACCP may become a useful management tool, but, to achieve success, it must be observed by chefs as useful and easy to apply. It must be recognised as a way to avoid problems instead of a defence mechanism in case things fail. The many hazards involved with producing food, alongside the critical control buttons necessary to be sure it is safe, need to be documented.
HACCP's effectiveness relies on the knowledge and skills of both management and personnel. The efficiency of the machine relies seriously on the relevant HACCP knowledge and skills, management determination, and understanding of HACCP along with changes in frame of mind and organizational culture - all needing sufficient training to triumph over barriers related to recruiting.
interplay of barriers at knowledge, frame of mind and behavioral levels could take into account the issues in effective HACCP execution.
The made working meanings for the overall barrier categories included: knowledge as a body of acquired facts; attitude as mental reaction to knowledge; and behaviour as the action taken consequently of knowledge acquisition and frame of mind development
Furthermore, there is an overwhelming range of practical and subconscious obstacles to the HACCP execution in hospitality industry
Although HACCP is an internationally known food safeness management system, there are excellent practical barriers to use such system in the hospitality industry. Studies have shown that the major problems determined in the Hospitality industry were: insufficient knowledge, training problems, high staff turnover, large variety of products, variance in potential demand and large numbers of part-time workers
Lack of appropriate facilities has been cited as a barrier to implementation of good health. However even more highly cited was insufficient time to be hygienic which is likely to be even more important in food service or catering than in creation. The former work to order, with customers seeking fast service, possibly facing food handlers whilst in processing businesses usually work to stock. Improving a business' switch patterns and personnel figures has helped to significantly improve cleanliness implementation. Professionals or businesses may say that costs excess amount and this frame of mind directly links back to you to the business' organizational food basic safety culture.
Beside the sensible barriers, mental health factors are believed as the obstacles to HACCP's successful implementation in Hospitality industry. emotional obstacles such as staff motivation, attitude, and behavior to the execution. Telephone calls have been designed for more specific research on food safeness culture with the idea and its own importance, poorly comprehended by all levels in the meals industry, including middle and top management.
Food safety is not simply a microbiological problem but that it also has a significant behavioral component. It's been recommended that 97% of outbreaks followed to non-manufacturing food businesses involved a food handler problem/malpractice
Organizational culture is the public or normative glue that retains an organization alongside one another. It is a powerful instrument of personnel motivation resulting in improved individual and organizational performance.
An organizational culture will affect how individuals within the group think about food safeness, their attitudes toward food security, their willingness to openly discuss concerns and share differing views, and, generally, the emphasis that they place on food safeness.
Having an appropriate positive food safety organizational culture is essential to maintaining a successful brand. Food security can be better attained by strengthening the food safety culture somewhat than concentrating on building a bigger or better basic safety system.