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Guerilla marketing role and analysis

When some starry-eyed startup or a small company assumes the best budget corporate in the marketing area with an underground advertising campaign that costs only triggers shockwaves for calendar months, its called guerrilla marketing.

Guerrillamarketing is a different kind of marketing which does not involve big budget but it is about out of the container thinking; it is approximately using anything around to advertise a product, a concept or a social message nearly anything under sunlight.

It is convinced in amusing and engaging the target customer. It generally does not involve preaching or educating but it is approximately exciting the audience to determine a solution or solve a puzzle. Guerrilla promotions purely rely upon creativity, intensive word of mouth campaigns and its own oddness like using unconventional locations. Some guerrilla promotions are so outstanding that this has made bystanders feel lucky to be there to witness them.

The goals of guerrilla marketing are not at all hard: use unconventional methods to advertise on an extremely small budget. It really is based on the idea that one doesn't need radio or Television set ads to market something. Make a plan so shocking, funny, unique, outrageous, smart, or creative (even controversial) that folks cant stop talking about it thus create intense person to person publicity.

In traditional marketing advertising was largely about big costs, big publicity, and catchy label lines. Marketers were all about the profits and bringing in clients. The guerrilla marketing theory, that was created by Levinson (1984), suggests an unconventional way of executing promotional activities on a very low budget. In recent years, many companies, even the more developed ones are moving from traditional marketing implementations to guerrilla marketing.

A few examples of how even proven companies have resorted to Guerrilla marketing

Procter & Gamble started a device called Tremor to propagate the term about its products among young people

Kayem Foods (machine of Al Fresco poultry sausage), hired a company to arrange a guerrilla advertising campaign called the fantastic Sausage Fanout

The train lines CSX launched a safety-awareness campaign by hiring people to put eggs at the companys outdoor billboards

Thus at the moment small or big, startup or set up, companies are resorting to Guerrilla marketing and in a big way.

Origins of Guerrilla Marketing

The term Guerrila first came out during the warfare of self-reliance in Spain and Portugal at the beginning of the 19th century. It really is a Spanish manifestation which can be translated as struggle. Guerrillastands for a battle procedure that was employed by smaller teams that stood against an enormous military push.

The term and the connected businesses became famous through Ernesto Che Guevara Lynch de la Serna (1928 1967), most widely known as Che Guevara, who used and described this military strategy. Since Che Guevara and his fans did not possess as much resources such as weaponry, money, or fighters as their competitors, they founded their functions on the delight effect and on functions of sabotage. The use of unconventional weapons and activities helped them to destabilize their competitors and led them to their last success. Che Guevara described and shaped basic principles for his fighters and summarized them in the publication GuerrillaWarfare that he had written in 1961. They are the main elements that can be described:

Ultimate goal: victory over the enemy

Usage of wonder effects

Tactical superiority

Based on the thought of GuerrillaWarfare, marketers came up with the new marketing strategy called GuerrillaMarketing. Through the late 1970s the idea of teaching consumers about the benefits and top features of products felt too old-fashioned and didnt prosper for the promoters. So, that they had to do something different and inserted the GuerrillaMarketing with the main focus on entertaining and interesting people.

Also, during that time, the consumers action had evolved and businesses possessed to create offers that fit their consumers needs and not only their own. Subsequently marketing experts needed to find realizable concepts for businesses with limited resources; something that allows one company stand-out in the masses. The only promising way was to use an anti-marketing theory that included attrition and invasion strategies to be able to gain the maximum amount of attention as possible also to weaken competitors significantly.

Though, earlier marketers had the thought of using this plan, GuerrillaMarketing became popular after Jay Conrad Levinson identified its principle in his book Guerrilla Marketing in 1983. He launched new ways of advertising where hardly any investment can be used and results are better than the conventional marketing strategies. He structured the success of a advertising campaign strategy on the utilization of non-traditional marketing stations, insistency, customer proximity, and endurance. A corporation should create as many points of connection with customers and potential clients as possible to be able in which to stay their memory space.

Guerrilla marketing (worldwide)

Pomegranate Phone

This telephone is publicized to get features like built-in harmonica, coffee maker, movie projector, global voice translator, trimmer etc. But, its a fake phone found in real online marketing campaign, ran in Sep08 to market Nova Scotia or New Scotland, a Canadian province as a vacation spot for travel and leisure, place for company etc. Inquisitive online users who go the cellphones website and select Release day reaches start to see the opportunities available in New Scotland combined with the facilities provided, market, culture etc to get him/her to the area.

Mdecins du Monde

When the other companies are employing guerrilla marketing for money, this international humanitarian organisation used it to help the homeless in Paris. In 2005, the company allocated 2 second tents to destitute people whore sleeping on the streets. As these people setup their treatment tents with the companys emblem in visible places of the city, it captured attention of the general public and provoked this outrage that the city was forced to do something.


The name is becoming synonymous with unrivaled marketing attempts for modern style furniture and accessories. Theyve used very impressive means of GuerrillaMarketing be it for telling the exterior world its their 40th birthday or selling its textiles through A little fabric makes big differences. IKEA is still continuing its progressive ways of reaching to customers.

While there is a general misunderstanding that Guerrilla marketing is employed by conglomerates and limited to high-end products, the Truth is No. As is seen from the below advertisements, the Guerrilla Marketing can be utilized in as little as straws, ice-cream sticks, bring handbags etc to get attention while eating something.

Campaign Against Landmines (CALM)

In 89 countries walking on a mine is still regular is what is printed on the sauce sachets. This campaign was run by NZ Quiet, which is really the only NGO in NZ to help mainly focussed on landmines and Explosive Remnants of Conflict. They accept the duty for keeping the public, other NGOs, politicians and Authorities Departments aware of the problems these inhumane weaponry create and the steps necessary to provide solutions. These promotions are run mainly to garner general public support, to attain to youth, to raise funds so as to help minefields etc.


Even governments all over the world have started using the marketing for various purposes. In the photo shown, Copenhagen federal government is promoting its Zoo with genuine imagery of a giant constrictor snake squeezing a complete Co penhagen city bus. This is one quick of way of showing all the tourists that the city has a zoo with variety of pets.

Guerrilla Marketing in India

Any questions whether Guerrilla marketing is widespread in India, can be wiped out witnessing the adjoining image.

One of the oldest guerrilla marketing promotions in India was the Amul marketing campaign with the chubby gal in the red polka-dotted dress. The Vodafone Zoozoo plan may also be termed a guerrilla because of its unconventional style. The Fevicol advertising campaign where in various situations, people caught up on different items was shown struck a chord with Indian viewers.

The sponsor of the Indian cricket team Nike was trumped, as Reebok managed to put branded stickers on their bats, at far less cost but for a much greater return. Union Lender of India promoted their joint lender accounts with a printing advertising campaign displaying one of Indias most well-known couple: Mahatma Gandhi and Kasturba Gandhi on a Rs. 100 Rupee take note of.

A recent advertising of Airtel Digital Television features Saif searching for a long lost love. Because of this campaign spoof news columns have been shared in national newspaper publishers.

In another great exemplory case of shock marketing, Polaroid images were taken exterior homes and businesses and a sticker with communication With a CCTV security system you might have seen me outside your house was located on the trunk before falling them in their particular mailboxes. This was a daring idea to show the disadvantages of failing to have a CCTV.

In these series of campaigns, Big Bazaar set up billboards in Bangalore, with subtle digs at its chief competitors Westside, Consumers Stop & Lifestyle. This plan garnered eyeballs.

A final guerrilla marketing campaign in India, which we can highlight is this one done by Go Air which became one of the finest examples of guerrilla marketing in those days.

Guerrilla Marketing Disasters

The profits which a successful guerrilla advertising campaign can bring are well known, but occasionally a few wrap up as disasters. Below we recount some which didnt go to plan.

American Apparel

In 2008 North american Apparel, decided to take an unconventional route to marketing, by putting up a billboard that highlighted a graphic of Woody Allen bounded by Hebrew symbols.

As was expected, Woody Allen objected to the unlicensed use of his image. Following a bizarre courtroom drama including nonsensical defences and strange accounts of Allens 1970s sex life, American Garments decided to settle for $5 million.

The Boston Bomb Scare

The providers of the movie The Aqua Teenager Hunger Push chosen a guerrilla technique to promote their film theyd complete US locations with small computer motherboards of the same design as one of the shows individuals.

Unfortunately, the public panicked at discovering the motherboards on the highways suspecting those to be bombs. After media hysteria and a significant fine, the film was released.

All I Dont Want for Xmas is a PSP

With Nintendo DS hot on its pumps, Sony launched a promotional website called All I'D LIKE For Xmas is a PSP, complete with lover mails and customer reviews. Online gamers hacked in to the site and understood it was documented to Sony. While Sony eventually helped bring down the website, their reputation amidst serious online gamers was entirely damaged.

The Coke Zero Movement

Leading up the kick off of Coke No, a rebranded version of Diet Coke for men, Coke launched a blog called The No Movement. It was presented as something that was unbiased and unassociated with Coke. Visitors quickly found out that Coke acquired simple purchased the website name, created a fake archive of posts, and launched the website as a marketing tool.

After mass revolt from social bookmark creating neighborhoods and popular online community forums, Coke transformed The Zero Activity into a completely blog-free promotional website.

Guerrilla Marketing and Consumer Behaviour

During the 1980s marketers backed the fact that prospects have to be exposed to the same marketing note as often as you can. Research showed that individuals need to see an advert up to 13 times before they understand what the product is which it could be good for them. Consequently business owners were urged to publicise their name, logo, and message at every possible opportunity. Thus desire to was to capture the consumers attention again and again. Furthermore a chosen strategy had to be kept for an extended period even if it didn't bring the desired success immediately. Levinson, who founded the thought of Guerrilla marketing, advised that only a certain quantity of exposures can bring the client to a final purchase. Simply put, Marketing does take time and consequently business owners have to hold back. A hasty change in strategy would reset the customers brain and the spent money and time would have been squandered.

Based on a research by Saxion University, GuerrillaMarketing seems to be something that amuses people and inspires these to have a closer look. 59. 5% people in the review believed that they might have taken a closer look if indeed they acquired seen or read such advertising in reality. A closer look means that they would remember the info they observed better and that may influence their purchase decision later on. This is the ultimate goal of advertising. It really is a myth an advertisement can drive a person into the next shop to buy something. Customers need to be exposed to advertisements up to 15 times before they have the wish to buy something.

GuerrillaMarketing appears to be the right way to receive the first two steps of the AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action) model, the interest and the interest of customers, even at the first contact. Often advertisements need several associates before they get the interest or even the interest of your prospect. Even though the survey uncovered that people spend some thought on sudden and unconventional advertisings, the study also showed that folks do not necessarily consider purchasing the product at least not right away. Despite the fact that the desire and the action aren't influenced yet, the huge effects of GuerrillaMarketing on the attention and the eye of a customer leads someone to suspect that a prospect doesn't need as many contacts with the advertising campaign as with other marketing strategies to bring them to your final purchase.

Guerrilla Marketing: Criticism

Guerrilla marketing runs another method than traditional marketing. Therefore it is often difficult to identify the fine line between incitement and offence, between recording the attention to an organization also to create a poor reputation, to get new customers and lose prospective customers.

The example below site an incident that shows a Guerrilla Advertising campaign that failed. There are sometimes invisible borders that a corporation shouldn't cross:

An corporation, Aqua Teen Food cravings Force, promoted its new humor series by inserting a large electronic hoarding featuring an adult character in metropolis center of Boston, MA. Lose cables were hanging out of the hoarding. Individuals passing by believed that they were explosives and panicked. They called the police and an anti-terror device was sent to disarm the hoarding that was wrongly comprehended as a bomb. The city center and everything access highways were finished. Later that day the oversight was shown and it led to two arrests and costs of USD 500, 000. Even though the advertising was already in metropolis for some days and was also placed in other major US cities and did not cause any excitement there, it is evident that those in charge should have dealt with this issue in a far more delicate way. The incident raised the hits on the site of the organization on that one day, nonetheless it can be inferred that the reason why may not be very stimulating.

New technology, internet, mobile telephony and 3G etc. , are a blessing and a curse at the same time. Viral and Mobile Marketing are the most successful marketing fads that spread the word so fast which it often can't be retraced or handled anymore.

As described in the illustration above an innovative idea can easily turn into bad campaign and poor P. R. Particularly in these situations it might be valuable if the advertising could be just wiped out and would in doing so limit the number of people that see it. Consequently an even greater impairment could be circumvented. However in todays framework of Viral Marketing and multimedia coverage from all around the globe, it is almost impossible to let something disappear that was accessible to the public earlier. Thus this means that every advertising that has not been thought through cautiously can impair the reputation of the business and can bring about the loss of customers.

Guerrilla marketing as complete earlier lays focus on time, energy and creativeness rather than marketing budget. Yet, in competitive industries where there is crowding and mixture of small and large companies large makers might swipe away small organizations following Guerrilla tactics by their huge market costs. Another point of view state governments, Guerrilla marketing does not have to be cheap which is not very cheap the majority of the time. It really is affordable, but that is something really different. It's possible that using the same investments, the effect of alternative advertising is greater. It has been argued that financially strong companies should use Guerrilla marketing as a complementarity tool.

Another school of thought led by American marketing experts Al Ries and Jack port Trout specified the main notion of Levinson, however they also founded some contrary values. Like Levinson, Trout and Ries states that Guerrilla marketing best suits small and medium-sized companies. Trout mentioned that the marketplace size also should be controllable with the limited and available resources. Therefore he implies specializing and investing in a niche product and/or market market. Both Ries and Trout advise that a tiny business should try to use every product and/or market specific niche market that becomes available and also not think twice to improve their position in case they believe another strategy would become more profitable. As a result insistency and strength is not one of the top elements anymore enjoy it was in Levinsons view. Unlike Levinson, Ries, and Trout, Kotler have confidence in the fact that main reason for Guerrilla Marketing is to disrupt the opponent.

Generally speaking, Marketing does take time to show tangible results and therefore corporations have to hold back because of the lag. An impulsive change in Guerrilla marketing strategy creates a dissonance in customers brain and the invested resources, money and time would be misused.

Even though the explanation sounds rational it isn't valid in todays context. The market and the surroundings is very dynamic and change speedily, therefore all companies make an effort to retain the attention of the client as often as you can.

The Guerrilla Marketing appearances of smaller companies are often more radical and on the verge of crossing the line. In that way it is of utter importance that the advertising is not at the expense of the audience. If desire to for awareness and promotion is placed higher than the eye of people, the brand image is broken.

While there are more lucrative implementations of Guerrilla marketing strategies and related advertisements, Guerrilla promotional initiatives that aren't developed and executed properly may lead to certain moral trouble. It is particularly more relevant to advertising that exploit fear appeals, annoy the target consumers or those that are baffling may be ethically difficult. As it can be seen an incorrect use can result in side results even of an effective emotion-arousing advertising campaign.

Therefore planning of advertising without considering the facts from the contextual use may lead to certain honest problems. The initial purpose of the advertiser may be to raise the sales, increased customer reach or better brand recall. Regardless of the goal it will capture the interest of the customer and influence the perception of the buyer. These types of advertising generally do not aim to entertain the audience. They create a notion of anger, disturbance, turbulence, dread and sad one of the audience. It could lead to a non permanent discontent and temporary impatience in the tendencies of the audience. The audience situation can be called as worse than just dislike. Therefore the target is to evoke negative feelings like sadness and fear instead of positive feelings of joy, calmness, calmness and love. It is viewed that these factors may spiral and lead to development of long term or long term negative for the brand.

International organizations tend to be reluctant than small companies when using Guerrilla Marketing. It's the innate need to keep a concentrated brand image internationally; their marketing functions desire a definite course.


Guerrilla marketing is a lot more than just a trend today. It is rather a musical instrument that is utilized by companies of all sizes. Todays Guerrilla Marketing, though, differs from the Guerrilla Marketing beliefs that Levinson developed in the 1980s.

Neither nearly all small nor the majority of large companies dominate the original Levinson idea. But still many companies partly use the areas of the root philosophy. Basic ideas like the setup of your corporate identification were bought out by almost every company.

Even though they often times rely on a classical marketing mix, advertising campaigns utilize the Guerrilla shock effect and its witty ideas. With the help of only a little budget, the utmost attention is attracted to their advertising. The method of insist on a chosen Marketing campaign, even if it does not lead to the expected go back for quite a long time, for example, is difficult to put into practice at a time where inexpensive conditions and market segments are changing rapidly.

Although companies of most sizes make use of the same new described techniques of Guerrilla marketing, the reasons why they opt for this tool differ. For small and medium sized companies the advantage is still the cost-effectiveness that makes it so interesting to put into practice. Bigger, often more solvent companies on the other palm do not have to opt for such an inexpensive way of advertising. Guerrilla marketing is an additional marketing tool to them, which provides additional value in form of attention. Traditional advertising only often fails to provide that extra value.

Guerrilla marketing is not a guarantor of success. A design platform is needed to make campaigns as effectual as possible, since people in today's world have a rather negative attitude towards advertising. Such barriers have to be overcome first. Thereby it is fundamentally important to produce an advertisement that will not praise the clear advantages of low prices and high features, but to draw the attention on the brand. Not the merchandise is the central issue in Guerrilla Marketing. The creative idea is important and is meant to reflect positively on the brand. In addition, because guerrilla marketing methods rely upon the surprise component so they become ineffective after the method is well-known, and therefore marketers have to excersice and changing, bobbing and weaving, staying away from detection and blazing new paths. Their business depends upon stealth and the component of shock.

The idea of Guerrilla Marketing will also work in the foreseeable future if very few companies use this alternative. In case the original advertising is repressed more and more and Guerrilla Marketing activities are a fairly normal appearance among advertisings, the fundamental surprise effect will never be guaranteed anymore. It could come to this development when weak economic conditions reduce marketing budgets even more.

But most probably classical advertising will also are present in the foreseeable future and will not be displaced by alternative forms like Guerrilla Marketing. Nevertheless classical advertising has to change to complete to customers. It is therefore likely that traditional marketing will transform for example by firmly taking over characteristics of Guerrilla Marketing. This may lead to advertisings with pointed formulation and direct address towards the target group.

Advertising would need to activate as many senses as possible. Also it should work multimodal, being present in all types of channels their focus on group steps in. The actual fact that classical advertising is often perceived negatively among customers should be a warning for future Guerrillas. Although customers often perceive Guerrilla Marketing as something new and interesting today, in the foreseeable future it can also consider be something that bothers prospects. This is a real threat due to the fact that a sole Guerrilla Marketing activity cannot effect customers behaviour or their purchase decision.

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