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Growth Of Hospitality Industry In India Tourism Essay

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction to visit and Tourism

Tourism is travel for leisure, recreational and business purpose. Tourists can be explained as people who travel to and stay in places outside their regular area for more than twenty-four hours and not several consecutive time for leisure, business and other purposes by the planet Tourism Organization. Travel and leisure is a known affair in real human life. It's been a business of vast dimensions and eventually helps economic and sociable growth. Travel and leisure worldwide has experienced remarkable growth. With more than 600 million people visiting annually, tourism is the world's major industry, with earnings of about half of a trillion dollars a year, and averaging five percent annual growth.

India, being a huge and diverse country has always something to offer, and its glorious practices and rich ethnic heritage are linked with the development of tourism. Its superb monuments attract large numbers of visitors from all over the world. Travel and leisure is the largest service industry in India, with a contribution of 5. 68% of the nationwide GDP and 8. 78% of the total employment in India. India witnesses' more than 13. 72 million annual foreign holiday arrivals and 650 million domestic tourist sessions. The tourism industry in India made about US$ 100 billion in 2008 and is also expected to increase to US$ 275. 5 billion 2018 at a 9. 4% annual growth rate.

Booming IT industry and outsourcing industry has resulted in growing volume of business trips made by foreigners to India, who often put in a weekend break or longer getaway to their trip. Foreign vacationer spends more in India than nearly every other country worldwide. Tourist arrivals are projected to increase by over 22% per year through till 2010. Tourism minister has also performed an important role in the development of the industry, initiating promotional initiatives including the 'Incredible India' advertising campaign, which marketed India's culture and tourist attractions in a fresh and memorable way. This campaign helped generate a colourful image of India in the heads of tourists around the globe and directly led to an increase in the interest among tourists.

The travel and leisure industry has helped development in other areas as diverse as horticulture, handicraft, agriculture, structure and even chicken.

Both directly and indirectly, increased travel and leisure in India has generated jobs in a number of related sectors. Almost 20 million people are now employed in the India's tourism industry.

Growth Of Hospitality Industry In India

The hotel industry in India is going through an interesting phase. Among the major reasons for the upsurge in demand for hotel rooms in the country is the growth in the entire current economic climate and high expansion in industries like information technology, telecom, retail and real house. Rising stock market and new business opportunities are also bringing in hordes of international shareholders and international commercial travellers to consider work at home opportunities in the united states.

The hotel industry in India is certainly going via an interesting period. The industry has a capacity of 110, 000 rooms. Based on the tourism ministry, 4. 4 million holidaymakers visited India last year and at the current rate, the demand will soar to 10 million by 2010 to accommodate 350 million domestic tourists. The hotels of India have a shortage of 150, 000 rooms fuelling hotel room rates across India. With incredible draw of opportunity, India has turned into a vacation spot for hotel chains looking for growth.

Due to such a huge probable available in this portion, several global hotel chains like the Hilton, Accor, Marriott International, Berggruen Hotels, Cabana Hotels, Top Travel Inn (PTI), InterContinental Hotels group and Hampshire amongst others have all released major investment strategies for the country. The Government's proceed to declare hotel and travel and leisure industry as a higher top priority sector with a provision for 100 % foreign direct investment (FDI) has also provided a further impetus in bringing in investments directly into this industry.

It is projected that the hospitality sector will probably see US$ 11. 41 billion climb in the next two years, with around 40 international hotel brands making their existence known in the country by 2011. Simultaneously, international hotel asset management companies are also more likely to type in India. Already, US-based HVS International has firmed up programs to enter into India, and industry players believe that others like Ashford Hospitality Trust and IFA Hotels & Resorts amongst others are likely to follow suit.

Niche Tourism

The idea of 'niche travel and leisure' has surfaced in recent years in counter-point from what is commonly referred as 'mass travel and leisure'. Within a globalising world of increasing sameness, niche tourism represents diversity and means of making difference. It performs on the pejorative connections that have supported the evolution of mass and offer tourism and their, often cited, negative influences with regards to environmental degradation and socio-cultural disturbance. For destination managers and planners wanting to utilise tourism as a system for economic development, the niche tourism approach appears to often better opportunities and a travel and leisure that is more ecological, less damaging and more capable of providing high spending travellers.

The term niche market tourism is basically borrowed from the word niche marketing, which in turn has appropriated the area of interest strategy from the vocabulary of the relatively recent willpower of ecology.

Tourists, as consumers are suffering from increasing levels of expertise and connection with being travelers. Whilst this developmental routine of tourists might not always be linear or simplistic.

Figure 2: Market Tourism Components

Types of Specific niche market Tourisms

Niche tourism has broadly been divided into following components:

Cultural Tourism: Cultural travel and leisure is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the annals of those individuals, their art, architecture, religions, and other elements that helped form their life-style. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly ancient or large locations and their social facilities such as museums and theatres. Additionally, it may include tourism in rural areas showcasing the practices of indigenous cultural neighborhoods (i. e. festivals, rituals), and their ideals and lifestyle.

Environmental Tourism: Environmental tourism, ecotourism, or nature tourism provides an chance to visit undisturbed natural areas, scenic vistas, and watch plants and wildlife. Ecotourism is liable travel to delicate, pristine, and usually covered areas that strive to be low impact and frequently small scale instead of mass tourism. Its purpose is to teach the traveller and provide cash for ecological conservation, immediately benefit the financial development and political empowerment of local neighborhoods and foster respect for different cultures and for real human rights. Generally, ecotourism focuses on volunteering, personal progress and environmental responsibility. Ecotourism typically involves travel to spots where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage will be the primary attractions. Among the goals of ecotourism is to provide tourists insight into the impact of human beings on the surroundings, and foster a greater appreciation in our natural habitats. Dependable ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional travel and leisure on the surroundings and improve the ethnic integrity of residents.

Rural Travel and leisure: Any form of tourism that showcases the rural life, fine art, culture and history at rural locations, thus benefiting the local community economically and socially as well as allowing interaction between your tourists and the local people for a far more enriching tourism experience can be termed as rural tourism. Rural tourism is actually an activity which occurs in the rural areas.

The term "rural travel and leisure" was implemented by the Euro Community to refer to all tourism activities in rural areas or as an economical activity, which will depend on and exploits the countryside.

Figure 1: Rural Tourism Approach

Forms of Rural Tourism

Agritourism: Agritourism or farm tourism refers to an organization working on farm or agricultural seed made for entertainment of visitors or visitors, thus generating income for plantation owners. This may help the farmers to interact with the visitors, in so doing benefiting the people to enrich their knowledge regarding agritourism.

Sports Travel and leisure: It entails tourists to participate or see rural sports activities. It teaches the neighborhood rural people how to get opportunity/chance in international game and to compete with opponents. It enables the folks of different cultural backdrop to mix with other folks and exchange social activities between the parties and in doing so these are culturally rich.

Pro-Poor Travel and leisure: Pro Poor tourism is set up in developing countries as a way to improve the local economy for residents. It boosts the linkages between travel and leisure businesses and poor people; so that poverty is reduced and poor people are able to participate more effectively in travel and leisure development. The goals of pro-poor amounts from increasing local career to involving residents in your choice making process.

Introduction to Rural Tourism in India

Majority of India is probably the rural category with the sanctity and subtleness intact in the essence of the town dirt. This pious environment of the rural India draws in lot appealing among the travelers in India and so rural travel and leisure is an easy rising category.

A national travel and leisure policy was created in 2002, with rural travel and leisure determined as a concentrate area to generate work and promote sustainable livelihoods. The federal government in its 10th five 12 months plan has focused on the subject of rural travel and leisure. With a wealthy variety in culture, heritage, food, crafts, and tradition, India has enormous probable and opportunity. It includes recognized certain areas across the country, which can immediately be developed as the rural destinations.

The federal government partnered with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) for an Endogenous Travel and leisure Job. Some 30 rural sites were chosen in 20 expresses to build up as places for rural tourists. The UNDP pumped within an first US$2. 5 million. Those proposals which were selected by the federal government were entitled to assistance up to US$100, 000.

Divining Forces in Rural Tourism

Industry stakeholders specify the rural travel and leisure experience by what they feature as product. However they are simply giving an answer to what they understand as a growing demand for connection with rural areas, and interpreting it via their own world views. This demand is powered by a range of causes that combine to create tourist interest in rural encounters. These forces have been discovered by many authors and can be summarised as:

Tourist generating areas for rural tourism are highly developed and urbanised. The tensions of metropolitan living and the remoteness from the natural environment has created a desire for break free from the monoculture of city living.

Baby boomers are powered to tourism activities that yield increased self-awareness in their drive for "longed for excellence" that compensates for lives "destabilised by uncertainty and insecurity" (Mackay, 1997)

Demand fuelled by advertising, over-familiarity and congestion with traditional tourist resorts and increased affinity for alternative attractions using its voracious hunger for content and the resultant over vulnerability of many traditional tourist destinations.

Increasing environmental recognition and involvement in the relationship between humans and the environment. Green issues have lifted the appeal of rural activities as ecologically sustainable tourism.

Transport, communication, and the removal of political and economic barriers to travel have facilitated accessibility of rural areas.

Increase in number of free independent holidaymakers due to the increased capacity, especially in long-haul travel modes. When coupled with increasing discretionary incomes, greater awareness of the range experiences available, the availability and appeal of rural spots has been dramatically improved.

Changing work habits have increased the attractiveness of shorter breaks that minimise the absence from work and the effect of absences on work stream and engagement.

An increased curiosity about heritage can be satisfied through rural travel and leisure as rural areas are often the repositories of remnant heritage.

Rural areas are perceived as healthier, offering fresher air, cleaner water and the ability for outdoor recreation. Rural areas offer fresh and speciality food. (Bartmann and Baum, 1998)

Issues with Rural Tourism

The insufficient statistical bottom part:

It is difficult to determine level and value of rural tourism as a particular market sector in nations, even harder on a global level. Many countries have different definitions of 'rural' and will therefore collect different data. Data on rural tourism are not easily obtainable.

Rural areas:

These have a tendency to be non-uniform for example remove versus accessible rural areas contain completely different types of negotiation, occupations, socio-demographic characteristics. Different community structures with diverse reactions to tourism exist.

Tourism development strategies may well not benefit all rural areas:

Where there is an inadequate supply of destinations or accommodation, tourism might not exactly flourish. However marketing strategies must be good to appeal to tourists. Also, development of travel and leisure provision by local people might not exactly be possible in a stressed out rural market.

Impact of Rural Tourism

The aim of travel and leisure development in rural areas is, on the whole conditions, to provide opportunities for financial and social development. In a few areas, tourism provides the key income source and occupation, as well as providing public and economic benefits. Inevitably, negative areas of rural tourism are apparent as well. (Gannon 1994)

IMPACT

POSITIVE IMPACT

NEGATIVE IMPACT

Economic

Assists viability of existing travel and leisure and non-tourism business.

Encourages dependence on industry susceptible to uncontrollable change

Creates new employment

Creates in your free time, seasonal employment

Attracts inward investment

Incurs development costs and public service cost

Socio-cultural

Assists in viability of local service

Creates sense of invasion by tourists

Creates sense of pride

Increases crime

Revitalises local culture, practices, happenings and crafts

Reduction in local services

Environmental

Leads in environmental improvements in settlements

Increases deterioration on landscaping features

Provides income for conservation of buildings and natural environment

Creates need for new developments which might not exactly be in maintaining local area.

Fosters knowing of conservation as beneficial activity

Increases air pollution and impacts local biodiversity

Table 1: Positive and negative influences of rural tourism

Niche Market: A Place in Rural Tourism

If the value of the merchandise one buys is essentially in their potential as interpersonal markers, travel and leisure marketers must concentrate both on tourism's cultural signification and on meanings mounted on spaces in which these happen. Explanations of tourism consumption cannot be produced in isolation from the interpersonal relations where they are embedded. New users of the countryside are redefining what constitutes 'rurality', and there's a need to take postmodernism and the building of the rural a lot more seriously. Contemporary communal construction often transcends the countryside's tangible characteristics and attributes of wide open space or oxygen by representing it as the setting for the achievement of a variety of personal goals. The need for a wider sociological method of tourism studies has been emphasised by Sharpley, who argues for the popularity of broader public and cultural affects that form consumer behaviour as a whole and influence utilization patterns. Within the interests of the rural environment, therefore, and of the tiny businesses seeking to meet the needs of growing markets, it is necessary to look beyond classical marketing theory to gain a useful knowledge of 'rural tourism' consumption also to evaluate the life of niche categories for marketing purposes.

The increasing need for analysts to give attention to consumption as a better means of understanding contemporary forms of 'rural tourism' demand requires a dynamic construction within which the research can be conducted. A continuum to measure the relative need for the countryside to the consumption of tourism in rural areas is suggested to indicate the importance of the countryside to the goal of the trip and tourist satisfaction. The significance of the model is based on its recognition of the primacy of neither tourism nor visitor types but the ways in which the countryside is consumed as a recreational learning resource.

Challenges and Opportunities in Rural Tourism

The significant problem in rural areas is that there is not much range for working. A lot of people are employed in agricultural activities, some of them in forestry while others are artisans. Villages are struggling with large young families with a couple of earning customers in the family and high consumption expenditure. Because of less opportunity in villages most of them started out migrating to towns.

There are 638, 691 villages in India as per the Census Survey 2001 and the rural population is 741, 660, 293 with average populace of just one 1, 161 per town. Several rural neighborhoods have the potential have the potential resources, capacity to entice the growing tourism industry. The scenic beauty, historical importance may charm the urbanites, swept up in today's fast tempo of lifestyle.

Challenges in Rural Tourism

The major difficulties are the need to maintain the environment and natural resources and the need for proper education.

Legislation Problems

Respondents have pointed out that there can be legal problems. Travel and leisure is an integral part of entertainment industry. All hotels, motels and cottages having certificate pay taxes to federal government. Rural tourism must have a tax getaway or it ought to be tax free. The federal government should encourage rural travel and leisure to expand.

Lack Of Trained Man Power

The ruler people require to learn for discharging their obligations, decorating the cottages and keeping them, providing food to the tourists and also to understand the taste of the costumers, either the neighborhood dishes or different type of Indian dishes. The success of rural travel and leisure totally will depend on the grade of service provided to the visitors. To develop the manpower government has to take initiative to start various short classes for imparting knowledge and skills.

Insufficient Financial Support

To start rural travel and leisure, sufficient fund must promote it in introductory period. Rural tourism is still uncommon to many tourists. It is because the government has just started promoting rural travel and leisure. Central and state should encourage rural travel and leisure by providing financial support to start the project. Since it will create work in rural areas and can help the inflow of cash from rural areas to cities.

Lack of Local Involvement

Since rural people do not have knowledge and skills to involve hem in different activities. They could get the work of unskilled staff. The rural people need to build up the data and skills to have a higher involvement in rural tourism. The basic theory behind the rural travel and leisure is the contribution of rural people. However in practice residents are seldom involved with decision making, planning and implementing policies. Most of rural people don't have much understanding of tourism, and are misled by exterior investors who desire to take the majority of the economic benefits from rural area.

Language Problem

There are 16 regarded languages and 850 dialects in India. Although 'Hindi' is an official words, in many parts of India people don't realize it. The rural people have to update themselves to communicate with the urbanites. The villagers not only have to educate themselves nevertheless they have to comprehend hindi to connect to the Indian costumers and British to communicate with the overseas costumers.

Opportunities in Rural Tourism

The tourists look for quality environment and meaningful experience. Marketing of rural is an expert job. For rural tourism, rural people have to surrender themselves to professional marketers who understand the difficulty of their process. The business depends on the development of networks, creation of trust and devotion and information system, all of which takes time and money to develop, which is beyond the sources of most individual.

Tourists have become more informed, more alert to facilities available and more experienced, their expectation has also increased. Folks are interested in checking out new places. Rural tourism in India has great future, since it not only provides natural components of beauty but also the indigenous local practices, customs and foods. Direct experience with local people can be a unique offering proposition to appeal to tourists. Every condition in India has unique handicraft, practices and foods. The rural tourism not go for mass marketing, rather different strategies should be under considered for different section to make it successful.

Introduction To Laksh Farms, Mangar Village

Situated in Village Mangar, off of the Gurgaon-Faridabad Highway, Laksh Farms is merely a thirty minutes drive from Chattarpur Mandir, Surajkund, Gurgaon and Faridabad. Multiply over 15 acres, Laksh is situated in a picturesque valley nestled in the Aravalli Hills, on the once-famous Dhauj Jheel. A unique example of the restoration of your degraded ecosystem, it includes a fulfilling experience in rural eco-tourism. With more than a few thousand indigenous and ornamental fruit trees and shrubs, Laksh is a naturalist's pleasure, propagating organic farming using vermi-compost and bio throw away. For animal buffs there are dogs, dairy cattle, goats, ducks, and geese, as well as an abundance of peacocks and deer throughout the area and also in the 'sacred forest' throughout the Gudariya Baba Shrine.

All in all, Laksh offers a magnificent rural experience with activities such as rock climbing, camping, organic farming, trekking, and nature walks, bird seeing and cycling in the early and awe-inspiring Aravallis Khandavprastha of the Mahabharata.

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