Arcelik Home Appliances is the leading manufacturer of home appliances in Turkey with market share of 50% in the local market as at 2003 (Ghemawat, 2008). It supplies the marketplace using two brands particularly Arcelik and Beko. The business has adopted a global growth strategy and was already marketing its products to several hundred (100) countries mainly in European Europe, Eastern European countries, Latin America, Asia, and North Africa (Ghemawat, 2008). Arcelik was at first founded to produce metallic business furniture in 1955 but varied into creation of household devices shortly after. It's been hailed as the first company to present kitchen appliances such as washing machines and refrigerators to the Turkish households. Arcelik would face further obstacles when it became apparent that the Turkish federal would be taking part in the European Community's tariff decrease which was meant to reduce to zero from 1992 to 1996 (Ghemawat, 2008). The challenge would be competition from other producers from the Western Community who be able to sell their products at more competitive process in the local market. Arcelik overcame this task by investing closely in research and development thus substantially improving the quality of their products. The business is currently the primary holder of patents in the Turkish market. This plan cemented its market authority in the domestic market as consumers preferred to invest a bit more to acquire goods whose sturdiness could rest assured. This desire was also improved by Turkey's fluctuating market where inflationary causes were highly unpredictable with the higher odds being to the consumer's downside. Arcelik would later grow to establish its market dominance in Turkey for many years but would later face challenges that would bring about its give attention to international enlargement to ensure its success and expansion.
The focus on international development by Arcelik was triggered by the economical crisis that hit Turkey in 2001. This turmoil had led to soaring degrees of unemployment and a substantial reduced amount of market demand by around amount of 35% (Ghemawat, 2008). This plan mainly comprised increasing exports as well as engaging in international acquisitions. The financial turmoil in Turkey must have proved to Arcelik the vulnerability of businesses wholly dependent on domestic markets. Pressures from business cycles, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates and political forces are widespread in domestic marketplaces. On the other hand, international markets tend to be better protected from such pressures given that they will rarely apply across several countries. Overall economy in one market would normally not be prevalent in the rest of the marketplaces hence multinationals can ensure steadiness by marketing their products across many countries. Arcelik got to get a way to survive the economic crisis in 2001 and as well ensure that future company performance was stabilized by reducing its degree of vulnerability to local market fluctuations. Arcelik also looked for to give attention to international expansion to be able to increase its level of development and increase its economies of range (Ghemawat, 2008). This means that with additional production, the expense of producing each product product becomes significantly lower hence allowing a corporation to make higher margins per unit or allowing them to impose lower per unit without incurring any losses. Economies of range allow a business to remain competitive in the ever-evolving economies. To make sure that the economies of scale do not end up in build up of useless stock, or in the escalation of warehousing and safe-keeping costs, Arcelik would have to look to market segments that would be in a position to support its goal of increasing the economies of range through a more substantial demand. The countrywide demand within Turkey wouldn't normally have the ability to absorb these additional products hence the rationale behind Turkey looking to increase international trade. The amount of demand for home appliances in Europe by themselves is approximately 25% of world demand (Ghemawat, 2008). Arcelic sought to tap into this huge demand to support its competitiveness and the top levels of creation occasioned by their strategy of making the most of on the economies of level. International expansion can be explored in which a company seeks to lower its production costs insurance firms a significant percentage of their development done from areas where in fact the cost is leaner than in the domestic market. Among the major factors of development that normally influence the decision of overseas creation is labour. When considering labour, it is crucial a company weighs between your benefits associated with the cost savings from paying the lower labour cost, the distinctions in the production of the employees between your higher wage and lower wage areas, and the move and safe-keeping cost implications. It is also well worth noting that oftentimes, where in fact the labour costs are low, other factors of creation such as land would also be relatively lower. The labour cost in European Europe is predicted to be five times that in Turkey. Labor cost in Turkey is three times that in Eastern Europe (Ghemawat, 2008). In China, it is four times less than in Turkey. Labor production also differs and must be studied into account. For instance, in China, labour output is just half of that in Turkey. Additional transportation costs are dependant on both distance between your production facilities and the legal environments of the countries through which the merchandise must cross to access its intended marketplaces. Usage of international markets is crucial to any corporation that seeks to broaden itself. Domestic market segments will often in many cases be found insufficient to aid the growth targets that the firms arranged for themselves. They are also oftentimes unable to allow an organization to recoup the purchases they could make in research and development with time. The complexity and the level of improvements in the global market is advanced and frequently leads to development of new and better fulfilling products. This significantly reduces the product life cycles and the firms participating in research and development need to gain guarantee that their purchases can be recouped prior to the products lose demand. This confidence can only just be found by marketing thoroughly in the international market segments where in fact the demand is much bigger and can ably support the level of sales needed. Arcelik was determined to give attention to international market segments since it had opted to tell apart itself as a study and development specialist who focused on the production of quality and durable products. These features means that it would need to impose relatively higher prices for the products. On the other hand, the products from other European countries were finding their way into Turkey because of the zero tariff design with the Europe. The accessibility of other products in Turkey designed that Arcelik would either have to lower their prices to be able to keep its domestic talk about market, or expand its functions to Euro and other markets in order to keep or increase its level of sales to clients that focus more on quality, suitability and strength of the products they purchase.
In order to understand its goal of enlargement into the international marketplaces, Arcelik has adopted lots of options to help them realize this goal. The international market access options implemented by Arcelik include use of exports, international acquisitions, use of private label contracting, and product diversification.
Arcelik ensured progress domestically by guaranteeing reliable accessibility to the market using exclusive distributors and businesses who also served as centres for offering after sales services. This exclusive network also dished up as an access barrier for any new market providers.
Exporting entails keeping the company's operations in the house market and selling the merchandise in overseas market segments (Giroud, Sinkovics, and Yamin, 2011). It really is hailed as the least costly function of foreign market admittance but at exactly the same time the most susceptible to various entry barriers as government legislation. The cost effectiveness of this admittance method is enhanced by the actual fact that it requires no engagement with the foreign governments or the firms operating in the mark market. It is often seen as the best function of entry for a business operating on a lesser scale. With subsequent growth of exports, the company may start sales companies in the international markets to be the hyperlink with the company's clients abroad. By 2003, Arcelik had grown to be the main player in Estonia and Lithuania with a market share of 25% in both of these markets. In addition, it acquired a commanding presence in the others of Eastern Europe. The occurrence of Arcelik's sales businesses helped expand significantly in Western European countries with a market segments show of 15% in the United Kingdom. Arcelik also conducted a successful export strategy attaining a 70% market share in Romania with its Beko brand. The net effect of these exporting strategies was a significant increase in Arcetik's creation capacity from 440, 000 to 750, 000 in 2003 and 2004 respectively (Ghemawat, 2008).
This mode will involve a business buying out another organization operating in the mark market hence assuming full rights over it. This method is hailed as the best method of enlargement into other marketplaces since it grants or loans an organization total control over the overseas subsidiary as well as full gains made thereafter (Giroud, Sinkovics, and Yamin, 2011). The full control over the activities of any subsidiary is viewed as essential in making sure they run in accordance with the philosophies of the father or mother company hence ensure the goals of the business are achieved as designed. The focuses on for acquisition would have to possess the unquestionable ability to check Arcelik's expansion strategies. Arcelik would also evaluate the international firm's brands and take concern about how these brands would help strengthen them as well as complement their capabilities. The prospective subsidiary's contribution to sustainable growth was also a key factor. Arcelik's acquisitions in 2002 include Bloomberg, Electra, and Flavel and Leisure in Germany, Austria and the UK for the two last mentioned brands (Ghemawat, 2008). They also received Arctic in Romania. The acquisitions of brands in the target markets was likely enlightened by the actual fact that lots of consumers have a tendency to like purchasing brands that they can identify with: the brands they consider countrywide brands. These acquisitions tremendously increased the merchandise range proposed by Arcelik and lead to its significant growth within the Western european markets.
Licensing involves the company transferring certain privileges to another organization to allow it produce products which consists of brand. In licensing, the thought that the licensor gets is merely the royalty or the license cost (Giroud, Sinkovics, and Yamin, 2011). It does not be a part of profit posting or any other marketing operations of the licensee. Licensing offers the advantage of enabling a company to avoid authorities rules and other restrictive policies such as tariffs and quotas. In addition, it allows market penetration without involving extensive capital expenses. However, this method is highly restrictive in the amount of control the company can have over the actions of the licensee. There is also the risk of the licensee increasing the technical competence and learning to be a competition in the development of close substitutes following the expiry of the common arrangement. Arcelik's development in 2004 comprised 40% from various licensing agreements (Ghemawat, 2008). This complimentary effort helped ensure Arcelik's brand occurrence in the European's marketplaces.
In order to improve further development in the home market, Arcelik looked for to capitalize on its sophisticated syndication network to provide consumers with additional products. By 2004, Arcelik was offered numerous kinds cellular phones and had been getting into arrangement with various Japanese companies to act as distributors of varied electronic digital products. The diversification became a great success and additional cemented Arcelik's authority in the Turkish market.
Arcelik's ambitious goal of achieving earnings of three billion Euros within the next time may be difficult to understand unless additional methods were utilized to ensure its ongoing development in the international markets. Domestically, Arcelik could choose to but out local competitors in a bet to solidify its hang on the local market. This solidification would help reduce the downward pressure on its product prices by lowering the importance of competition locally. Furthermore, the additional stations of distribution gained through such acquisition would act as an entry barrier to any overseas firms hence ensuring steady domestic expansion. Internationally, Arcelik could embrace a number of solutions to ensure its ongoing growth. These methods include participating in Joint ventures, franchising and use of strategic alliances.
Joint ventures entail the forming of a partnership design with another company where the parent companies provide the resources to use it, share responsibility on management, and share profits recognized thereafter (Giroud, Sinkovics, and Yamin, 2011). This sort of venture is especially popular where it involves sharing the intelligence and specialized knowhow required for research and development. With the determination to distinguish themselves as the masters of invention and product development, this method can be used to ensure its quick growth. Rather than participating in competition with the already existing companies in the foreign market, Arcelik could identify a strategic partner who recognizes the market incredibly well. They could then research into the market needs in a bet to try and unveil any unsatisfied demands in the market. Having found the features lacking in the products within the marketplace, they could, through the jv develop services that could suit this need and get the unreached market. This method would be convenient to Arcelik since it would not involve many unnecessary federal legislation that normally bar entry. Furthermore, such a project, if well executed would easily capture the marketplace as it would be traveling on the goodwill and circulation network of the strategic partner in the foreign market.
Arcelik needs to consider franchising in order to minimize the risks involved with the licensing as it presently techniques. Here, Arcelik would transfer some privileges to the franchisee to produce the merchandise under its brand but will reserve the right to provide some aspects of technical support (Giroud, Sinkovics, and Yamin, 2011). In this manner, Arcelik can be abreast with the actions of the franchisee. In addition, in Franchising, the royalty is based on the quantity of sales hence Arcelik can generate higher income in the event the franchisor can realize significantly higher sales. Franchising is easy to start because the franchisor incurs nominal capital cost hence Arcelik can expand into more overseas markets with relative ease. Furthermore, the franchisee assumes all the risks and foots for all those costs of labour and center establishment. The business will also be able to avoid any political risks associated with foreigners functioning in national market segments. Arcelik can therefore easily develop its level of production without fretting about high capital costs hence edging nearer to achieving the income targets
A strategic alliance differs from joint ventures in that it does not necessarily involve creation of a legal entity. Strategic alliances are formed to permit companies use each others' circulation networks, technologies, development capacities, management experience among others (Giroud, Sinkovics, and Yamin, 2011). One very essential factor in ensuring product penetration in the market is the circulation network. It has been evident in the manner where Arcelik has had the opportunity to fully capture the local market by using effective distribution systems in Turkey. Arcelik also needs to try to replicate this experience in the international market segments. However, by virtue of the fact that it's a foreign market, they may not hold the resources to determine an effective distribution network in those markets. It would therefore be relatively far more convenient to identify international companies with a circulation network that assists their goal customers effectively, and then enter a strategic alliance with them. This may be companies offering similar products or those making completely different products. When the products are easily open to the consumers, they more likely to buy these products which would lead to a rise in the amount of sales noticed by Arcelik. The proper alliance may possibly also involve posting of certain technologies between the companies involved. Arcelik could choose to leave the creation of a certain product components to an organization with a comparative edge in its creation in trade for providing a component which it can produce better. This exchange could lead to lowering the creation cost which would be useful in helping the company become more price-competitive on the market.
Arcelik's growth is mainly dependent about how the company can get into and prosper in the international markets. This is because it is already commanding the domestic market in Turkey and could have limited growth opportunities locally. Development and diversification tend to be related as is noticeable from Arcelik's company history. Arcelik is continuing to grow before by steadily increasing on the product range that it provides to the market which diversification should be extended to ensure persisted growth.