In the recent past, the world has been through an easy paced transformation of lifestyle and preferences. It has been designated by tremendous changes in the way people spend on leisure and recreation especially on travel and leisure. In the same way, many economies have been facing hard monetary times forcing creativeness and cost keeping strategies to take toll in the delivery of goods and services. Specifically, tourism is an extremely historical activity which runs from field executions, adventure tours, special-interest trips, regional or city trips, fully escorted tours and group tours (Fay, 2002). Despite all these forms of travel and leisure, harsh economic times have led to emergence of program tours which can be holidays where a variety of services are payed for forever. Simply the costs are including all necessities that a person on voyage could find essential. Such tour packages include services such as accommodation, transport, tour guides, insurance, copy costs between sites, access fees paid to warders at scenic attraction sites, seat tickets to happenings and meals. The expenses also fluctuate depending on time schedules or number of days and nights to be spends on tour sites, capability and willingness to cover the goods and services. To the end we discover that travel and leisure is a entertainment activity which is conducted at someone's convenience it is therefore a leisure activity. Travel and leisure being a leisure activity, it is worth noting that over a short time frame the buyer behavior will be abnormal pegging on the actual fact that expenses on entertainment is seasonal if not cyclic. Within this paper, there is certainly need to establish fundamental variations between group packaged and individual travels, their merits and demerits, and lastly try to incorporate the two types of tourism with regard to conserving costs.
Consumer behavior requires the study of processes employed by individuals, organizations and groups of buyers to obtain and dispose services, products, goods, ideas or experience in order to satisfy human being wants. Human needs are emotional therefore purchasers are guided by social anthropology as well as economics. Through the study of consumer patterns, marketing managers are better put to make subtle decisions regarding market segments they wish to exploit. Furthermore, comprehending the tendencies design of customers will fashion proper managers with essential data essential to accomplish decision making. This research is twice faced since it provides comparisons between group tours and individual tours while at the same time exploring talents and possible bottlenecks associated with both types of tourism. The bottom line is fundamental components of individual individuals are brought to light since they are dictated by action factors and demographics. In the long run, the research will establish if the psychology of the consumers is dependent on friends, family, society, class or guide groups.
The habit of customers is so dynamic since buyers patterns are literally unstable, it therefore takes a differentiation in the roles played out by consumers ranging from being truly a payer, a consumer or a buyer of something. By so performing a researcher will have an easy time predicting consumer habits of clients and establishing romantic relationship marketing techniques; this is a very powerful asset found in the research of consumer tendencies since it establishes an enthusiastic affinity for redefining the meaning of marketing. On the other hand relationship marketing emphasizes on the necessity for rediscovering customers while positioning a greater importance on the need to keep current customers, take care of customer associations, customize and personalize a one to one marketing approach.
Today there are many types of tourism packages basing on the suitability, convenience, cost and affordability. Analysts have established these many plans have emanated from the necessity for providers to meet up with the varied desires and needs of customers. Travel agents and broker agents find it prudent to create various packages and assign them with particular cost element which makes these packages affordable depending on the willingness of the clients to invest. While other customers will need a personalized and economic tour package, luxurious or fun loving customers will like a prestigious treatment during their voyage. The packages can be broken down further into; first, special interest trips that are excursion focused on a specific area of interest for instance sports, arts, agriculture, and culture (Wang & Hsieh & Huan, 2000).
Secondly, adventure tours which are eyesight sees made to encourage customer involvement for a time period that has been agreed after by the tour agents. It really is based on the customers gaining firsthand experience of the trip depending on the physical functions. This package is more fun if applied in categories since it includes activities thus motivating bonding and socialization. Good examples are rock climbing, diving, snowboarding, diving and cycling (Solomon, 2004). Finally, there are local or city tours. They previous for a period of 1 day within which the tour individuals have to go to regions of interest within specific places in the town. The places frequented could be spiritual, ethnic, and historical and the tour agents have to provide the tourists with foods and refreshments as stated in the offer agreement.
Down the list is group tours which follow a pre-arranged or fixed schedule. This sort of a tour is specific on the amount of participants required making it very complicated for the organizers to establish the needs of the customer in the group. Alternatively, tour agents would want to capitalize on the large numbers in order to increase their profit margins or else they could go baffled for entangling themselves in unprofitable group head to arrangements. The quantity of men and women in a group will definitely be limited by the mode of transport being utilized and option of accommodation facilities. In addition, it requires accompaniment by guides who may divide the groupings into sub organizations to ease motion and save well on time which really is a cost determinant.
Finally is the totally escorted tour in which a traveler emerges security by the specialized security company. It is a costly type of tour since it entails offering of customized services for illustration secure deposit against hostility since almost all of these tour plans are educational in characteristics, the tour guides or escorts are generally genuine inhabitants of a location (Shell, 2009). They are therefore prepared with knowledge on background and civilizations making them expensive. Alternatively they are extremely resourceful making them a preferred choice for the enthusiasts of totally escorted tours. The buyer behavior under each of the classification is very unpredictable because the majority of the customer's decisions is inspired by affordability, family, culture and above all, by the spirit of trip.
According to supplementary data collected by a group of consumer behavior analysts; eight individuals were sampled basing on the public welfare function and assumptions of anonymity, decisiveness, anonymity, neutrality, monotonicity, homogeneity, unanimity and Pareto optimality (Schwartz, 2004). The results gathered by this group of researchers will be helpful in elucidating the key points on consumer patterns analysis. With all the understanding that marketing is a special program created by an organization to fulfilling customer's needs, the profitable system utilized by tourist companies is regulated starting from production levels in such a way that it will market services offered by the organization and increase profitability. The marketing managers often design strategies that improve on profits while reducing costs and expenditures. In the study it was learned that tour providers dealing in group deal head to enjoy economies of range because they pay for services in bulk.
Likewise a strategic manager could carry out a parallel research similar to that performed by consumer analysts in Hong Kong. The research could point out on the assessment of the stimulus listed in the consumer behavior black container model shown below (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). In taking into consideration the stimulus listed in the black box model, it'll act as a study tool or a guided questionnaire which restricts the researcher on the scale of coverage in conditions of creating consumer behavior in relation to tourism and the purpose behind how consumers spend their earnings leisure and recreation.
BUYER'S BLACK BOX
A diagrammatic representation of the dark-colored box model (Foxall, 2005)
The model shown above recognizes the connection between stimuli, decision functions, consumer characteristics and responses as portrayed by consumers during the research. Using the model, consumer behaviours can be known depending on the stimuli for illustration social and intrapersonal stimuli. The model is a representation of the black container theory which attempts to explain habit of consumers in service related industries such that marketing professionals use these stimuli to get human relationships between them and consumer response (Kuester, 2012). In addition the black box model encloses buyer's mindset and characteristics that happen to be the main determinants of consumer responsiveness. Under this section, the researcher proven that travellers are motivated by conscious view of the both group package deal and individual travels hence establishing a good ground for rational decision making.
As it was reported by Heung & Chu (2000) in a Chinese language Journal; "Critical indicators impacting Hong Kong consumer's selection of a travel firm for all-inclusive package tour", an example research was conducted in Hong Kong which is a very big city boasting of being among the best metropolitan cities on the globe. Although the test population of 1 city can't be a representative of the consumer patterns portrayed by travel and leisure industries across the world, it might be smart to use the article on Hong Kong since metropolis is overly busy and employees get exhausted due to long working hours with short amount of time to rest. Given such working environments, employees get some times-off to relax (LeBlanc, 2002). It was established that most people favor all inclusive group package deal tours to individual tours. The services are given by tourism businesses that can be found through online programs such as company websites. According to the findings gathered using an wide open finished questionnaire it was found out that visitors have different needs and anticipations. The needs could be rated in a descending chronology you start with price, itinerary, accommodations, dishes, transportation, departure date and time, hotel facilities, reputation and last on the list is brand of travel organization. The needs portrayed by the consumers influence how customers purchase packages for their travels.
The band of consumer behavior analysts observed that from the eight customers that were sampled from Hong Kong city to fill in the questionnaires, six of them identified price to be the number one determinant of consumer habit. It therefore becomes visible that customer needs are tied to how big is their wallets hence some customers may prefer going for a group package travel rather than individual travel not because they desire to but because they're tied to their income or budget. This is where the need for integrating group package deal tours with specific tours so as to satisfy customers who've a desire of specific head to but want to also look for the benefit for cheap and lower trouble which group packaged tour could offer. It really is after prices have been considered that other factors in the needs bracket are made too surface which means that they are not as essential as price factors. Only four correspondents explained to value the itinerary drafted by the travel companies. On a single note four some other clients supported accommodation mattered while touring because they could decide for adventure group package tours in order to pitch tents in the wild and spend the night in company of other tourists (Heung & Chu, 2000).
Only three people considered methods of travel as a determinant in deciding between group package deal and individual head to. They stated reasons such as maintaining their reputation and school which makes it visible enough that in our situation, vehicles is but a secondary determinant in deciding customer manners. Moving down with our analysis on the needs of customers and how it decides their selection of a suitable tour package deal, it becomes imminent that only one person could have issues with hotel facilities. The customer in question is after luxurious offers which can be best proposed by under the fully escorted individual tour package given that they can proffer spa and hot spring and coil services which really is a luxury. The primary factor behind these findings is that customers have varied behaviour, motivations and perceptions which influences their travel consumption habit.
Group package tours are cost keeping because they travel businesses buy the deals in large therefore they can compete for services in the travel and leisure industry for case hotels and scenic site. Furthermore, the businesses enjoy economies of large range or impulsive buying of packages thus their rates can be low priced or subsidized (Dellaert & Ettema & Lindh, 1998). The huge benefits can trickle down to customers through subsidized prices. Precisely the same effect is spread to meals making them affordable. Secondly, the providers take the larger part of responsibility that could otherwise have been passed on to the vacationer in the case of individual tour. When something moves amiss then the operators or businesses included will be priced with the responsibility of fixing problems on behalf of the visitors.
Group package tours are time keeping and convenient since the agents deal with making travel and accommodation agreements. This saves on time an individual holiday could spend putting in place purchases and booking meetings with several services providers. From your outward aspect people traveling in organizations will socialize along the way. Besides, people visiting in groups are guaranteed of quality since head to operators have specialised in studying customer tendencies hence these are away of tour companies offering best services and they are able to set up areas that would be exciting to the tourists. Some advantages will also be accrued by the travel agents who take the effort of arranging group package tours at affordable rates. Realtors receives a commission 10% commissions for their job.
To some extent, group package trips are inflexible because tourists have to follow a given plan and await schedules regarding travel, because it entails a collection of many people. Also, travel companies find it confusing to organize and control groups especially during off peak months when the quantity of people willing to be on trips is below breakeven point. The providers can also be faced with challenges beyond their control nonetheless they must tolerate the brunt of angry group travellers who is probably not willing to comprehend.
Some countries attach a more personal touch to tourists using individual head to option. China can be an example of a country where specific trips are cheaper and a solution to acquiring special treatment such as personal care and attention, sense of control, handy services and time overall flexibility (Engel & Blackwell, 2006). Furthermore, a tourist opting for private tours will enjoy flexibility of schedules since she or he could have the ability of doing exactly what they would like to do unlike in an organization tour where everything is fixed and hard to work out. In addition, a family group with children should think of using private or specific tour because the parents can plan occurrences that'll be perceived relevant to both age groups involved.
Private tours are costly with regards to group packaged travels as a result of bulk involved. Whereas the latter likes economies of large scale buying of goods and services, the former has to feel the hustle of paying for every and every individual services hence it is expensive.
From the aforementioned comparisons the research founded that consumer tendencies is key in weighing your best option between group packaged tours and specific travels (Kotler & Bowen & Makens, 2003). For the best alternative to integrate specific and group package tours, then realtors will have to work out a technique that will continue to work to the advantage of both groups. Which means that an agent may need to make new rates and schedules which allow holidaymakers interested in having a taste of both travel and tour preparations gain maximum advantages from both arrangements. It might be prudent for the expenses to be the common of individual head to costs which of group packed travels. Therefore a person commencing the third option should be ready to incur costs at a personal level.
The agents will also be responsible for providing only the services decided after while neglecting the other services at the trouble of the tourist. For instance, supposing someone was enthusiastic about the designed option, she or he will get rid the planned group trips thus this would be the perfect chance to visit places of your respective choice. Beneath the included option, the tourist will have to be pay consult with the travel agent for carry, insurance and accommodation services so that they enjoy subsidized group rates whereas they can determine places to go to on their own while spending money on entrance fees. The integrated option would be your best option for customers who want to satisfy the desire to have individual travel but want to also look for the benefit of lower price and lower hassle which group packaged tour can offer.
Much weight of this paper is laid on the facet of analyzing consumer patterns with regards to tourism and recreation industry. It is based on up to date and current information relating the current state to travel and leisure statistics. It lays out a learning result beautifully made with knowledge on factors influencing buyer tendencies. This information is essential to a marketing manager who may be considering studying the consumer habit in the travel and leisure and entertainment industry with regard to control management of future forecasting.
The study emphasizes that ideas of motivation are very applicable in influencing customer action towards liking for just about any of both forms of tours; group package tour and individual trips (Deaton & Muellbauer, 2008). Most customers are led by drive which inevitably means that holidaymakers have a liking for fascination and mother nature. A strategic manager in conjunction with the marketing administrator should strive at using advertising to generate psychographics in the imagination of the consumers. All of this can be carried out in a bet to effect or encourage customers into anticipating for such a head to. Travel companies would major their adverts towards making people to appreciate group packed tours in order to get a certain portion of the consumer market. In a nutshell a supervisor who approaches the market with extreme care and intensive analysis of consumer needs will understand the psychology that guide decision making in visitors and capitalize on it during peak periods. A director may therefore use Maslow's hierarchy of needs to deterring the public class and consequently the inspiration behind customer's selection among both classes of travel and leisure.
Looking at this survey from the customer's perspective, a customer who reads this statement will justify why she or he tends to respond in a certain way. Typically, a travel agent would want to create adverts that stimulate customers by generating their instincts into attempting to go to a place, regretting a certain occasions, nostalgia or fantasies. All of this are suitable strategies that can be molded into a person's perception of holiday seasons. Alternatively, this statement may consumer instruct consumers on your choice buying process suitable in the tourism industry. Regarding to Burke & Resnuk (2001), the periods focus on arousal or reputation of need, it then advances into a nagging interest or want, the customer then identifies an alternative assessment of alternative decision selections. These levels finally induce a person into either group packaged or individual trips.