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Green Wall surfaces: Benefits in the Contemporary City

INTRODUCTION

Green wall and its necessity

The living, organic and natural systems seen as a green wall space, are integrated with the inorganic and lifeless buildings are dominating modern structures and supports the promise of a new type of 'living' structures. Green walls are usually wall space that are part of the Building covered with vegetation. They may be like vertical garden typically created with creeper system on the exterior wall membrane with the origins on the floor or with free position vertically framed wall membrane with different local plants produced on the surface. They are also referred to as bio surfaces or living surfaces since they act as natural air-conditioner as they purifies and cools the ambient air to a huge extent creating a healthy environment.

The deepest threat of global warming is the swift urbanization and deforestation. There's a substantial increase of co2 emission and high temperature transfer. This impact is extreme in the metropolitan condition where in fact the vegetation/ greenery are sparse. Also in the metropolitan conditions usually all the complexes are glazed and air-conditioned devoid of any ways of neither thermal insulation, nor are they shaded with heavy surrounding landscape. That is basically because of the space constraints and search engine optimization. In such challenging circumstances Green wall is the best alternative which serves as a good shading device against temperature gain and energy losses, pollution etc. Hence, Green wall surfaces are must in metropolitan conditions.

Economic and Environmental benefits of Green walls

The economic and environmental benefits a wide range of. They result in substantial energy cost savings, extension of building life, CO2 take, acoustics and Aesthetics.

  • Energy Conservation: Vegetation on wall surfaces can assist in cooling properties in summer season and insulating them in winter. Reduced amount of thermal launching to structures results lower cooling and heating costs which lowers carbon emissions. Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton (2004)
  • Health: These climbing vegetation on green wall space filter out dirt and other contaminants. Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton (2004)
  • Reduction of heat island effect ends in less reflected high temperature.
  • Air purification: plant life filter pollution in particular when used inside properties.
  • Noise attenuation: It functions as sound hurdle resulting in quieter complexes and roadways.
  • Green surfaces can gather over 30kgs per m2 of rainwater.
  • Increased metropolitan biomass.

Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton (2004) clears the fact that 'There is a common belief that plants are inimical to built buildings, ripping out mortar and prising aside joints using their roots. The data shows that these problems have been greatly exaggerated, except where decay has recently set in and then crops can indeed accelerate the process of deterioration. ' There is certainly little proof that plants destruction walls. Actually in most of the cases the exact opposite is true, with plants within the wall helps in protecting the wall membrane from hazardous elements, solar radiation which in turn reduces the thermic tensions within the composition.

Indigenous sustainable elements and their benefits

Indigenous sustainable elements are the simple elements which can be locally available and considered as waste materials or least prioritized. For instance, the coconut shells in the country like India which can be purchased in abundance are just disposed or burnt to ashes even though they have high thermal coefficient and suitability for insulation/ acoustics. Likewise, materials like Clay, Bamboo, Jungle/ Pine/Rubber hardwood, Cork etc take untarnishing effect in neuro-scientific sustainable Structures when used appropriately. Aside from their interesting characteristic they are also economic.

RESEARCH QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:

Does green wall membrane have to be green?

The realistic aim of the research is to build more enjoyable greener cities which bring numerous advantages to the encompassing environment. Within the almost all the Urban locations of the world where the CO2 emission is extremely high due to various factors have almost no good vegetation to regulate environmental pollution. However, in such locations the concept of sustainability like 'Green wall' gets relegated to the next spot due to construction and maintenance cost. The theory is to handle to these areas and to enhance the advantages of "Green wall surfaces' with some medicinal value. This needs to be performed by identifying local herbal crops and also, to study and innovate in the region of low priced indigenous elements like coconut shells, bamboo, cane, Jute, cork, ect as engineering materials to supplement to ecological design.

LITERATURE REVIEW:

Green walls are slowly increasing value and are believed valuable for air conditioning the Urban space than inexperienced roofs in countries like Japan. However the green wall continues to be not used to countries like India and china. Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton (2004) state governments that 'This is a superb pity, because even in those locations relatively well endowed with greenspace many areas can justifiably be thought to be deserts in biological terms. ' Nigel Dunnett and Noel Kingsbury (2004) Green wall structure is widely employed in Europe and it is quite common in France and Germany to see house covered in Virginia creeper or vines that are affected by Mediterranean local climate. Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton (2004) says that 'We need appropriate development which comes with an ecological approach to building and scenery. ' This means that the land lost in the engineering of buildings and streets should be changed with a part of crops on the hard floors. By this way renewable skin can be strategically put into create a new network of vegetation linking roofs, courtyards, surfaces and open places.

Different types of inexperienced walls

There are two different types: Green facades and Living walls

Green faades: are wall systems where vegetation cover supporting set ups rooted at the base of the structure. Supporting composition can either be a existing wall structure or built as freestanding structures.

Living wall space: (also known as bio walls or vertical backyards) made up of pre-vegetated modular sections that are set to a structural wall structure or freestanding structure. Modular panels comprises of polypropylene plastic storage containers, geotextiles, irrigation system, growing medium and vegetation. Living surfaces can be installed on the exterior of an building completely sun, tone, and interior of an building. They expand well in both exotic and temperate local climate. Because of huge variety of plant life used, living walls require more intense maintenance than renewable facades like regular watering, adding nutrition and fertilizers.

Different types of inexperienced faade support structures

The two principal types are

  • Modular trellis systems: Sections that are rigid and compact are installed vertically as wall-mounted or freestanding. They may also be used on extra tall buildings along with with intermediate planters. Modular trellis systems are crucial where in fact the physical progress of climbing plants is fixed.
  • Freestanding buildings: are rigid sections such as renewable columns or canopy varieties that may be put on either on building surfaces where either the space is limited or load is fixed. The panels may also be used as shading devices for a open parking area.
  • Cable and rope line systems: this system consist high-tensile material cables, wire trellises, spacers, and extra equipment. Vertical and horizontal wiring are connected through combination clamps to create a trellis system of desired sizes and habits. Stainless steel wire-rope net is recognized on flexible or rigid casings to protect large areas.

Best plant types to work with for inexperienced walls

Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton (2004) Considering the relationship between your types of plant used and the facet of the walls where they'll increase is also an essential aspect.

Deciduous plants are the most suitable on the southern side of the building. In the summertime their dense foliage shields the building from sunlight and creates cooling down result. In winter leaves are shed, allowing sun rays to reach the top of wall so assisting to warm the inside of the building. In the same way over a west-facing wall structure it is sensible to make use of evergreens to safeguard the building from rainwater and offer a pillow of air to help insulation. North facing walls are best for aiding native herbal remedies and wider ranges of vegetation. East wall surfaces may get caught in either category.

Plants used on exterior building wall space are exposed to harsher climactic surroundings than those of indoors. Hence for building that plan to reach great heights, more hardy types of plants should be determined. In the same way, for less place friendly climates, climbers that are tolerant for wind flow and warmth should be picked. Nigel Dunnett and Noel Kingsbury (2004) On wooden walls and other structures, varieties with very heavy progress or a thick branching habit should be avoided, as the framework may not be able to support the weight.

Plant selection will have major effect on the design of the aiding system. For instance, a denser and faster growing herb will require a more substantial space between holds than less competitive plant varieties. The thickness of vegetation further effects the underlying composition. Greater the leaf surface, a lot more impact rainfall will have on the weight of the machine.

Green wall assembly and maintenance

Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton (2004) Small herbaceous species have the ability to grow on surfaces by taking root in the substance of the wall structure itself. But other varieties are naturally modified to climbing up and over obstacles such as rock and roll faces, timber. Some type of support structure is vital for these crops to grow successfully. For instance, climbers such as hops support themselves by spiralling upwards around an object. They'll require timber battens, trellis work, material cables or plastic ropes. Even though some creeper can cling immediately onto surfaces by their origins, they might need a difficult surface to allow them to do so. Rambling plants such as bramble and climbing rose need wide-meshed grid set ups to which they can be attached. A 50x50cm latticework of cured timber installed on wooden posts (or an similar structure using wires, rope or netting) will provide an sufficient support for a range of species. Whenever possible it is sensible to leave little gap between the faade of the building and the supporting structure to increase the effects of summer air conditioning and winter insulation.

The structures assist in distributing the weight of the crops across the supporting structure and wall structure. In cable television and rope cable systems, anchors and turnbuckles have to be installed by the end of each wire for tensing and adjustments as and when required.

Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton (2004) Polypropylene cladding tiles has waterproof membranes and their own irrigation system. Plant life could be established on these and then hung externally of your building.

Depending on varieties, climbing vegetation generally need a good supply of water and occasional pruning. Supporting structures require less maintenance, with only infrequent monitoring of the supporting structure.

Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton (2004) For climbing plants the ground should be prepared just like for just about any tree or shrub by developing a pit and adding in some compost to the most notable 30cm. Pre-grown sections for living wall space needs 6-12 a few months for plant life to expand prior to delivery and installation. The sections are cultivated horizontally until it is delivered to the website after which it could be attached vertically.

Climbing vegetation should be picked that do not give a food source for unwanted pests and insects. Excessive progress or dead timber should be removed occasionally and standing drinking water should be averted.

LEED things for using renewable walls

LEED has several credits for green walls when found in buildings.

  • Sustainable Sites Credit 7. 1: Panorama Design that Reduces Urban Heat Islands (1 point). Solar reflectance of the building is greatly reduced by external green wall space, thus minimizing the urban heat island impact.
  • Water Efficiency Credits 1. 1, 1. 2: Drinking water Efficient Landscaping design (one to two 2 things). Harvested stormwater can be utilized for watering the vegetation of the renewable walls. Utilization only accumulated, recycled, or nonpotable normal water may also add-on to the credit.
  • Water Efficiency Credit 2: Innovative Wastewater Technology (1 point). Green walls can act as a medium for utilizing wastewater treatment.
  • Energy and Atmosphere Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance (1 to 10 items). Building's mechanised systems utilization can be reduced greatly by inexperienced walls which works as additional insulation for the structure and also provides natural cooling down.
  • Innovation in Design Credits 1-4: Advancement in Design (1 to 4 items). Green wall space can donate to progressive wastewater management or air flow systems.

KNOWLEDGES AND GAPS

What is the awareness on Green wall surfaces in the countries like India?

Green Building Movements in India - Catalysts and Course India is witnessing outstanding growth in infrastructure and building sector. The construction industry in India is actually one of the major financial activities. As this sector keeps growing speedily, preserving the environment poses lot of issues and at exactly the same time presents opportunities. The construction sector therefore must add towards environmental responsibility. Green wall membrane concepts are in emerging stage in India mainly scheduled to high primary cost and insufficient a indigenous product to address the same. But nonetheless it includes great probable which asks for higher understanding and developing an indigenous product by Indian Architects/ Panorama designers.

How cost conscious developed countries are and exactly how it is important?

Most of the developed countries are focused on the technology of future and the skill of modern architecture plays vital role where in fact the value of simple indigenous elements gets neglected. If so, even in the name of modernization the majority of the developing countries are also getting inspired by the developed countries. Affordable design always carries value during crisis and recession. It also speaks its untouched charm because they are formed mainly with natural elements.

INNOVATION:

  • An Indian established Agriculturalist who tried organic and natural farming 'elunkathir pannai' with the protection of bio fence made up of the local herbals and plants. The result proved to be astonishing and achieved good yield. The interesting secrete behind it is, all the air born pests are filtered and killed by normally available herbal predators. This inspires and even strengthens the idea of Green walls for the urban spaces also. That is certainly one of my effort and area of the research using local herbals to achieve medicinal benefits.
  • Sustainability is basically being practised in a variety of fields. But in almost all of the cases they are not affordable. The other part of my invention is to modify low cost sustainable design with simple indigenous elements like Coconut shell, Clay plaster, Cork, Bamboo, Jungle/pine real wood etc. at appropriate areas.

DATA AND INFORMATION BEING COLLECTED:

  1. Details of Green wall membrane construction/installation
  2. Supports and frames
  3. Plants types for indoor and out door
  4. Irrigation system details
  5. Lighting details
  6. Maintenance
  7. Samples

How to collect data and How exactly to analyse it?

  • Already gathering information from the service providers of varied places on green wall building and maintenance aspects.
  • In the process of getting associated with a Horticulturalist/ Agriculturalist to get information on the plants species and their behavior.

Apart from the above, I have collected sufficient books to move ahead. Also, analysis of every component will be completed through models and tools by collecting all the required examples from the mentioned resources.

PLANNING

The idea of green wall should be included in design and the same will be complete and fine-tuned towards the study topic as a report model. As part of progressive design the utilization of indigenous ecological elements will also be adopted.

Characteristics of the indigenous elements available in the developing countries like India are gigantic. Will plan them correctly in design specification predicated on their characteristics and also, complying with ergonomic standards.

POSSIBLE OUTCOME

Considering all the urban spaces which are completely in charge of the curse 'Global warming' on this nature, as a in charge Architect works towards through my dissertation to express and verify Green walls and other simple indigenous materials as affordable solution for all your Urban conditions and justify the consumption of green wall membrane for an area which is non-Air-conditioned. The other issue which is threatening the globe is the downturn which also demands innovative cost effective practise in the engineering and specification. Initiative to achieve the same with cost effective indigenous materials is a problem yet it'll be proven possible.

"It will always be better to plan and protect, rather than repent and repair"

Bibliography:

  1. Property World- August 2009
  2. The Hindu-Elunkathirpannai- Arunachlam-Thursday, 2008
  3. The Architects Journal, Building Library
  4. Starting with Plants-Dougherty, David
  5. Green surfaces Austrialia Pvt ltd.
  6. www. greenscreen. com
  7. http://www. greenscreen. com/home. html
  8. http://www. bdcnetwork. com/article/379033-6_Things_You_Need_to_Know_About_Green_Walls. php
  9. Green Building Activity in India - Catalysts and Course
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