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Geographic Major and Small Faults of Pakistan

  • Shahrukh Khan

Introduction:

Pakistan is geographically located in such a means that it consist of parts of two major and one minimal plate namely

  • Indian plate
  • Eurasian plate
  • Arabian plate

Here Indian and Eurasian plates are major plates while Arabian plate is a minor plate which is based on the southern most side of Pakistan, while Indian dish is present on the eastern part and Eurasian plate includes the north american part of Pakistan. Therefore triple junction point is located within Pakistan (a point where three dish restrictions meet).

Pakistan is a host of several modest and five major faults which operates across it they are simply because of the previous tectonic situations which happened in this zone the major & most important event which resulted in the formation of the five major faults and is perhaps the reason of modest faults and is also sill impacting on the geology and tectonics of Pakistan is the famous Himalayan orogeny which itself produced because of this of Indian and Eurasian plate collision in about 20 million years back because of the continental - continental collision.

Basically Indian plate which was situated within the Australian plate in gondwanaland and began moving towards north in a counter clockwise path Neo Tethys Ocean was present between Eurasian and Indian dish a segment of this ocean started out subducting beneath the Tethys sea on its either attributes/boundaries creating intra-oceanic island arcs because of the northward movement of Indian plate this arc collided with the southern Eurasia forming the continental-magmatic arc suture area for that reason collision foldable thrusting occurred developing two major blocks Karakorum block and the kohistan ladakh arc (KIA) separated by MKT Main Karakorum Thrust. During the same time period rest of the Tethys ocean subducted beneath the Eurasian plate which afterwards induced the collision of Indian and Eurasian dish building Himalayas this again resulted in the forming of thrust faults and fold the first major thrust problem which was developed here was the MCT (its branch in Pakistan is named MMT) this is north wards dipping down the road after its development stresses shifted southwards and another active problem called MBT (Main Boundary Thrust) was shaped by the under thrusting of rocks under the MCT, Down the road strains shifted further southwards resulting in the formation of SRT.

Major Faults of Pakistan

Major Faults of Pakistan are as follows:-

The Main Karakoram Thrust Fault(MKT)

The Main Mantle Thrust Fault(MMT)

The Main Central Thrust Fault(MCT)

Salt Range Thrust Fault(SRT)

The Main Boundry Thrust(MBT)

Chamman Transform Problem(CTF)

The Main Karakoram Thrust Fault (MKT):-

The main Karakorum thrust problem was created in cretaceous period (Coward et al. 1986) in the consequence of the collision between Kohistan Ladakh Arc and the Karakoram block about 70-100mya. Down the road it was announced as a North Suture (Pudsey et al. 1985. )

The Main Mantle Thrust Fault:-

It is a local thrust that is dipping in the north way and it seperates the Indian plate from the Kohistan Island Arc. Area included in MMT is 400 sq. km approximately and passes through the districts of Diyamir, Kohistan, Swat, Dir and Bajaur with a complete amount of 420 miles. It is extended from the spot of Khar (Bajaur Agency) in western to the spot of Naran in the east. Structure of MMT is more than 15 km heavy Proterozoic gneisses and schists (Madin, 1986).

The Main Central Thrust (MCT):-

"The Main Central Thrust is a thrust mistake which is dipping in a north direction and includes about an area of 2200km along the Himalayan pile range. This thrust problem was first described by Heim and Gansser (1939) when they mentioned a contact between terrigenous carbonate stones and thick overlying metamorphic stones, mica schists and gneiss (Sinha 1987). It marks the boundary between the higher and lesser Himalayan mountains. It is a longitudinal thrust problem, and in many places is marked by way of a several kilometer thick zone of deformed stones with varying levels of shearing and imbrication (Sorkhabi 1999). Mylonitization and retrograde metamorphic assemblages also happen here. The MCT is the actual suture between Gondwanaland (India) and the Proto-Tehtys microcontinent to the north (Spikantia 1987). Movement along the fault has taken crystalline rock from the Higher Himalayan zone together with Lesser Paleozoic sediments in the form of klippen in synclines (Windley 1995). These systems are called the Outer Crystallines, as noted above on the map. Outer crystalline rocks, garnet and kyanite-bearing, were shown by slip across the MCT accompanied by uplift and erosion of 10km of overlying rock (Molnar 1986). "

The Main Boundary Thrust (MBT):-

The Main Boundary Thrust is a new and paramount tectonic peculiarity along the whole Himalayan Belt. The MBT circles throughout the Hazara syntaxial zone. It speaks to the real zone of late disfigurement and the biggest seismic tremors. The MBT extends from the Afghan outskirt, and can be followed about constantly to the Assam through Eastern India. It is the overall most strong tremor source in the Himalayas. Islamabadrawalpindi region is spotted at a close by separation south of the traditional western appendage of the MBT. MBT and MMT are generally considered to have distinctive sections while ascertaining the related seismic hazard. The hanging wall of MBT holds the pre-collisional Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the North Deformed Collapse and Thrust Belt and post collisional folded Miocene foreland basin deposits in its footwall.

The Sodium Range Thrust (SRT):-

SRT encapsulates southern border of Salt range separating the Jhelum and the Indus waterways. SRT terminates in the western world against Kalabagh mistake and its eastern termination is near the right lender of Jhelum river.

Chaman Fault:-

The Chaman Mistake is a genuine, dynamic geographical blame in Pakistan and Afghanistan that works more than 850 kilometres. Tectonically, it is absolutely an layout of related geologic blames that divides the Eurasian Plate from the Indo-Australian Plate. It is a physical, essentially change, left-sidelong strike-slip deficiency. The slippage rate along the Chaman flaw construction as the Indo-Australian Dish moves northward (according to the Eurasian Plate) has been evaluated at 10 mm/yr or more. Notwithstanding its essential change position, the Chaman deficiency framework has a compressional section as the Indian Dish is impacting the Eurasian Plate. This sort of plate limit is now and again called a transpressional limit.

From the south, the Chaman shortcoming begins at the triple intersection where the Arabian Plate, the Eurasian Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate meet, which is just off of the Makran Coastline of Pakistan. The flaw songs northeast crosswise over Balochistan and afterward north-northeast into Afghanistan, operates just to the west of Kabul, and after that northeastward within the right-horizontal slide Herat deficiency, up to where it mixes with the Pamir shortcoming platform north of the 38є parallel. The Ghazaband and Ornach-Nal defects are regularly included as a feature of the Chaman issue construction. South of the triple intersection, where the deficiency zone lays undersea and stretches out southwest to give or take 10єn 57єe, it is recognized as the Owen Fracture Area.

While there exists general knowing that the shortcoming is slipping at a level of no less than 10 mm/yr, there is a statement of volcanic shakes in Pakistan dated to 2 m. y. BP which have been well balanced, for example, to show a slide rate of 25-35 mm/yr. Balances have been depicted during the flaw in Pakistan that are adolescent enough that "just the alluvium of the base of dynamic dried out washes is not removed. "

The parallel pile scopes of eastern Balochistan, (east to western world) the Kirthar Mountains, the Khude Mountains, the Zarro Mountains, the Pab Mountains and the Mor Mountains, are a rsulting consequence the compressional plate limit and are modified parallel to the Chaman deficit development. The issue itself is western of these ex

Minor Thrust Faults of Pakistan:-

Some of the minor faults of Pakistan are as follows

Margalla Mistake:-

It is a critical shortcoming, which runs along NE-SW course and joins the principle limit forced (MBT) in the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial zone. It goes by north of Islamabad on the southern piedmont inclines of the Margalla Hillsides. Because of this blame, the Datta development and the Samanasuk limestone are thrusted above the Lockhart limestone. There is absolutely no record or proof any past due development across the Margalla shortcoming.

Punjal Thrust:-

Punjal push Problem is a noteworthy energetic tectonic normal for a few territorial significance. It likewise included a few fragments. This flaw fulfills the Khairabad shortcoming assemble on Northern Attock Cherat range. That is why, it is usually called Punjal- Khairabad thrust.

Kalabagh fault:-

It is a obvious right-sidelong strike-slip concern which exercises out between Kalabagh and Mianwali. It truncates at the european advantage of the Salt Range.

Kurram Mistake:-

Kurram Thrust is a NNE-WSW inclining north-ward dipping energetic tectonic peculiarity dividing the Kakar Khorsan Flysh bowl in the north and the west from Bela Ophiolite pressed and fold sash in the east and south.

Sulaiman Range Problem:-

In Sulaiman range, two left-parallel wrench faults eastern and traditional western advantage of the scope have been recognized. Around the eastern side, two faults constitute a left-parallel insufficiency framework having Chaudhan fault and Domanda mistake. On the western side, there are three N-S trending faults constituting a left-sidelong blame framework. These shortcomings entail Thakht-e- Sulaiman fault, Manikhawa shortcoming mistake, and Moghulkot fault.

Kirthar Fault:-

Kirthar fault is very much a quite visible N-S inclining lineament on the dish symbolism. Kirthar problem alongside the other N-S inclining en-chelon mistake of the Kirthar reach front side and foothills are considered seismically strong. Various earthquake epicenters are discovered in this area, which were connected with this mistake.

Ghazaband Problem:-

Orientation of the mistake is NE-SW, which is located within the vicinity of Ghazaband Cross Kirdgap region. At some factors the mistake is hidden under the alluvium. In Southward it combines with Chaman/Oranch-Nal transform problem system.

Pab Fault

The pattern of Pab problem is NE-SW that is found along the european boundary of Khude fold belt.

Pab thrust is positive seismically and is located N-W of the Karachi.

Hoshab Fault

Hoshab shortcoming is one of several significant drive shortcomings which partition the Makran locale into lots of push bound pieces. Hoshab deficit is arranged in the Makan union area, which really is a highly distorted, east-west inclining overlap and drive sash. This shortcoming has an circular segment form having east-west inclining near to the Nasirabad and Hoshab zones, however eastward it swings to the north-east until it operates parallel to Mashkai rud.

Nai Rud Fault

It is one of the energetic thrust faults. It really is trending E-W and found within the vicinity of flip and thrust belts, pertaining to the Makran convergence zone Nai-Rud mistake has a NE-SW trending, operates parallel to the Nai Rud valley and bears the left-lateral strike-slip element.

Run of Kutch Fault:-

Run of Kutch is a powerful deficiency of territorial level having an east-west direction. The augmentations of this mistake in the east as well as the western may be, actually, not all that overall characterized. Alternatively, two essential conceivable results have been advised so; for east ward expansion, either blame reaches out along the hub of the incredible Run of Kutch or it exercises out to 50 km east of post Sidry, where it bends North-east-ward to consider after the geomorphic limit between your Thar desert and the incredible Run of Kutch. It is seismically vibrant, which is apparent with a few major and small quakes related to this local tectonic limit.

References:-

  1. Geology and tectonics of Pakistan 1997 by way of a. H. Kazmi and M. Q. Jan
  2. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Main_Central_Thrust
  3. http://prr. hec. gov. pk/Chapters/1486S-5. pdf
  4. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Chaman_Fault
  5. http://www. geo. arizona. edu/geo5xx/geo527/Himalayas/geology. html
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