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Gender and the division of home labour

This paper provides a review on 'Review Newspaper: Erikson, R (2005) why feeling work concerns: Gender and the section of home labour'. The paper is evaluated in the light of recent educational conversations about the public scientific problems that emotions create when analyzed in specific framework. Erikson points out why biological gender remains the primary predictor of behavioural psychological patterns between men and women. Empirical research was conducted over 335 women and men sample platform.

Erikson considers that socio-emotional behaviour has been an essential characteristic of marriage since the middle twentieth century. Furthermore, those women have had the majority of the burden of performing the household work even when working full-time and caring for the family. This romance between home labour allocations has helped in figuring out gender identification. Despite developments in social technology theory it is considered that little research has been completed in understanding the mental behavior in the gender section of household labour. Erikson put forward the view that 'the section of home labour varies relating to culturally established contradictions of gender' (Erikson 2005)

Recent research in the area of stress has confirmed different emotional replies from the parents. Particular target has been positioned upon the emotions of depression and panic. Anger is considered to be a highly social emotion and can manifest itself between those people who do not have enough personal space or show limited resources. As the division of household labour is mainly unequal i. e. the women perform the majority of the household duties and look after the children; women as such are more prone to emotions of stress and anger. This in turn can lead towards depression where there is a feeling of injustice, lack of support and a feeling of isolation. The thoughts increase where in fact the male partner will not assume an equitable show of the responsibility of responsibility. (Jan E. Stets 2007)

Socioemotional behavior in marriage

Erikson pointed out that the duties of women, in performing household duties and looking after the kids, was historically considered a female obligation in looking after and loving their husbands. It had been Daniels in 1987 that made the first claim that women were not regarded for these additional tasks and performance of home chores and as such reduced both their status in society and sense of personal personality. Therefore causes invalidation of the feminine contribution and perpetuates the concept of gender inequality.

Erikson explained that 'the proven fact that husbands and wives may need to work at caring and intimacy, contradicts what many imagine about love and relationship'. The concept of expressing empathy, caring and hearing another's viewpoint represents psychological response of the greatest magnitude. The associations between spouses behavior is a intricate one. This is specifically so in the formative many years of marital partnerships. The husband's socio-emotive behaviour has a powerful effect on the working of the marital marriage. Research has indicated that a negative response from the hubby produces dissatisfaction from the better half; this in turn escalates the negativity of the man and creates sort of vicious circle. Hence early in the relationship the mental behavioural characteristics of every partner need to be re-examined to be able to sustain an extended term marital romantic relationship. Very often the marital well-being of wives was linked to the wives understanding of their husbands. (Hinde 1997)


Although historically the female has remained the principal allocator of family work performance; reflecting how the responsibilities are allocated and the conceptualisation of self-identity. Times are changing and an even more relative source model is becoming followed. This looking much more towards satisfaction of economic conditions. The partner who brings more resources to the marital marriage has increased bargaining power and as such is able to 'buy out' of the marital household obligations. As women are now taking on more influential and dominant assignments at work this no longer always skews in the favour of the male. Hence more people who are carrying out exterior paid work tasks have less time to invest on domestic tasks. Recent studies have shown that women tend to have greater resilience than men and continue to perform the majority of the household tasks. In a few relation this empowers women sense a larger sense of responsibility towards their family.

Erikson commented that those 'Analysts using gender construction theory suggest that the gendered allocation of home labour persists since it signals the amount to which husbands and wives have created gender appropriately. . ' (Erikson 2005). Development theory really examines gender in terms of social relations rather than as the characteristics of individuals. As such it generally does not rest upon a well balanced biological platform but rather produced through social construction. Gender construction is therefore built into every aspect of sociable life in modern culture i. e. family, politics, religion etc. This produces certain objectives in both male and female roles; therefore has created role reversals that have reflected a change of principles in society. (Potuchek 1997)


Within the overall statements to male dominance in communal theory, three challenges have emerged (i) the criticism against that of female knowledge and its' inability to demonstrate satisfactory work that illustrates clinical or unbiased knowledge. This led to feminists approaching under scrutiny in order to demonstrate abilities to rationalise knowledge, perform verification, subjectivity and freedom from political bias. Second, how different affects designed women's lives. Examples cited included that of "cultural divisions, communal divisions and electric power relations" (Caroline Ramazanolu 2002). The danger here is one of stereotyping and branding women as you gender that provides a uniform end result. The third task intertwines that of knowledge and gender whereby essentially women are taken for granted. Since 1993 it has caused feminists to re-evaluate the positioning and rewrite much of the subject matter.

In 1993 Sandra Harding provided understanding in to the difference between that of Method, Technique and Epistemology. She equated Epistemology compared to that of any theory of knowledge with the objective of answering specific questions. Further, that there are two different epistemologies particularly that of a 'Feminist empiricism' and a 'Feminist Standpoint'. The empirical part is that in which a response is provided to bias and traditional responses. Whereas, standpoint refers to a particular feminist judgment founded upon an explanation of knowledge. In order to understand and complete a feminist standpoint the reader needs to be involved with the "intellectual and politics struggles that a women's experience is made upon. " (Stanley 1990).

Historically the most common expression of feminine action has been associated get back of liberation and the emancipation of women. This has ranged from the idea of radical insistence, to clarifying the goal of research and in the end to change in terms of politics action. It had been Maria Mies that proposed feminist research should be constant with the overall political goals and aspirations of women. Hence, there needs to be a full integration of social and politics; action appropriate to the emancipation of women. (Mary Margaret Fonow 1991).


Marriage is known as a social agreement, primarily because the problems that are participating expand beyond the concerns of strictly the particular individuals. The kids of the married couples will be the future generations which the whole population depends. Essentially, the termination of the relationship contract is either a legal consideration or by loss of life. In more modern marriages functions often seek legal contract conditions that protect their financial property i. e. in case of parting or divorce. These are often referred to as 'premarital or prenuptial agreements'. This type of arrangement is it's more common amongst rich or affluent couples, and second relationships. (Sheridan, 2010)

Modern world poses numerous problems upon an effective marriage. Probably one of the most demanding is that of financial hardship. That might be brought on by a job damage or physical health issues, leaving one's spouse to cope with the problem. This is often the situation where marital marketing communications breakdown, when in fact it is the most crucial time for working as a team and connecting with one another. Another important concern is the loss of self-image, where either weight gain or damage occurs. [The idea of overweight or anorexic] this can lead to rounds of depression and subsequent disease. Another factor is dealing with family relationships, and this is specially striving in new marriages. The idea of dealing with involvement and demands by in-laws, and having to deal with goals that posed a pressure on the marriage. The concept of long-term illness, disability or major health problems can impose a tremendous strain on the spouse who is working and similarly having to look after their spouse. (Long, 2007)


In general terms the obstacles in marriage relate with living and existing. Probably the most import and aspect on survival in matrimony is the capability to work as a team and communicate with one another. In this way, you can support one another and deal with most situations. There is also the concept of trust and care and attention between associates and betrayal of such can be quite hard to recover.


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