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Functions of the Digestive System

Healthcare Support

  • John Fenton

 

PART A:

  1. Identify the elements of the DIGESTIVE TRACT on the diagram overleaf(see Diagram 1)
  1. Explain the function of every part of the Digestive System determined in the diagram above ?

Introduction: The branch of medicine centered on the digestive tract is Gastroenterology. The digestive system is a couple of organs that focus on drink and food to break them down into substances the body can absorb so our body can develop, repair itself, have energy to exist.

The Digestive tract also eliminates the throw away that the body cannot use. Some organs have a direct input into the breakdown of food where others produce an indirect input in the malfunction. The digestive system is made up of 2 parts the alimentary canal comprises of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. In addition to the alimentary canal, there are several important Accessory organs that help the body to digest food they are really teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver organ, gallbladder, and pancreas.

  1. Mouth is where drink and food enter your body and it has many parts that assist in breaking up the food. The teeth which there is certainly 32 of them consisting of incisors canine and molars which slice and tear the food breaking it into smaller parts (mechanical digestion) the tongue moisten the food with mucus and the saliva glands secrete saliva to help break it up into a pulp and amylase work on starch to break it down. in order the food leaves the mouth to decrease the throat(pharynx) it is developed into a bolus or pulp which makes swallowing easier. Near the top of the larynx there is a flap called the epiglottis which stops food going on the lungs but instead letting into the esophagus.
  1. Esophagus or windpipe is a muscular pipe connecting the throat to the tummy this foodpipe forces the food right down to the stomach using muscular waves called peristalsis and along with mucus from the esophagus. By the end of the esophagus there is the cardiac sphincter that allows the bolus into the stomach but prevents the food going back the esophagus.
  1. Stomach: It is C shaped carrier that hold food until it is preparing to go in to the small intestine. The abdominal release hydrochloric acid which aid digestion but eliminates bacteria. The tummy mixes and churns the meals with the help of the wave like muscles(peristalsis) and enzymes help chemically break down the food when food leaves the stomach through the pyloric sphincter it is creamy and is named chime.
  1. Small Intestine: It really is 7 metre long and it is like a coiled hose and comprises of 3 parts the duodenum, jejunum ileum 90% of the digestive function both chemical and mechanical takes place here and some absorption in to the bloodstream. The liver organ produces bile and delivers it to the gall bladder and then empties the bile in to the duodenum and pancreatic juices are also go into the duodenum to be able to help in the breakdown of food. There exists villa in the surfaces of the tiny intestine which makes absorption in to the blood vessels possible.
  1. Large Intestine: is an extended, thick tube about 2 Ѕ in. in diameter and about 5 feet long. It wraps around the tiny intestine. It includes 3 parts - ascending bowel, the transverse intestines, the descending bowel. The top intestine receives undigested food from the small intestine and reabsorbs drinking water back to the blood vessels from the faeces. Some undigested carbohydrates cannot be ingested and form part of the waste that must leave your body. There are bacterias in the top intestine which will make important material called vitamin supplements K. Faeces in the large intestine exit the body through the anal canal.
  1. The liver is the greatest gland in the body it is tender and reddish and darkish in colour. It isn't considered as a primary area of the digestive system. It produces bile that aids in digestion by wearing down materials and help creating waste products that will later have to be eliminated from your body. It destroys parasites which come from the digestive tract and it stores important natural vitamins that is in the food
  1. The gall bladder is a pear designed sac attached by the cystic and bile ducts to the liver, stores bile which is manufactured by the liver organ in a concentrated form until it is necessary. the liner has many folds. it secretes the bile when it is needed. it is a thick liquid.
  1. The Pancreas is a greyish green gland organ molded like a seafood it is linked to the duodenum at its tail. The pancreas secretes intestinal enzymes into the small intestine to complete the substance digestion. The cells of the pancreas are divided into the islets of Langerhans(which produce insulin & glucagon) help control the sugar in the blood vessels pancreatic juice help breakdown food. The juices contain lipose, amylase, trysin.
  1. Appendix: Is between your small and large intestine it a thin pipe 4inches long, it isn't known what its function is but it's advocated it stores good bacterias.
  1. Rectum: Is 12cm long it will always be vacant except when it receives the contents of the bowel(faeces) which it stores until it is excreted from the body through the anus.
  1. Anus:This is where in fact the faeces leave your body it includes 2 muscles one involuntarily and the other voluntarily this means faeces can be organised inside before person is ready to excrete.

The functions of the digestive tract. are now complete they are ingestion, digestive function, propulsion, absorption and reduction. (Course Notes (2015) (Tucker, 2012)

  1. Outline the composition of Proteins, Fat and Sugars, and make clear how all of them are digested and soaked up by your body?

Introduction; All the food we eat must be divided by the body in order for the body to be able to utilize it. Our diet should be balanced in order that our body received the right nutrients necessary for it to be taken care of and for our bodies to function properly. The food pyramid outlines the components necessary for balanced healthy diet. See diagram below that helps us to comprehend the foods which contain Proteins Sugars and fats and how they are advantageous to your body. (Course Notes (2015) (Tucker, 2012)

Type & Source

Function

Digested by Body

Absorbed by the body

Proteins eg Beans, seafood, Cheese, Hen, Meat

Repair & Maintain Body (Building blocks)

Source of Energy for body

Create some Human hormones eg Insulin

Stores & Moves Molecules

Creates Antibodies to prevent infection

Important Enzymes

The Enzymes Pepsin from Pancreas/Stomach/Small Intestine.

As Amino Acids

Fats eg Delicious chocolate, milk, Butter, ESSENTIAL OLIVE OIL, Nuts.

Provides Natural vitamins A, D, E, K.

Insulates the body & sustains body's temperature.

Turns Fats into Energy

Lipase Enzymes break down fats in small intestine

Fatty Acids & Glycerol

Carbohydrates eg Potatoes, Cereal, bread

Main Source of fuel.

Easily used by the body for Energy.

Stored in a few Organs for use later.

Important in Intestine and helps in misuse Elimination

Pancreatic Amylase works on Glucose in the Duodenum

As Monosaccharides

 

PART B:

  1. Draw a diagram of the cell, and talk about the function of every of it's Organelles. (See Diagram 2)

Introduction: The cell is the smallest living product there are 50 trillion cells in the human body that can't be seen by the naked eye. Cells vary in form and size and each part in a cell has a job to do which contribute to the function of the cell. Several similar skin cells working along form tissue and a number of tissues constitute an organ and a number of organs make up an organ system like the digestive tract and when these systems interact the result can be an specific with all system working jointly. Below is discussed the main the different parts of an animal cell.

  1. Cell Membrane: Regulates and controls transport in(food & Oxygen) and out(CO2 Misuse) of the cell and also offers a boundary round the cell.
  2. Cytoplasm is a gel like materials that lies between the cell membrane and the nucleus, contains water and nutrients and defends the cell.
  3. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: It offers bumpy muscle and produces and moves proteins and human hormones across the cell.
  4. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: making and distributing substances with respect to the kind of cell with a smooth surface.
  5. Ribsomes: They can be a circle condition plus they build necessary protein from proteins for the cell.
  6. Golgi Body: It gathers simple substances makes them into more complex molecules then offers them into vesicles and then either contains onto the materials or delivers it from the cell.
  7. Mitochondria: The Powerhouse of the cell as they provide the energy for the cell. The DNA is also found here. it breaks down food and it produces energy to the cell. ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is produced here and it powers the cells processes.
  8. Neuclear Membrane: supports chemicals inside the Nucleus allows materials in and out between nucleus and cytoplasm. it is a protection layer for the nucleus.
  9. Neuleous:The main parts are DNA, RNA and proteins, the main function is aiding to make ribosomes.
  10. Nucleus is a fibrous materials, it is the control centre of the cell. It includes chromosomes with the DNA and materials leave the nucleus through the skin pores.
  11. Lysosomes: The removal system of the cell, they breakdown complex protein into simplier constructions. it digests waste material and helps repair damage to the cell.
  12. Cilla: Is a hair like composition on the cell membrane moves substances along the surface of the cell and also really helps to move the cell. (Course Notes (2015).
  1. Classify tissues into the four main categories; epithelial, connective, muscle, and anxious, give a good example of each ? (Stand format will suffice)

Introduction: The study of tissue is named histology. Tissues are the collection of skin cells with an identical framework and function. If the tissues work together they form into an organ. There are 4 types stated in stand below. (Tucker, 2012)

Type:

Function:

Example:

Epithelial Muscle - includes body floors & lines hollow organs

Absorbs/Protects/Secretes/Filters

Skin, Lines of organs body cavities & ducts in glands, Intestines

Connective Cells - connects all other tissues in the body

Gives support & Rigidity to the body.

Transports Oxygen Co2 in the body.

Provide a cushion where bone fragments meet

Connecting & Helping other tissues

Helps retain heat in the body

Protects against disease

Stretch & Recoil

Outer Safeguard of Organs

Bones

Cartilage

Blood

Areolar

Adipose

Lymphoid

Yellow Elastic

White Fibrous

Muscle Structure - bound jointly in bundles consisting of water, proteins, fats, nutrient salts,

glycogen

Mechanical digestion

Body Movement

Moves bloodstream, food and throw away through organs of body

Smooth-Organ Surfaces -Involuntarily(not straited)

Skeletal -Hands & Feet - Voluntarily(striated)

Cardiac - Heart Wall structure - Involuntarily (striated)

Nervous Tissue composed of neurons & neuralgia

Controls & transmit the impulses between the body organs via the neurons which can be nerve cells

Brain, Spinal Cord Nerves

  1. Explain the difference between benign and malignant tumours ?

Benign Tumours: aren't cancerous but are a mass of tissue that grow within an uncontrolled way nonetheless they can be removed. They don't pass on to any other areas of your body and could be very painful.

Malignant Tumours: they are cancerous and they include cells that grow out of control and they often invade other cells and disperse to other parts of the body. When a malignant tumour is removed there's a possibility that malignancy will reappear in another area of the body for example a malignant tumour in the pancreas may reappear in the liver. (Course Notes (2015).

PART C:

  1. Label the urinary tract using the diagram overleaf. (See diagram 3)
  1. Explain the framework and function of every component of the URINARY TRACT ? (5 grades)

Introduction to Urinary System: Theurinary systemhelps get rid of throw away product called urea from the body, which is produced when particular foods are broken down. The complete system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles and the urethra. Urine produced by the kidneys moves down the ureters to the bladder, and leaves the body through the urethra.

The kidney is bean formed and 11cm long. 25% of the blood vessels that is circulation undergoes the kidneys there are 2 of them and they're reddish brown in color it is made up of cortex on the outside and the medulla inside. Each kidney is wearing its surface more than a million twisted tubes called nephrons. The function of the kidneys is to filter out waste and poisons, reabsorb nutrition such as glucose and protein and then excrete waste material. Additionally it is accountable for osmoregulation which balances water and salts in the blood. ,

Ureter bears urine from the kidney to the bladder and when there is liquid in them it makes the urine flow on the bladder like the kidney there are 2 of these one mounted on each kidney. The surfaces are heavy and have the ability to contract they can be situated between the kidneys and the bladder.

Bladder this can be a muscular sac like organ situated between ureter and urethra. it can grow when urine goes into it and then written agreement when urine leaves it. Its function is to store urine and send a note to the mind when it requires to be emptied.

Urethra is a narrow tube much longer in men that girls its function is to use urine from the body to the exterior but also needs semen to outdoor in men. (Course Records (2015).

  1. Draw the composition of an Nephron and make clear how it produces urine Diagram 4 ? (Google Images)

There are over 2 million nephrons in the kidneys of a grown-up. (Tucker, 2012) There are always a several structures that make up the nephron. The Glomerulus are little capillaries that appear to be a ball of wool and act as sieve where the blood is filtered. The glomerulus is bounded by the Bowman's Capsule.

The Bowman's capsule absorbs the materials that is filtered from the glomerulus. As a result of the purification process useful chemicals flow in to the Tubule and after that these are reabsorbed in to the bloodstream. The rest of the substances in the tubule and any normal water that pays to is absorbed into the bloodstream. The material that is leftover is 95% water and cannot be used by the body it is named urine and this must be taken out from your body. The urine steps from the tubule to the ureter. see diagram attached on individual sheet

  1. Name and explain three diseases / disorders which affect the urinary tract ?

Kidney Rocks: The medical name for stones in the kidneys is Nephrolithiasis. It occurs whenever a sturdy mass of material forms together within the renal pelvis, bladder or ureters, Following the Kidney natural stone has formed it will try to distribute in the urine but because of its size you won't have the ability to do so and this can cause severe pain in the abdominal area or groin. There are several procedures to eliminate or break them down. Depending on the size will determine the treatment required if they're small your GP can give you medication that will reduce the kidney natural stone in size and then permit them to be handed out in the urine if they are much larger surgery may be needed. This problem happens more often in men than in women.

Urethritis:Is the bloating of the urethra resulting in a very painful discharge of urine sometimes caused by infection. You can find 2 types of urethritis Gonococcal and nonspecific urethritis which is brought on by a major number of bacteria, fungus or chlamydia, it is diagnosed by sending a sample of an release from the urethra to the laboratory. Treatment will be based upon the cause and appropriate antibiotics would clear the situation.

Pyelonephritis is a bacterial or viral infections of the kidney and it can spread if not treated. People most vulnerable for pyelonephritis are those people who have a bladder illness or a difficulty in the urinary tract. the possible symptoms are unpleasant urination, groin pain, nausea and fever. In most cases the infection can be treated by antibiotics, it could be diagnosed in a number of various ways through analysis of a urine sample and looking for the occurrence of white blood vessels cells and bacterias, and through Ultrasound. http://www. niddk. nih. gov/health-information/health-topics/kidney-disease/pyelonephritis-kidney-infection/Pages/index. aspx#1

Bibliography/References

Tucker, L. , 2012. An Introductory Guide to Anatomy & Physiology. 4th ed. London: EMS Posting.

John FentonPage 1

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