Posted at 10.30.2018
Discuss the representations of women in La Curee (by Zola), Germinie Lacerteux (by Edmond et Jules de Goncourt), La Dame aux Camelias (n. bthe play, not the novel by Dumas fils) and Le Spleen de Paris (by Baudelaire).
This research investigates in depth therepresentations of women in such French fiction as La Curee by Emile Zola, Germinie Lacerteux by Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, La Dame aux Camelias by AlexanderDumas younger and Le Spleen de Paris by Charles Baudelaire. The receivedfindings suggest that in these literary works the writers keep up with the ideas ofrealism and naturalism in regards to female character types, rejecting the romanticportrayal of females and stressing on their independence and sexuality. Somefindings of the dissertation are steady with the earlier studies of Frenchliterature in the nineteenth century, while other results provide newinterpretations of a female issue.
1 Statement of the problem
The representations of ladies in Frenchliterature of the nineteenth century reflect the writers' tries to providetheir own eyesight on females in the age of Libertinage, praising theirprinciples of liberty, but implicitly criticising their sexuality and weakness. Unlike Intimate writers, such authors as Emile Zola, Charles Baudelaire, AlexanderDumas younger and the Goncourt brothers stick to the ideas of realism andnaturalism in their portrayals of women, showing that only the observation of differentsides of a person's essence can offer understanding of the reasons behindfemale degradation and inability. In this respect, these writers represent theirfemale heroes through social, social and familial contexts.
In France the nineteenthcentury was characterised by various public changes that offered rise to theprinciples of libertinage and equality, but also negatively influenced the mostsubordinate group - French females. The pleasure became the principal featureof French style of life. Because of the changes French fiction of thenineteenth century was split into four literary actions: naturalism, symbolism, romanticism and realism. But the currents differed from eachother, they stressed on the value of a person and the rejection of purereason and cultural standards. Pursuing these actions, French writers started out todiscuss a lady concern through their feminine personas, uncovering such negativesocial phenomena as feminine subjugation, divorce, prostitution, psychologicaldisorders of women and depopulation. In particular, they disclosed that, despitefemales' makes an attempt to achieve equality with males, society extended to impose certainsocial norms and stereotypes on women, depriving them of the opportunity tofollow their own paths. A woman who did the trick as a prostitute or a servant wasusually seen as a subject matter, a person of extra importance in patriarchalFrench world, but it was this woman who was simply often portrayed innineteenth-century fiction.
The aim of thisdissertation is to discuss the representations of females in La Curee by EmileZola, Germinie Lacerteux by Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, La Dame aux Cameliasby Alexander Dumas younger and Le Spleen de Paris by Charles Baudelaire. The newspaper is divided into several chapters. Chapter 1 offers a statement ofthe problem that uncovers the key of the evaluation. Chapter 2 reflects a generaloverview of the issue, observing the public and historical contexts of theperiod when the discussed works are written. Chapter 3 evaluates some criticalanalyses of nineteenth-century French fiction. Section 4 shows thetheoretical research methods that are utilised in the research. Chapter 5investigates in depth the representations of ladies in each novel, concentrating onboth principal and secondary female characters. Section 6 summarises thereceived results, and Section 7 tips at the limits of the dissertation andproposes some suggestions for further research of Zola, Edmond and Jules deGoncourt, Dumas the younger, and Baudelaire.
3 Overview of the literature
Nineteenth-century French literatureattracts attentions of varied critics who provide rather contradictoryviewpoints on literary works of French writers. This can be explained by thefact that in the period of the France Revolution and Libertinage, Frenchliterature started out to move away from the traditional portrayals of individuals to themore genuine representations. As Desmarais sets it, all the writers of the19th century are pretty much romantic; but do not require could bedescribed as traditional. Bringing out impressive elements intotheir literary works, these French writers made efforts to either uncoverdifferent edges of reality or to compare the nineteenth century with days gone by. For instance, analysing the literary legacy of Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, ElisabethBadinter cites words of Juliette Adam who boasts that the Goncourts so lovedand frequented eighteenth-century women that they despised the women of thenineteenth, consigning these to wickedness, debauchery or imbecility.
Charles Baudelaire'scollection of prose text messages La Spleen de Paris was publicized only after his deathand the critics paid no focus on this literary masterpiece; only at thebeginning of the twentieth century Baudelaire's work was acknowledged as one ofthe best prose fiction. Specifically, Robert Kopp attracts a parallel between LaSpleen de Paris and Baudelaire's poetry, pointing at the fact these prosetexts indicate the themes increased in nearly all Baudelaire's poems. Emile Zola's book La Curee was subjected to censure since its publication, butat the end of the twentieth century it was praised by modern critics as asplendid literary work of naturalism. Unlike Zola and Baudelaire, the playLa Dame aux Camelias by Dumas younger was accepted by French audience ofthe nineteenth century with joy, and its main identity Marguerite becamethe prototype of several female people in films, works and musicals. One ofthe most famous opera produced on Dumas' play was Verdi's La Traviata.
4 Research methodology
The research in this dissertation isconducted, utilising a social constructionist methodology and a feminist methodology. Applying to these procedures, the newspaper analyses the representations of women fromdifferent perspectives and interpretations. The interpersonal constructionist approachuncovers the impact of society on the forming of women and its attitudetowards those females who reject the existing stereotypes. Thus, this method iscrucial for investigating the portrayal of ladies in French fiction. Anotherappropriate method is the feminist way that is targeted at watching genderissues in literature, criticising patriarchal contemporary society that specifically createsthe differences between women and men and imposes specific roles on women. Asfemales have been usually conformed to certain stereotypes in literature, thefeminist procedure makes an attempt to destroy these stereotypicalrepresentations. In this respect, both methods analyse the portrayal of femalesin nineteenth-century French fiction through sociable contexts.
5. 1. Naturalism of La Curee by EmileZola
Emile Zola belongs tothose writers who in their literary work present the characters that areclosely connected with the environment. In the book La Curee Zola reflectsfemale characters through sociable contexts, demonstrating the impact of theenvironment about them. Thus, the writer is more interested in the temperaments ofhis women rather than in other aspects of their personalities. Zola considersthat feminine temperaments can make clear their feelings and activities, theirrelations with other folks and their attitudes to the world, in which theylive. In La Curee female characters are greatly influenced by the happenings of theSecond Empire and the changes that Baron Haussmann launched in Paris. Being a resultof these changes, Zola's women are in search of pleasure and money. After thedeath of Aristide Rougon's better half, the character is still left with two children anddecides to marry a prosperous female Renee Beraud de Chatel, transforming his nameinto Aristide Saccard.
Their marriageprovides Aristide with financial security, but this relationship of conveniencesproves to be unfortunate for the principal female personality that is finallyleft without method of subsistence and a family group. Renee looses her childrenduring pregnancy and becomes engaged in various intimate intercourses. At firstshe initiates the relationships with Saccard's son, until he marries anotherwealthy but very sick female Louise who dies immediately after the matrimony. Thus, Zolacreates two male heroes - a dad and a kid - who marry women withdisabilities for the money, because they do not have another way to enrichthemselves. But Zola doesn't consider these men are responsible for females'failure. Renee is portrayed as a woman who constantly suffers from neuroticattacks and devotes her life to balls, talks and erotic pleasures. Reneeappears to be always a product of French patriarchal world that puts a woman into asubordinate position, destroying her do it yourself and making her have problems with ownweakness.
According to thefeminist way, such subjugation results in negative outcomes for awoman, because she starts to swap one extreme for another. Inother words, a woman turns from high subordination to uncontrollablefreedom. Before her relationship to Aristide, Renee gets pregnant and is also abandonedby one of her lovers, and Aristide appears to be a rescue for woman'sreputation. This feminine figure is portrayed as a simple sensualist who findsreal pleasure in cultural life and erotic relationships. When she satisfies Aristide'sson Maxime, a young teen who greatly resembles her, she becomes his enthusiast. Althoughthe copy writer implicitly criticises Renee, he constantly details at the fact thatit is French contemporary society that figures this woman who finally destroys not onlyherself, but also people around her. Renee is against Maxime's matrimony toLouise, considering her to be a weak and unsightly girl. She actually is unable to realisethe vitality of money for such people as Maxime and Aristide; she can be used to spendmuch money and she regards it only as means that help her exist in Frenchsociety. Renee is psychologically involved into the affairs with Maxime and sheutilises this young person for her own pleasures. This female is astonished bythese forbidden relations and doesn't want to think about the results ofher action.
In the characterof Renee, the copy writer embodies the essence of Parisian life; much like Paris, Renee is enthusiastic about luxury and pleasures, but behind this gorgeousappearance there are degradation and fighting. This female identity reflectsreality of the nineteenth century when people set you back certain extremes and werefurther damaged by these extremes. Renee's wrong ideals are a result of herlack of appropriate education and public permissiveness that deprive a youngwoman of fabricating a normal family with caring husband and children. With the endof the narration Renee is completely ruined by her obsession with pleasure;but Zola observes her weakness and foolishness through the communal pressure thatshe is not able to stand up to. As Zola sets it, she experienced slid down a slipperyslope, yet she had not remained passive the whole way down. Desire acquired awakenedin her too late to combat it, following the fall experienced become ineluctable.
The same regardsthe extra female figure of the novel - AngЁle, the first wife ofAristide. She is also portrayed as a vulnerable, passive and poor woman who isnot in a position to experience life in Paris. Contrary to Renee, AngЁle is not involvedeither in cultural life of Paris or in intimate relationships because of her povertyand illness, but her submissiveness is also produced by society, in which shelives. As Zola cases, For being poor in Paris is to be poor double over. AngЁleaccepted misery with the passivity of the anemic girl she was. She put in herdays either in your kitchen or lying on to the floor playing with her child. AngЁle is absolutely specialized in her hubby and children and refuses to be isolatedfrom young Clotilde when Aristide decides to move to Paris. However, Paris, thecity of changes in nineteenth century France, requires changes in individualsas well. Those people who fail to modify to these changes are damaged, thatis just the case with AngЁle.
Aristide's firstwife shows up too kind and weak, the features that don't allow her to survivein the cruel and degrading Parisian world; however, such people as MmeSidonie, a sister of Aristide, is aware of the role of money in Paris. Zolaportrays this extra character as someone who eliminates her thoughts andinstead applies to 100 % pure reason. When Sidonie goes to a dying AngЁle, shecompletely ignores any morality or decency in her talk to Aristide: She wasa good woman, his sister continuing, speaking as though AngЁle were alreadydead. You can find women who are wealthier. Zola criticises suchfemale scorn, implicitly demonstrating that Paris damages the souls of womenand makes them take action, like machines, with no emotions and feelings. Thisrealistic portrayal reflects the negative impact of certain cultural norms onindividuals. Sidonie is employed to interfere in to the lives of other folks anddecide their fates. Therefore, in his representations of women Emile Zolastresses on the actual fact that ability and wealth deprave females in France, butsimultaneously he contrasts these mean women with such good females as AngЁleand Celeste. As the copy writer explains, Celeste's devotion delighted Renee all themore because she knew her to be honest and thrifty, a female without a enthusiast anduntouched by vice.
5. 2. Misogyny in Germinie Lacerteux
Similar to Zola, Edmondand Jules de Goncourt in their literary work Germinie Lacerteux create thefemale heroes that echo the ideals of femininity been around in Frenchsociety in the nineteenth century. Although their women expose certain liberty, these are too preoccupied with the own sexuality. Through their femalecharacters the Goncourt brothers echo their misogynistic eyesight of femaleswho are not able to suppress their erotic needs and who end up being the slaves oftheir natural intuition. Throughout the narration Edmond and Jules de Goncourtexpress their desiring eighteenth-century females using their refinedappearances, lovely manners and flirtation; they long for the period ofstrong aesthetic beliefs and cultivated morality. Thus, their female charactersare usually portrayed as depraved females who end tragically because of theirweakness, poor education and lack of intelligence.
GerminieLacerteux, the main female identity, is a woman who's sexually abused inearly years and who is unable to marry when she comes to Paris. However, hermotherly instincts are too powerful and she begins to look after a niece andanother child Jupillon. However when Jupillon is changed into a man, Germinieexperiences an abrupt passion towards him, and it is this passion that destroysher reputation and turns into poverty, because the love had been for theJupillon young person only the satisfaction of a certain interest of the evil, seeking in the knowledge and in the ownership of a female the right and thepleasure of scorning it. When Jupillon abandons Germinie, shestarts drinking alcohol and is involved with numerous intimate intercourses that bring herto fatality, just like Dumas' Marguerite and Zola's Renee. In this respect, Edmondand Jules de Goncourt uncover female enthusiasm that can little by little kill a womanand depreciate her, criticising Germinie's uncontrollable intimate desires andinstead retaining the ideas of feminine virginity. As Jupillon explains to Germinieduring one with their talks, you seem yourself well still, you are not myheart, you aren't my entire life, you are only my pleasure.
Contrary toother French writers of the nineteenth century that mainly portray females fromthe upper-class contemporary society, the principal feminine heroes of Edmond and Jules deGoncourt participate in the middle-class. Such move from aristocratic females topoor females reflects great realism of the narration, getting rid of romanticismthat is usually utilised in French novels. The Goncourts' naturalism explainsthe reasons of feminine sexuality and their further inability. Based on the writers, it is actually difficult for such a female as Germinie to suppress her naturalinstincts and stick to interpersonal morality that rejects any powerful thoughts. Such females make endeavors to improve their conditions of living, but finallythey come in the similar conditions as at the original stage of life. TheGoncourts present this point of view not only on the exemplory case of Germinie, but alsoon the example of a secondary identity Pass up de Varandeuil, an old kindspinster who hires Germinie as a servant to her and who becomes totally attachedto a young girl. As Edmond and Jules de Goncourt said, This old womanisolated and forgotten by death, only at the end of her life, trailing heraffections of tomb in tomb, got found her previous good friend in her servant.
However, suchclose relations between a expert and a servant aren't strange fornineteenth-century French books that usually reflects female servants asdevoted and hardworking people who little by little occupy the principal place in thenarration. Despite their different sociable positions, Germinie and Neglect deVarandeuil end their lives in loneliness, with the only difference thatGerminie doesn't curb her sexual dreams, while Pass up de Varandeuil isolatesherself from the rest of the world, as well as from her powerful feelings. Based on the social constructionist methodology, a woman is established bysociety, in which she lives; thus, her erotic behavior is also produced by theenvironment. In this respect, the distinctions in sexual needs ofGerminie and Neglect de Varandeuil can be discussed by their different backgroundsand upbringing. Pass up de Varandeuil is the agent of a brokenaristocratic family that loses its bundle of money during the French Revolution, whileGerminie comes from a middle-class world that adheres to easier manners.
5. 3. Realism of La Dame aux Camelias
The play of Dumas theyounger La Dame aux Camelias portrays a lovely prostitute Marguerite Gautierwho breaks the relations with her lover, Armand Duval, to improve hisreputation and soon dies of her incurable health problems. In this female persona thewriter embodies his lover Marie Duplessis who died at the age of twenty-three. Dumaspresents Marguerite as an enchanting woman, even though her real lifewas not so romanticised. At the end of the play Marguerite says that she haslived for love and she doesn't think twice to pass away for love. Through the use of to suchtragic end, Dumas uncovers the public system of his times, when a girl fromthe middle-class couldn't be engaged in the relations with a guy of the upper-class, or otherwise she could ruin his life and reputation.
On the exampleof this personality Dumas the younger reflects woman's degradation, but Marguerite'sdeath because of this of health issues evokes sympathy towards her. Marguerite saves notonly Armand, but also his sister who at last receives an possibility to occupyan appropriate position in upper-class population. In this regard, a life of onefemale is sacrificed with regard to another woman, although Marguerite ispresented as a unique female numerous virtues. She actually is not only beautiful, but is also brilliant and noble. In the play Dumas the younger portraysMarguerite as a person with a slender physique, white face and dark wild hair. She hasamazingly glowing eye, full lips and unusually pearly white teeth. She offers agood style in her dresses, in music, in art and behaves in a noble way. But, above all, this courtesan has a major heart and soul, expressing sympathy andunderstanding towards other folks. As Dumas details her, There was a kindof candour in this female. You could see she was still in the virginity of vice. No marvel that Armand falls deeply in love with Marguerite from the first view;however, this popular French prostitute hasn't adored before she meetsArmand. As Armand says the reality about his emotions towards her, Margueritelaughs at him, but he gradually persuades her in his love, and she returns hisaffection. When Armand speaks with his dad, he says, Perhaps I am in thewrong, but I can only be happy as long as I am the enthusiast of this girl.
However, whenMarguerite realizes that she is ill, she realises that her former has deprivedher of future. Although noble people in nineteenth-century France were usuallyengaged in erotic relations with prostitutes, and these relationships were regardedas natural, the situation was different in regard to love. The relations basedon love were fully prohibited by upper-class society, and an aristocratcouldn't love or marry a prostitute, because such action would damage him. Marguerite does not have any choice, but to demolish the relations with her enthusiast in themost complex period of her life. Dumas the younger reveals that Frencharistocratic society creates certain interpersonal norms; those people who try tooppose to them, are excluded from culture. Thus, Marguerite is apparently avictim of the sociable norms, as she actually is involved in illicit intimate relationswith men. As these relations are concealed, they can be ignored by contemporary society, butwhen they may be exposed, they eliminate the trustworthiness of a person who belongs tothe upper-class. Marguerite realises that her bad reputation threatens not onlyArmand, but his family as well, and she makes a decision to break her relationships with theonly person she truly enjoys.
Such actiondemonstrates that Marguerite is preferable to females of the upper-class, becauseshe is aware of her responsibility. Marguerite creates her own living, but, as the article writer puts it, Do not let us despise the girl who's neither mother, sister, maid, nor wife. Although this female personality has neverbelieved in love and has utilised males for her own benefits, the relationswith Armand change her. Marguerite doesn't want to demolish Armand's life, as shehas damaged her own. As she says him, your loved ones would cast you off if youwere to reside with a woman like me. Let us be friends, good friends, but nomore. Despite the fact that Marguerite can take this seriousdecision because of her genuine want to Armand, Dumas the youngersimultaneously implies that she adheres to the demands of French society. Marguerite is employed to do something independently, however in this particular circumstance shedecides to uncover her subjection to society. In this regard, the writer provesthat the rules of Libertinage which were founded in France in theeighteenth century were attributed only to males, while females were punishedfor any display of independence.
In the truth ofMarguerite, this feminine is first punished for her illegal sexual intercoursesand further - for her wish to Armand, the agent of the upper-class. Throughouther life Marguerite has collided with many obstructions and has successfullyovercome them. But she fails to defend her love against interpersonal prejudices. Contrasting Marguerite with females of the upper-class, Dumas the younguncovers the degradation of French population that rejects feelings and insteadadheres to the failed morality. When Marguerite abandons Armand without anyexplanation, he constantly humiliates her throughout their meetings. As Margueritefeels that her disorder progresses, she comes to Armand one more time and she can'tsuppress her wants. But Marguerite realizes that she's to leave Armandwho is unacquainted with true reasons for her escape. As a result, Armand destroysMarguerite during the ball by publicly supplying money to her. After suchhumiliation Marguerite looses her friends and clients and dies in poverty andloneliness. In prologue Marguerite's enthusiast receives her notice and realises thetrue virtues of the beautiful and smart woman. As Dumas boasts, Margueritewas a pretty woman; but although life of such women makes experience enough, their fatality makes hardly any.
In real lifeMarie Duplessie greatly influenced Dumas younger, but it is he whoabandoned her, realising that he didn't have enough money to support this richcourtesan. However, as Dumas became more involved into the life of Frenchsociety, he commenced to observe the social frame of mind towards courtesans and decidedto reveal this frame of mind in his play La Dame aux Camelias. From the characterof Marguerite the article writer shows his own thoughts and opinions of a female. He portrays abeautiful and intelligent female, providing her numerous virtues and love, butsimultaneously depriving her of the possibility to marry a person she lovesbecause of her bad reputation. When after their continuous parting Armand asksMarguerite, whether she actually is happy, she right answers: Have I the face of a happywoman, Armand? Do not mock my sorrow, you, who know better than any one whatits cause and its own depth are. Thus, Dumas younger implicitlydemonstrates that ideal love relations can be established only between a virginand a man with sexual experience.
At the same timeDumas relation close relationships between complete opposite sexes as a challenge. AlthoughMarguerite has a kind center and sincerely falls in love with Armand, she actually is nota virgin and is not able to fully belong to one man, with all her center, bodyand heart. On the main one hand, Dumas the younger reveals a prostitute may be abetter female when compared to a virgin, but, on the other side, he increases againstprostitution that transforms women in to the content and deprives them of thepossibility to be good moms and wives. According to the socialconstructionist way, it was natural for a man of the nineteenth century toestablish intimate relations with different women, but women was required to adhere tostrict social norms. In the play Dumas implies that the relationship with aprostitute is equated with a crime, but Marguerite redeems her reputation. Butsuch prostitutes, with a heart, were infrequent in Dumas' time, although someof his extra female people are also beautiful and intelligent. Forinstance, he introduces M de N. into his narration, a prostitute and anacquaintance of Marguerite. As the article writer characterises her, the man who wasthe enthusiast of such a woman might well be as proud as M. de N. , and she wasbeautiful enough to encourage a passion. When Armand utilises herto revenge Marguerite, she unveils an unusual cleverness when she claims, you love Marguerite, and you simply want revenge upon her by becoming mylover. You don't deceive a woman like me, my dear good friend.
5. 4. Ambiguity of Le Spleen deParis by Baudelaire
Similar to Emile Zola, Baudelaire reveals his female people through communal environment; this isespecially evident in his assortment of prose text messages Le Spleen de Paris, wherehe shows an impact of Paris on women. When Baudelaire came to Paris, he hadto are in various parts of the town, observing the life of ladies in theseplaces. In the text The Despair of the Old Female, the writer reflects hissympathy to the aged woman who experience great despair, as she recognizes a childand wishes to smile at him, but the child is frightened of this old girl who doesn'thave scalp and teeth. This lonely female is horrified by such attitude and shecries: Ah! For us, unhappy female old women, this exceeded to like, even withthe innocent ones, and we make horror with the tiny children that we want tolike.
Baudelaireregards such women as victims of life who symbolise loneliness and misery. Applyingto such horror portrayals, the poet implicitly criticises those women who areobsessed with the material well-being, overlooking the truth and the beauty ofthe world around them. In Le Spleen de Paris Baudelaire pulls a parallelbetween one female and another, as well as between a guy and a female. In thetext The Outdoors Woman and the Small Mistress the poet reveals a dialogue betweentwo females, uncovering their views on life. Though both people belong to onesex, they will vary, as the wild woman details a mistress, you whichrest only on fabrics as tender as your skin layer, which eat only cooked meat, and forwhich a skilful servant can take care to lower out the portions. Suchportrayal unveils the poet's double vision, his endeavors to judge varioussides of people's awareness.
But Baudelaireis especially sympathetic to widows and old females who are overlooked andneglected by modern culture. In his text Widows the poet provides a comprehensive portrayalof widows in the parks, proclaiming that it is easy to recognize them, because each widow reflects loneliness, pain and isolation. Baudelaireintensifies their misery by contrasting these depressed and poor widows withwealthy and idle people who walk in the park: It is always somethinginteresting that this representation of the pleasure of the wealthy person at the retina ofpoor. These reflections show the ability of Baudelaire forobservations and his understanding of a female fact. In his content material BeautifulDorothee the poet represents a lovely Dorothee strong and proud like thesun who walks along the street, bare-footed, and smiles. Perhaps, Baudelaire ponders, she would go to a officer to talk to him, that's whyshe is so delighted. Such is the image that the girl creates for the others ofthe world, but nobody knows that she gathers each piaster to redeem her littlesister. In another prose poem Which is the true one Baudelaire discloses thestory of a lovely and unusual girl Benedicta who's portrayed by the poet asideal. But as he promises, this miraculous young lady was too beautiful to reside a longtime and she dies very young. Baudelaire realises that femalebeauty and children are short-term, and many good women pass away young.
In the textPortraits of Mistresses the poet represents four guys who discuss theirmistresses, implicitly uncovering their lack of ability to accept femaleindependence. According to the feminist approach, feminine characters are usuallyportrayed from two different perspectives: either as chaste wives, if theyadhere to the benchmarks of patriarchal population, or as mistresses, if theyreject social rules and stereotypes. However, in La Spleen deParis Baudelaire shows that such frame of mind is also frustrated by class andeconomic variations.
The dissertation has analysed therepresentations of ladies in La Curee by Zola, Germinie Lacerteux by Edmond and Julesde Goncourt, La Dame aux Camelias by Dumas and Le Spleen de Paris byBaudelaire. In these works the portrayal of females reflects sophisticated socialstereotypes and norms been around in French world. Inside the play La Dame aux CameliasDumas younger reveals that France aristocracy was employed in sexualrelations with courtesans, but, as these relationships became a danger to theirreputation, they destroyed any intercourse using their lovers. Over the example ofthe primary female identity - the prostitute Marguerite Gautier - the writerdemonstrates that a woman of a low sociable position with a reputation of aprostitute does not have any chances for better future, even if she owns many virtuesand beauty. Although Marguerite sincerely falls deeply in love with Armand Duval, sherealises that their relations destroy not only Armand, but his family as well. Suffering from an incurable health problems, Marguerite nevertheless decides to abandonher lover for his sake. Thus, Dumas the younger proves that independent andintelligent females collide numerous limitations and stereotypes inpatriarchal world. The libertine ideas which were proclaimed throughout Francein the eighteenth century were mainly preserved by males, while womencontinued to occupy inferior position to men. Such female oppression wasaggravated by interpersonal biases of the upper-class towards folks of themiddle-class, the biases which were mainly based on economical differencesbetween two classes.
In GerminieLacerteux Edmond and Jules de Goncourt provide a misogynistic perspective onfemales, endeavoring to confirm that women are too preoccupied with sexuality andsocial position. Much like Dumas' Marguerite, the Goncourts' main femalecharacter also is one of the middle-class society and who is ruined by herpassion to a male. Following a principles of naturalism, the Goncourtsobserve a female from biological and public perspectives. Emile Zola goesfurther; in his book La Curee the writer reveals that public environmentshapes the forming of a person, especially a lady. He compares Pariswith a female, evolved, beautiful, but profound inside - degraded and depraved. Baudelaire in La Spleen de Paris also reflects the negative impact of Paris onfemales, uncovering misery and loneliness of old poor women who are deprived ofnormal lives. But Baudelaire also demonstrates the inevitability of the time thatchanges beautiful women into needy creatures that are turned down even bysmall children. In this respect, the representations of women differ in theworks of Zola and Baudelaire, as the previous adheres to the rules ofnaturalism and realism, as the latter maintains simple naturalism. In allfour literary works female people are portrayed through the guidelines oflibertinage and realism, through their social environment and their sexuality.
7 Suggestions for further research
Although the paper has protected many crucialaspects in regard to females in the discussed literary works, the research hassome limitations. For example, analysing the representations of women innineteenth-century French fiction, the paper implicitly discusses the relationsbetween men and women. It is very important to broaden this area of evaluation to betterunderstand the writers' perspective of females. Furthermore, the newspaper hasrestricted the study to the exploration of only four pieces of Frenchliterature, although it is important to improve the volume of works and comparethem with American or British fiction of the nineteenth century. Such approachwill provide more accurate findings to the problem of female representations, uncovering both similar and various areas of portrayal.
1. C Desmarais, On the French Literature at the XIXe century, considered in its romance with progress of civilization and the nationalspirit (Paris, Tenon: Publisher-bookseller, 1833), p. 108.
2. Elisabeth Badinter, La Femme audix-huitiseme siecle (Paris: Flammarion, 1982), p. 16.
3. Robert Kopp, Petits Poemes enprose (Paris: Corti, 1969), pp. 13-18.
4. Marco-Antonio Loera, 'LaTraviata and La Dame aux camelias': Verdi, Dumas fils, The Bourgeoisie, and BadFaith, Love Languages Total annual 5 (1993), pp. 225-233 (pp. 227-230).
5. S. L. Bartky, ed. , Femininity and Domination (New York:Routledge, 1990), pp. 17-25.
6. Emile Zola, La Curee (Canada:Modern Catalogue, 2004), p. 284.
7. Zola, p. 49.
8. Zola, p. 60.
9. Zola, p. 284.
10. Edmond and Jules Goncourt, Germinie Lacerteux (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1922), p. 121.
11. Goncourt, p. 225.
12. Goncourt, p. 159.
13. P. L. Berger, P. L. & T. Luckmann, The Community Construction of Reality (NY: Doubleday, 1966), pp. 35-39.
14. Alexander Dumas, La Dame auxCamelias (Freeport, N. Y. : Catalogs for Libraries Press, 1971), p. 60.
15. Dumas, p. 148.
16. Dumas, p. 18.
17. Dumas, p. 69.
18. Dumas, p. 7.
19. Dumas, p. 180.
20. Dumas, p. 173.
21. Dumas, p. 175.
22. Charles Baudelaire, TheParisian Prowler: Le Spleen de Paris Petits Poemes en Prose (College or university ofGeorgia Press, 2nd ed. , 1997), Words 2.
23. Baudelaire, Wording 11.
24. Baudelaire, Word 13.
25. Baudelaire, Word 13.
26. Baudelaire, Wording 25.
27. Baudelaire, Text message 38.
28. Chris Beasley, What is Feminism? An Advantages to Feminist Theory(London: Sage Publications, 1999), pp. 17-20.
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