Posted at 11.01.2018
Forensic science (often is written as forensics) is a variety of sciences that answer questions of legal system. This may be highly relevant to a crime or a civil action. It is also relevant to a legal system, more generally forensic science covers the accepted scientific methodology and norms by making use of which the facts regarding some events, or artifacts, or various other physical item that can be the case. In that regard the concept is related to the thought of authentication, where by an interest beyond a legal form exists in identifying whether an object is exactly what it wishes to be, or is alleged to be.
Nowadays that is definitely easier to solve crime problems than it was 70 years ago, as a result of progress that was manufactured in science, and especially in forensic science. New crime solving techniques that appeared were created to be able to help law experts to solve cases that are baffling the very first time. If we took a glance at the role that forensic science plays in the sphere of justice criminal law, we'd know how significant it is at solving crime problems because:
It really really helps to identify the gist of the crime: we can divide crime into two types: crimes that are accidents and another type is: that are made by design. Analyzing the evidence with the help of a forensic microscope we see experts in enforcement area to understand if the crime can be qualified as a murder, suicide or various other form of accidental death. If it's qualified as a murder, experts tell if the crime was accidental or not. Forensic science is utilized to discover drug offenses, car accidents and burglaries and arsons
Forensic science helps to remove someone's prejudices to the crime: It creates officers to explore only the data and not check out their feelings or instincts. That's the reason it helps to have the right way to solve a crime (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2004, p. 32).
We also should mention that the main is that, it helps solve the crime itself: Examine such facts as enough time of death or any other physical basis, forensics can tell for sure if a man is guilty in the crime or innocent as he claims.
Forensic science extends into a lot of sub-sciences which uses natural science ways to get relevant criminal and legal evidence (Richbourg, J. , 2004, p. 17).
Forensic science specialties of the 21st century include:
- Forensic Accounting - This science allows receiving, examining and taking into account obtained data.
- Digital Forensics (also called as Computing Forensics) - includes scientific methods and techniques used for search, recovery of information on digital media (pictures, e-mail).
- Forensic Document Examination - This science allows studying, recovering and understanding the documents, making an analysis of handwriting and drawings, charts and graphics. Many reports involve an evaluation of the observed document, or components of it, to a couple of known standards.
- Forensic Economics - The purchasing, researching and knowledge of evidence that are from monetary field, business.
- Forensic Engineering - This science includes reconstruction, researching and explanation of buildings. (Escholz S. , 2002, p. 319).
- Forensic Linguistics - The searching and explanation of language.
- Forensic Origin and Cause - The researching, explanation and identification of your fire for the express purpose of determining the reason for ignition and origin of the fire.
- Forensic Anthropology is the kind of physical anthropology, highly relevant to a legal situation, examines bones.
- Forensic Photography - reconstructing, and preceding a photographic explanation of the crime scene.
- Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry - It includes researching, evaluation and knowledge of mental illnesses and man's behavior for.
- Criminalistics is the supplement of mixture of clues (i. e. fingerprints imprint footwear impressions and tire tracks), ballistics, trace evidence, managed material.
- Criminalistics includes clues collected from different kinds of sciences to find the answers of questions associated with the researching and comparison of criminal investigations. This evidence is usually processed in a crime lab.
- Forensic Biology includes testing DNA and serological tests of physiological that helps in identification and individualization.
- Forensic Entomology helps in determination of your time and location of death, by studding how insects influence the human remains, can also tell if your body was moved after death or not.
- Forensic Geology is a kind of science that works with minerals, soils and petroleum (Escholz et al. , 2002, p. 321; Surette, 1998. p. 194).
- Forensic Meteorology is an analysis of prior weather situation, specific to the site being observed.
- Forensic Odontology is the science about teeth- specifically, the uniqueness of dentition.
- Forensic Pathology combines the spheres of medicine and pathology, determines the reason for injury or death.
- Forensic Toxicology is science that helps to give the evaluation and the elucidation of the effects of chemicals, poisons, and drugs on the human body.
- Forensic archaeology is the example of a mixture of forensics and archaeological techniques.
- Forensic psychology discovers the human's mind, with scientific methods. It often handles the circumstances behind a criminal's behavior.
- Forensic video analysis is the scientific research, comparison, and analyzing of video in legal matters (Cather, K. H. , 2004, pp. 9-10).
- Forensic engineering is the studding and analyzing of different objects to be able to answer questions concerning their failure or reason of damage.
- Forensic limnology is the analyzing of clues gathered from crime scenes in or about fresh water sources. Revision of biological organisms, particularly diatoms, can be used in connecting suspects with victims.
- Forensic science is very important for policing, criminal investigations and court processes since it helps with:
- Crime-Solving Contributions. Forensic science helps directly into solving crimes through investigative activities such as studding the reason why of death, finding missing individuals and identifying suspects.
- Determining Reason behind Death. Experts-pathologists define the reason of someone's death by making autopsies. Making such procedures, they can tell the reason why of death and enough time than it.
- Identifying Suspects. Forensic experts can understand suspects by examine clues got from the scene of a crime ( hairs, blood, fibers and fingerprints).
- Finding Missing Persons. Scientists can help find people disappeared quite a while using the process of image modification. Using this method, an image can show how someone may take care of some years without having to be seen (Cather, K. H. , 2004, pp. 11; Escholz et al. , 2002, p. 339).
- Profiling Criminals. Forensic experts use profiling when they would like to find suspects. While studding a crime accident, they can tell about a criminal's personality and patterns.
Forensic Science is important since it helps in analyzing of forensic clue is employed in the prosecution and investigation of civil and criminal proceedings. It can benefit to find the guilt or innocence of suspects.
The public is mainly educated about forensic science by Hollywood films and television set shows (Barak, 1995, p. 3). Within days gone by a decade, the focus on forensics as an initial tool to solve crimes has more than doubled on broadcast television set with shows like CSI. In comparison, Hollywood films have rarely featured a forensic scientist working in a lab or out in the field as a main character. Typically, the police make an end at the crime lab to drop off or grab potential evidence, thus move the film's investigative plot forward.
Nevertheless, as depicted by the media, forensic science is a wide field practiced by both genuine forensic scientists and police investigators. In the real world, the duties of forensic specialists are normally limited to forensic science techniques; however, police investigators use forensic methods sometimes (Cather, K. H. , 2004, p. 13)
Audiences have learned about forensics from television set as well as film. Television has shown both traditional forensic science and the use of forensic science by law enforcement through news shows, documentaries, docudramas and crime dramas. These have been given much greater exposure lo the general public in various tv set formats than Hollywood films ever did. Probably first to concentrate on forensic scientists were investigative news shows, such as 60 Minutes, 48 Hours, and MSNBC investigates.
These often featured repugnant criminal acts that were solved by using forensic science evidence. Through the mid 1990s, docudramas that focus on forensic scientists started to emerge. New Detectives, FBI Files, and Forensic Files, feature actors to recreate actual cases to depict how forensic science evidence assisted in the successful capture of offenders.
Nowadays there are a lot of videos and documentary films about forensics, such as A Case of Murder, Dead Men's Tales, Killer's Trail, THE TRUTH for Innocence, THE SITUATION for Innocence, Jefferson's Blood, The Bone Collector, Murder by Numbers, Kiss the Girls.
We also needs to mention such great tv Series with Forensic Science Elements as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Crossing Jordan, Law and Order (Richbourg, J. , 2004, p. 19).
We can find a lot of True life crime & forensic science on tv in such shows as: New Detectives, Forensic Files, I, Detective, Cold Case Files, Medical Detectives, Forensic Science, Unsolved History.
The fact that television shows aspects of sciences makes it a honor. The TV shows like CSI has made students to be enthusiastic about forensics courses.
Young people who watch CSI believe those scenarios, where forensic scientists are always right, are what happen in reality. It means that in court, juries aren't always impressed with evidence presented using scientific terms. Another big problem created by media coverage of forensic science is the fact it informs criminals of the techniques the police use to catch them. That's the reason, some forensics experts aren't willing to cooperate with the media (Cather, K. H. , 2004, pp. 13).
There can be an increasing amount of criminals who use gloves while making crimes and even use condoms during rapes to be able not to leave their DNA at the scene.
As a conclusions we can say that a minority of America's population has already established no direct experience with the criminal justice system (Escholz et al. , 2002, p. 328; Surette & Otto, 2002, p. 450). That's the reason those who find themselves needed jury duty know very little of the features of the use of forensic science to solve criminal investigations. With all the media serving as a primary way to obtain information to 95% of the public (Surette, 1998. p. 197), the truth of forensic science in the common citizen's mind could be based only on the medial depictions of forensic experts.
The ability of media to attain a broad audience appears to have caused a reaction by trial lawyers. For the last several years, the forensic crime drama CSI has surpassed the popularity of any other television set show (Nielson Media Research. 2004). Nearly 80% of the surveyed legal representatives suspected fans of forensic crime dramas have unrealistic expectations of evidence. The common belief among trial legal professionals that forensic crime dramas create such unrealistic expectations seems to have led to several changes while finding your way through trials and during criminal proceedings. First, hook majority of the attorneys reported they ask jury applicants if they specifically view forensic crime dramas during voir dire. Attorneys also may be compensating for the opportunity that jurors have unrealistic expectations of forensic evidence by submitting additional evidence for forensic testing. Fifty-one percent of the lawyers reported requesting some forensic tests more than they did five years ago. On the other hand, prosecuting attorneys maybe requesting further forensic test because of an increased curiosity about matters involving forensic science by defense attorneys. For each and every topic of defense interest investigated by the existing study, at least 59% of the legal representatives reported a rise.
The responses to surveys by criminal trial lawyers suggest the majority of attorneys have reacted the current popularity of forensic crime dramas. Before these findings can be accepted as a general nationwide trend, further research in multiple regions of the country is necessary. Qualitative and quantitative studies should be designed to test the findings of the study and expound after this possibility. Better preparation by judges and attorneys to counter such a trend is warranted.