Posted at 11.27.2018
The main purpose of the factories was to achieve high economic development. The improvement in output is becoming need of food industry to consider the competitive advantage of global market. The top problem or problem to food industry is discovering the wastes and meet up with the market price by keeping a good profit. The only real solution is to lessen total development cost. Lean creation is systematic approach to identify and get rid of the waste through continues improvements. This paper talks about how the production principles of lean manufacturing can be applied in food creation to increased creation efficiency and improvement production and quality. This paper first reveals the lean notion and presents the execution of lean manufacturing system on some group.
Three main factors that food creation factories fear, poor and tacky quality, increase of creation cost, increase in lead time. Development improvements should be predicated on the improvements of processes as well as procedure. Problems can come in any of the basic elements that constitute the creation area. (Materials, personnel, machines and tools, energy, methods, product). So I focus on lean manufacturing the program can help improve in this area.
The main aim of the analysis is to present the main idea of the Lean creation system, and the advantage of applying it in neuro-scientific food production, and determining the types of wastes in development process, and the effect of the Lean developing on food development and presenting a few examples of successful companies that executed the Lean making.
II. Books Review:
Many of the concepts in LM or low fat production result from the Toyota Creation System (TPS) and have been implemented gradually throughout Toyota's functions starting in the 1950's. In 1980's Toyota experienced increasingly become famous for the efficiency with which it experienced integrated Just-In-Time (JIT) processing systems. Now, Toyota is often considered one of the most efficacious and influential manufacturing companies on the globe and the business that put the standard for best practices in LM. LM has progressively more been applied by leading processing companies throughout the world, business lead by the major vehicle produces and their equipment suppliers. Lean Manufacturing is becoming an extremely significant subject matter for developing companies in developed countries as they look for procedure to remain competitive more effectively versus competition from Asia.
Lean Making is a couple of tools and methodologies that aspires for the constant elimination of all throw away in the production process. The primary great things about this are lower development costs; increased result and minimum development business lead times.
Some of the goals include:
Use equipment and manufacturing area more effectively by eradicating bottlenecks and increasing the rate of production though existing equipment, while lowering machine downtime.
Reduce defects and pointless physical wastage, including surplus use of raw material inputs, avoidable defects, and costs associated with reprocessing defective items and dispensable product characteristics that are not required by customers.
Have the capability to create a more elastic range of products with bare minimum changeover costs and changeover time.
Improve labor efficiency, both by minimizing the inactive time of personnel and ensuring that when workers are working, they are using their work as productively as possible
Insofar as reduced cycle times, increased labor efficiency and removal of bottlenecks and machine downtime can be completed, companies can generally significantly increase outcome from other existing facilities.
Minimize inventory levels whatsoever steps of development, particularly works-in-progress between development steps. Lower inventories also signify lower working capital requirements.
Reduce manufacturing business lead times and development circuit times by reducing waiting times between processing levels, as well as process planning times and product.
Most of these benefits lead to lower unit production costs - for example, far better use of equipment and space contributes to lower depreciation costs per device produced, more effective use of labor ends in lower labor costs per unit produced and lower defects lead to lower cost of goods sold.
The critical start point when changing a traditional production lines into a Trim process is the dedication of value from the customers' points of view, which is significant as the purpose of the Lean process is a range where every activity gives a given customer value to the merchandise. Having identified the worthiness of products, the next step is to recognize and map the value stream in the production range. Value stream mapping identifies the mapping of any product's route which is explained in more detail further. The third principle is the connection of value creating activities in a continuous move process. Every issue or 'batch and queue' process must be prevented to acquire an uninterrupted move throughout the development. The 'ideal' creation Flow is drawn on the map, and existing procedures improved and equipment relocated to echo this. The fourth process is not to produce anything 'upstream' unless it is necessary 'downstream. The process is in contrast to batch and queue steps, as observed in mass production, and aims to reduce the amount of resources locked up in inventories. It means that creation must be just-in-time, both internally between procedures and externally when delivering products to the End-user. The fifth rule is about seeking perfection through a continuing improvement. This is not only about creating a product that the client requires with at the least defects, but also includes the perfection of every action in connection with the production process. It involves all employees as they know types of procedures the most and are closest to make suggestions for improvement. The participation of everybody in the constant improvement is what makes Lean a viewpoint - increasing working operations is integrated in job exercises.
(Womack & Jones 2003; Bicheno 2004).
Producing elements that there are no client requirements. The Trim principle is to use a take system, or producing goods as clients order them. Service organizations operate this way by their very nature. Industrialization organizations, furthermore, have historically controlled by a Thrust System, building products to stock, without solid customer purchases. Anything produced beyond the customer demand (safeness shares, work-in-process inventories, etc. ) ties up valuable labor and materials resources and therefore is a waste material.
Time during development (service) when no value is put into product (service). This consists of waiting for materials, information, equipment, tools, stock-outs, whole lot control delays, equipment downtime, capacity bottlenecks, etc. The Low fat principle is to use a just-in-time (JIT) system- not too early, not too late.
Unnecessary moving and handling of parts. This includes transporting work-in-process long distances, trucking to and from an off-site storage facility. Lean needs that the materials be shipped straight from the vendor to the location in the assembly line where it'll be used. Material should be sent to its point useful.
Unnecessary handling or types of procedures than essential to meet customer demand. Common examples multiple inspecting. Statistical process control techniques can be used to eliminate or lessen the quantity of inspection required. Value Stream Mapping is another lean tool you can use for this function also. This tool is frequently used to help identify non-valued-added steps in the process (for both manufacturers and service organizations).
Excess raw materials, or finished goods. Inventory beyond that had a need to meet customer needs negatively impacts cash flow and uses valuable living area.
Scrap, rework, replacement production, and inspection. Production defects and service mistakes throw away resources in four ways. First, materials are used. Second, the labor used to create the part (or provide the service) the very first time cannot be recovered. Third, labor is required to rework the product (or redo the service). Fourth, labor must treat any forthcoming customer problems. Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the slim tools you can use to for reducing defects.
Unnecessary motion of folks or equipment that adds to value to product (service). That is brought on by poor workflow, poor design, housekeeping, and inconsistent or undocumented work methods. Value Stream Mapping is also used to recognize this kind of waste material. Tools like 5S, comfortable workspace design may be used to eliminate this waste materials.
Underutilization of mental, creative, and physical skills and skills of employees of the business. A number of the more common triggers for this waste include - organizational culture, limited hiring methods, poor or non-existent training, and high staff turnover.
Policy to lessen waste consists of several systems
It reduced enough time required to adjust the machines to produce a different product. A long time in the control of the device means the need to produce large levels of the same product and thus prevents us from minimizing the size of the order, which prevents us from inventory reduction and avoids us from the development procedure for withdrawing. Authorization must be reduced machine arranged time greatly.
That is how big is the order per batch per creation? If how big is each run command line (order) significant and therefore we will store a great deal of semi-finished materials, which do not need to do because you want to reduce inventory in general
A listing of the materials or parts that contain passed the original stage of development and did not go to the latter. Reduce inventory this is essential in the idea of the insurance policy of reducing loss because of its impact on the coverage of production problems and since it is a money trader.
it means that production on the basis of need for the next stage of creation and not on the basis of a specific production plan. The first creation engineering level not only produces and need authorization from the creation stage next and so forth before end of the development line. You can find stacked development between stages. That is also called Kanban cards or credit card.
It really is a work clubs of operators and technicians are studying and fixing quality problems and procedure and maintenance. These jewelry are necessary to analyze the issues and uprooted from their roots and also to involve all degrees of work in fixing problems. Quality control loops is a continuous development of methods Continuous Improvement, which is one of the basics of the Toyota system.
They maintenance system leads to increased availability of equipment and reduce breakdowns. This system is essential to be able to reduce inventory of semi-finished materials and the implementation of the insurance plan to withdraw development. Should be reduced dramatically immediate failure to implement these plans.
It is a method made to create similar products in one place to decrease the transport time and hold out in what's known as the cell creation Cells. This method helps to reduce copy times material in one destination to another and make each band of operators in charge of different stages of the development for the same product they have a kind of full responsibility for the merchandise.
And therefore the employee trained to do several jobs instead of one task. This method gives the versatility to change the functions of working when needed. Note that this system was created to reach the rate of reaction to customer requirements and thus there must be flexibility in occupation as well so that you can change the functions of Group based on the requirements of the marketplace. This technique has too much to do with technology group, where can one player that is running several machines.
Toyota system was created to reduce the parameters and produce smaller amounts of every product every day, so you don't have to produce large quantities of a product in one day. Reduce the change helps us not to maintain a large stock and makes the creation process is running well and regularity without significant changes.
it means of access to recycleables and production materials when you need them quickly. This procurement policy is required to reduce inventory and creation development and reduce flaws in products. To attain that there is lots of things are applied, such as reducing the number of suppliers and to cooperate with them and compel them specific things in the style of their work.
It means arrange and organize and clean workplace and work tools so that you get access to the various tools and information is accessible, fast and the website is an excellent location to work and safe at the same time. This method is named 5S relative to japan words which means that organize and organize and clean office.
There is a correlation between policies to reduce throw away and total quality management both works with the other. To reach to pull production policy needs to be to attain high levels of quality. Therefore, Toyota and Japanese companies have applied TQM or total quality control of the main has been applied is the technical checks parts produced by himself in the sense that the product is scanned during each level development by the operators themselves. It is the forces of the employees off the production line in case of a quality problem.
Improved performance signals such as:
reduce deficits to a great extent
high product quality (in terms of compliance with features) any low ratio of faulty products
Reduced time improvement (which is the time to meet production orders)
high inventory turnover rate
high flexibility to improve production in one product to another
lower the abrupt failure of equipment
low additional cost Overhead cost
increase production capacity
high accuracy and reliability to meet up with the supply orders promptly for supply
the quickness of reaction to changing market
improvement of financial indicators in the long run, like the profitability
Advanced morale of workers
The most significant improvement that is manufactured by way of a move from last inspections to successive bank checks to self investigations is in the reduced amount of the time gap between creation of the defect and its own detection. Number 1 show how this time gap shrinks as one progresses towards do it yourself inspection
In Figure 1, enough time lag includes all functions that happen to the part after the defect
Has been made and before the defect will be discovered (more defective parts can be made
During this time if the defect is due to a broken machine tool, incorrect machining method,
Or other issues that do not create simply one isolated defect).
In Number 2 enough time distance shrinks to the length of time prior to the operator of the next
Machine grips the part. In employment shop, this may be a significant quantity of time and if
Parts are produced in batches; often the entire batch may have the same defect. However,
In cellular creation this time around lag is small, because the queue is only one product.
In Body 3 the time lag has shrunk right down to the amount of time that the operator spends
On the given operation before he or she checks the part. Self-inspection produces presence of the condition after the first faulty part is manufactured (if it's detectable). Catching faulty parts avoids adding more value to parts that'll be scrapped or reworked later. Plainly this decrease in time lag can result in: quicker and easier diagnosis of what the problem is the fact that is creating the defect, decrease in wasted time in the form of value put into scrapped parts, and thrown away time spent assembling a component that should be disassembled and then reassembled. Overall, quicker reduction of defect leading to problems will cause a reduced amount of the number and cost of bad quality parts.
The lean processing focus on 20 key's I am going to present only key # 6 6 method improvement (Output)
Productivity is about how precisely well resources are employed. The other area of general consensus is the fact that productivity is about the relation between end result and input in virtually any process producing goods or services.
Productivity can be determined as output divided by input
P = O/I
Where P = Output, O = Productivity and I = Input
Output can be assessed in different way tones, Kilograms or even output thought as standard minutes or hours
Productivity basically has two components:
Utilization is about whether the resources available are actually used in producing the product or service. That is clearly a machine might be accessible but if no product is slated to be produced then it is not utilized, or if product is scheduled to be produced for only 85% of the available time then usage is 85% Efficiency. On the other hand, is about how precisely well the resources are being used while it has been utilized.
The formula for output is then:
Productivity = Efficiency X Utilization
This method can be broadened:
Productivity = Productivity / Available time, that is how much do we produce during the time that the resources were available
Efficiency = Outcome / Hours worked, that is how much do we produce at that time that the resources were actually functioning.
Utilization = Hours proved helpful / Time available, that is good for what percentage of time does we actually make use of the resources.
It is important to comprehend what issues typically impact on productivity as you can then look for the causes to why output is not at the particular level it should be.
If productivity is not at the target level it can be explained in terms of the two components of efficiency and utilization that it could be either an efficiency loss or none utilizes time. This is because of people, place or process related issues.
The following conclusion show typical examples of issues impaction on output.
Effort ( drive issues )
Quality of work
Plant / Process
Speed, idling, minor stoppages
Quality of product
Non - Applied time
Plant / process
Table 2 issues impaction on productivity
Productivity improvement cannot be achieved by only applying Kaizen procedure.
Figure 5 Production Improvement: An Integrated Approach
Productivity increase and excellent quality can be achieved at the same time.
Implementing kaizen of procedure requires the effective use of the CAPDo pattern. The CAPDo routine is a straightforward management system for ongoing improvement. One a aircraft for execution has been drawn up, the real training needs must be planned it is important to check on regularly whether training targets have been found, in case not, the explanation for this must be examined. Problem identified can then become activities for the next CAPDo circuit.
Figure 6 CAPDo Cycle
Company and every team from the map.
Benchmark the business using key 6 map
Check current production performance
Identify process for improvement.
The benchmark score.
Productivity performance to identify priority processes to spotlight.
Use the five - steps methodology for process improvement.
Put goals for all those process
Use the five steps strategy for process improvement.
Plan the improvement using 20 tips plan.
Implementing the plan
Regular reviews from goals on progress
Implement the program for achieving the mark.
Restart the routine through
Reviewing the results of the program on regular basis
Reviewing key improvement with the map at least every six months
Update skills matrix
Cycle of CAPDo improvement and celebrate success.
The main hypothesis of this paper is the fact where any implement LM it is much more likely to make positive on food production therefore i present lean principles can applied in meals production to increase the efficiency without minimizing the grade of meal prepared. All lean ideas and tools may not be equally relevant in food production, but it's important to consider this aspect when talking about the execution of slim in meal development. Glostrup Hospital is situated in the greater Copenhagen area in Denmark. The central Kitchen is situated inside a healthcare facility grounds in another building, and every day, foods for about 1000 patients are produced and sent out from the kitchen. In 2005, the hospital's management got the decision that all services should be Trim, and to slice the costs of meals production, the kitchen was forced to replace cook-serve with cook-chill creation and reduce the range of foodservice employees from 71 to 54. This caused a need to examine and boost the production steps to keep up both output variety and quality. The change of creation system to cook-chill also experienced a direct effect on the end-product quality as recipes and production strategies needed adjustments. Therefore, the organized analysis and improvement of product quality was presented with a high concern in your kitchen. The internal working environment in the kitchen was important to the supervisor as she insisted on preserving this as a higher priority after and during the rationalization process, and this increased efficiency of production functions was obtained by the search engine optimization of procedures and not by making the staff work faster. Because of these reservations, the execution of Lean was likely to lead to both increased efficiency of procedures and improved product quality while ensuring a nice working environment for the remaining employees. The implementation of Trim in the kitchen began soon after the change to cook-chill processing and before types of procedures became routine. Your kitchen produces most components of the foodstuffs themselves including breads, soups and refined vegetables. Previously with cook-serve development, there were separate development lines for hot meal components, vegetables, cooked products, desserts and wintry products for these meals, all items were prepared, processed and retained warm until service. First, when changing to cook-chill production, the separation of production according to food was looked after with processed food components being set up into meals, filled and stored for 3 days before final syndication to hospital wards. The product packaging was standardised in two, five or seven servings per pack, and the wards received the food portion sizes add up to or the closest amount above their actual purchases. This practice of standardizing product packaging was accepted by the management as a pragmatic practice of cook-chill production. The implementation of cook-chill production procedures needed a systematic evaluation of product quality. A graph on screen in the creation facility exhibiting the daily amount of remarks on food quality was chosen as an expression of client satisfaction with product quality. The number of complaints for each meal component, predicated on responses received from wards and patients, was totaled and every day designated on the chart. This process was chosen in an effort to ensure communication of customer product satisfaction to all employees. An interior quality control system originated to reflect the need for adjusting meals to improve meal quality after the change from make help to cook-chill production. It contains a three-color gradation of product acceptability where red identifies 'not satisfactory'; yellow, 'satisfactory'; and green, 'good'. The trials of product quality was performed internally in the kitchen, and the merchandise had to secure a yellow to go. This system originated to imagine the progress of changing existing methods to cook-chill creation. As a result of the implementation the hospital became aware some quick financial wins. Revenue increased 19%, eliminate wastes meals from 10% to 5% (Great britain al. 2009).
In 2008 modern bakeries company management took your choice that some production process should be low fat. The company made the decision implement 10 key's from 20 keys
Key1 cleaning & managing to make work easy.
Key 2 Rationalizing the system / goal Position.
Key 3 Small Group Activities.
Key 5 Quick Changeover Technology.
Key 6 Kaizen of procedure.
Key 9 Maintaining Machines & Equipment.
Key 10 Work environment Discipline.
Key 11 Quality Guarantee.
Key 15 Skill Versatility and cross Training.
Key 19 Conserving Energy and Materials.
Table 3 present the 20key, s evaluation before and after employing low fat on modern bakeries company through 2 years.
Base Lines Level 2008
Table 3: 20 key's evaluation
Eliminate wastes from 3% to 1 1. 8%.
Increase production from 16KG Man / Hour to 18. 5 Kg Man /Hour.
There is some problems face the food creation companies to putting into action lean making, generally the following.
Lack of the clear eyesight of the future
Lack of perseverance and follow.
Lack of persistent and obstacle in control.
Failure to web page link the operations in key 6 kaizen procedure with normal work.
Failure to understand that lean is a practicable technique to help achieve competitive advantage.
Lack of constant awareness by management.
Failure of management to take a whole systems view of business and to see the connections between all procedures.
Persistent focus only on challenging results with out a balance focus enhancing the operations that achieve the results.
III- Research Methodology
3. 1 Research Objectives
The main aim of the analysis is to provide the main idea of the Lean developing system, and the benefit of applying it in the field of food creation, and identifying the kinds of wastes in development process, and the effect of the Trim making on food creation and presenting some examples of successful companies that put in place the Lean creation.
3. 2 Conceptual Framework
3. 3 Research Question and Hypotheses
Why and exactly how companies should use lean creation in food creation?
When organizations execute lean developing, it is more likely to make positive on food development?
Cost reduction, waste material rate, income gains
Return on investment, revenue in company.
IV Finish and Recommendation
Through the study found that there's a potential for the application of lean creation system in food development and that discussed by enjoying experience medical center central kitchen in Denmark and experience modern bakeries company in Egypt, where the application of low fat manufacturing system to get increased efficiency, quality, and output through the application of tools for lean manufacturing.
. Simple to implementing lean processing in big company that contain systems for examples ISO9001, 2200, HACCP
Easy to employing lean developing in small company but concentrate only three or four 4 concepts in the first stage.
4. 2 Recommendation
To get the benefits out of this program (low fat making), there are numerous lessons from the previous companies' experience. And according to my research targets. Which I achieved everything, and answered the study question. I finally present this experience to be a guide for food development companies in Egypt to achieve a good result (profit, efficiency, efficiency, and quality) through use this system.