Posted at 10.07.2018
A efficient transportation network is the backbone of a healthy overall economy. As SriLankans the majority of our efficiency is lost due to the inefficient and congested road network. One of the recent enhancements for traffic management also to lessen congestion in colombo city and its suburbs has been the launch of flyovers at important intersections of the main road corridors. The main function of an flyover is the separation of conflicting traffic activities thereby minimizing issues by using the vertical space. Therefore, the assumption is to cause less impact to the adjacent properties and the prevailing infrastructure. However, this depends upon the kind of flyover and the traffic pattern at the junction.
2. The efficiency of the just lately introduced flyovers in the suburbs of metropolis of colombo can be approved by comparing before and after conditions of important traffic executive parameters. It is also important to analyze the congestion level at the intersection and its significance in comparison to the entire street system. Simply the speed and the system capacity can be compared as main factors to check this at a particular location. Moreover, the benefits and cost of a flyover against other sensible and alternatives to obtain a similar effect should be taken in to concern and evaluated. In this particular research has attempted to compare the monetary benefits of introducing flyovers against other short term and long term alternatives. The possible alternatives available both from traffic and transfer aspects are also extensively discussed in my own research.
3. The to begin the group of large level flyovers released to Sri Lanka lately can be found across main railway lines in and around colombo. The first of these was a concrete cantilever type flyover in Ragama. This is produced in 1996 to avoid the delay induced by the railway gate closures at the key line. Another flyover was completed along the baseline Street area.
Dematagoda which was also across the key railway lines in yr 2000 to avoid the stagnation of vehicles on the bottom line road. This was a 6 street viaduct (culvert) type concrete structure. The 3rd flyover, which really is a steel structure, was designed in 2008 at Kelaniya within an archive period of just 66 days and nights; this was also to steer clear of the delay from the primary railway line over the colombo-Kandy Road. The primary purpose for the construction of most these flyovers was to lessen delays induced to vehicle traffic due to the closures of rail gates and reduced amount of accidents.
4. The latest flyover was made at Nugegoda junction in '09 2009. This is actually the first flyover at a street intersection, constructed in order to lessen intersection delays in Nugegoda. This too is a metal structure.
5. From the above details we could basically split flyovers in SriLanka directly into two main categories,
a. Those across railway lines (railway overpasses) and
b. those across street intersections resulting in level separations.
6. The evaluations of key performance factors such as rate, safety, and economical cost with or minus the flyover can be analyzed for both categories. Also, the financial viability of every category could be approved by comparing the price and the benefits associated with the design life of each flyover. Collection of the sort of flyover and its own design are also of interest. In this respect, the contrast between cost, life time, probability of land use, space usage as well as the visible and function influences on the region would be looked at to be relevant decision making guidelines for the selection of the kind of flyover.
The goal of this research is to identify and analyze the problems related the building of flyovers at the traffic jammed areas in colombo area, How exactly to improve & confirms the accomplishments and disadvantages being available in the flyovers.
2. The growth of population, market and because of this of the prevailing financial policy, the number of motor carry is increasing daily however the road network has not developed in that manner to cater for the increasing requirement creating a great effect on the growth of our own economy. Similarly the inefficiency of open public passenger travelling combines together with this, as it's the setting of travel employed by the general public for day to day activities.
3. Furthermore Improvements to Community Travel can reduce traffic congestion by attracting car and other motorized users to bus and train travel hence can donate to the market in long term by reduce gasoline consumption, successful use of road and vehicle fleet, reduced accidents, etc. Increasing of private mechanized vehicles by widening and increasing more capacity to it'll create further problems to the traffic environment in future. Hence, the matter of more tax and quota system to reduce vehicle ownership will help to reduce the vehicle development rate. But at the same time administration should improve consumer vehicles to satisfactorily for the convenience of all users.
4. Alternatively very costly infrastructure will negatively impact to the current economic climate of a country as they lose the power for expenses to other important needs at the same time hence the inflation rate would be unbearable if they are already have monetary crisis. Therefore, treatment of local financing to huge infrastructure which will produce marginal benefits is a waste materials for a nation. However, the flyovers also can be constructed using reinforced concrete structures too at less expensive than steel composition presented at positioned in Colombo these days.
5. It really is hypothesized that development of flyovers at the traffic jammed areas as this is the best treatment for the problem, in this context there is no such requirement for add more kilometers to our highway network.
6. This research paper examines the lapses in the road network, one of the very most recent traffic management methods, Advancements to Public Transportation can reduce traffic congestion and open public passenger transportation at the moment, on its maintenance and lifetime, and exactly how it influences the economy of the country and the ways available to overcome the problem effectively.
7. The info for the study is gathered both from main and secondary options.
The Primary data has been gathered from 40 samples in colombo region.
The data required for the research gathered from the secondary options with relevant Literature, RDA/UDA Specialized personals and the Internet utilized.
8. My Restriction is
Primary data was accumulated mainly from questionnaires, the assumption is in the information is 100% correct.
Forty consumer of flyover were determined for the analysis. This also is a limitation in the generalization of the effect.
9. This research newspaper is structured the following.
a. Section 1 This is the introductory area of the research paper and it contains general record of the picked topic.
b. Chapter 2 Methodology
Statement of the problem
The research hypothesis
Scope of the research
Method of data collection
Limitation of the research
The framework of the thesis
c. Section 3. This section studies current situation of flyovers srilanka.
Analysis the existing situation of flyovers in srilanka
Global experiences with flyovers
Flyovers at Highway Intersection
New flyovers planned but lack proper pedestrian walkways.
Transportable Roadwork Traffic Transmission System
d. Chapter 4. This part provides a Major issues and issues uplifting existing road network.
f. Section 5. This part offers a descriptive analysis of data obtained through questionnaire.
g. Chapter 6. This part protects the conclusion inclusive with set of recommendations.
1. Flyovers have been assumed to be an ultimate solution for traffic congestion in the congested towns of producing countries. Large numbers of flyovers has been built inside our country in previous couple of years. However, the real performance of such flyovers is debatable when considering the entire impact to other carry functions such as pedestrian facilities, visible aesthetics and business advancements in the locality. There's a strong public conception that flyovers have resolved or will solve traffic problems in urban centers. Therefore, there is no apparent level of resistance from the public, advertising, politicians and administrators when flyovers are created. The sole resistance comes from the few that are adversely damaged, for example, owners/tenants of business establishments, residents and civil establishments. In response they are generally criticized for not being socially conscientious and to be anti-development since they usually cannot justify their own reasons from a professional point of view and there is absolutely no support to them even if thousands may even suffer from the adverse effects of such developments. The position that the interests and convenience of society at large over the hassle or losses to some are often dismissed in many countries. There is apparently no counter-top to such quarrels since there is definitely some reasoning and fact to it.
2. They have in fact been proven that the capability of a flyover mainly occurs only during the non-peak time of traffic flow. For example, during non-peak time well-designed at-grade intersections like those in all present flyovers are doing fine as it is only in peak hours that flyovers have hook advantage. The convenience is also believed only in 2 guidelines of traffic stream out of the possible 12 guidelines at an intersection. These myths have had a great affect on the public's brain that flyovers indeed solve
all traffic problems at intersections. Only in-depth research and executive computations can counter this affect. For example, our country and in growing countries are evaluating possibilities of launching toll systems to recuperate the huge cost of these flyovers. However there are troubles in applying such methods because of the insufficient space for toll booths and also the difficulty of imposing this to the users who just have marginal benefits from a single facility within the overall highway infrastructure.
3. The knowledge of our country and in expanding countries is that flyovers never have given the expected benefits for expanding cities. Moreover this has been considered as a hazard to the urban architecture as well as the availability within the city. Common grievances regarding flyovers are the negligence of open public transfer, transit facilities, and pedestrian facilities.
4. In the colombo suburban area there are four flyovers of recent origins. The three (04) railway flyovers namely at Dematagoda, Ragama, Dehiwala and the just lately made at Pattiya Junction in Kiribathgoda are one of them study Amount 01. The Nugegoda flyover is at a highway intersection. This too is included to be reviewed separately.
Figure 01: Locations of Flyovers in Srilanka
5. The data for the study is gathered both from major and secondary options.
The Key data has been gathered from 40 examples in colombo area.
The data necessary for the research accumulated from the supplementary options with relevant Literature, RDA/UDA Specialized staff and the web utilized.
6. The research is carried out under two categories namely flyover performance at highway intersection and flyover across the railway lines.
7. The travel time data of all turnings like the through traffic on the flyover at Nugegoda intersection were used to compute the common (daily average) quickness and delay at each way of road links (Body 02).
Figure 02: Travel Time Study at Nugegoda Intersection with Flyover
8. The common two way traffic movement rate on each 100 meters section of all four road techniques (up to 2km) of the Nugegoda flyover. The common speed of highway links apart from on the flyover includes the signal hold off too.
9. It had been noticed from the above analysis that flyovers at railway crossings give higher benefits in comparison with that of highway intersections. The comparison of basic ideals indicates that concrete flyovers are much better than that of metal structures. That is evident when the life time and the maintenance of the two types of flyovers are likened. Even though the economic research was done for twenty years, the concrete buildings can last for more than 50 years without many vehicle repairs on it. Therefore the benefits associated with concrete buildings are much more than those suggested in this evaluation.
10. The flyover at Nugegoda intersection suitable for 20 years. According to the travel time study data, this flyover implies the lowest savings. It also gets the highest per street kilometres cost. However, the signalization with improvements to plan links of the intersection as an alternative to the flyover shows very well.
11. It was discovered that the flyover or signalization by itself does not solve the traffic congestion at an intersection but so it also needs capacity advancements of methodology links for an improvement at that intersection. It can be observed that almost all of the intersection strategies are often blocked by parked vehicles and other activities such as uncontrolled pedestrian actions and non permanent businesses on the walkways. Therefore it is often seen that the existing street infrastructures in cities are not properly utilized. The capability of street links and the intersection can be improved by improved traffic management strategies.
12. It offers come into the notice of the Srilanka that in order to improve the transportation system the Srilanka administration has planned a great deal of routines. Integrated multimodal transfer system, will play a visible part in offering an efficient public transportation service and ideally will certainly reduce private vehicles.
13. All in all, the main target is on the development of more streets and more effective mass transport. Though, there is no emphasis on the normal man- the pedestrian- and his requirement of safe problem free motion space.
14. There is absolutely no doubt in my own brain that with steady upsurge in the numbers of automobiles and footpaths, pedestrian space in the colombo city is becoming progressively more marginalized. In other word, the footpath was meant to be a place for the normal man to walk upon and did not belong to the owner of plots adjoining the access road.
15. Theoretically speaking, highways have been widened in Srilanka and flyovers have been built-in all the major places of the country without offering safe and convenient facilities for pedestrian to cross over. The requirement for satisfactory pedestrian space can be an absolute must especially in places where large number of men and women gets collectively such just as neighborhood markets and shopping centers specially Dehiwala.
16. Alas, here also, the concentrate appears to be on providing for the motion of vehicles and the auto parking of cars. Buyers dodge their way around moving vehicles, three-wheelers, motorcycles and damages are recurrent and common. Despite this traders have continuing to resist the pedestrianisation of shopping roads fearing loss of business.
Low-cost traffic signal system for one-way alternating traffic.
Easy to regulate, clearly organized at a glance.
Universal in use with power cable, Telephone cable and others.
All signal heads uniformity and simple.
Automatic set time mode
Automatic renewable time extension
Automatic renewable on demand
All-red in cable tv and radio mode
Manual operation out of every signal brain possible in cable and radio mode
17. Recent traffic matters have shown that we now have more than 30, 000 vehicles using the roundabout daily at colombo area. The straight-through activity between your east and west sides off of the South Ring Street was the highest recorded traffic motion at the roundabout and represents approximately 40% of the full total traffic using the roundabout. There was an urgent need for grade parting.
18. Effective traffic management throughout the duration of the project was essential as the same volume of vehicles used the roundabout during engineering as they do before development. From public thoughts and opinions, traffic management was put in place effectively and major delays were exceptional.
1. Congestion can be reduced by either increasing road capacity (supply), or by minimizing traffic (demand). Capacity can be increased in a number of ways, but needs to take bill of hidden needs otherwise it might be used more strongly than anticipated. Critics of the procedure of adding capacity have likened it to inducing demand that didn't exist before. Reducing road capacity has in turn been attacked as getting rid of free choice as well as increasing travel costs and times.
Adding more capacity at bottlenecks (such as by adding more lanes at the expense of auto parking/harden type shoulders or safety areas, or by detatching local obstructions like bridge works with and widening tunnels)
Adding more capacity over the whole of a route (generally with the addition of more lanes)
Creating new routes
Traffic management improvements
Vehicle auto parking or non auto parking restrictions.
Vehicle area or no car parking (Ride) facilities allowing car parking far away and allowing continuation by private and commercial transfer or selected street.
Reduction of road capacity to power traffic onto different ways and modes.
Road going into fees (Southern highway) charging money for access onto a highway/specific area at certain times, congestion levels or for several motorists.
Road reserve area, where regulatory limitations prevent certain types of vehicles from traveling under certain circumstances or in certain areas.
Rule/Policy approaches, which usually try to provide either strategic alternatives or which encourage higher usage of existing alternatives through campaign, subsidies or restrictions.
2. Global setting system (GPS) devices are being used to determine global locations details, which are measured and recorded as Longitude (E), Latitude (S), and Elevation/Altitude (meters above sea level). In any case before commencement of an GPS review must be required checklist.
Traffic monitoring, via radio, Gps navigation or perhaps mobile type cell phones, to advise road users.
Fluctuate type meaning installed along the roadway, to recommend motorists.
Navigation or clear discovering system possibly connected up to programmed traffic reporting.
Traffic monitoring / analyzing forever installed, to provide real-time traffic matters.
Road traffic monitoring/Research, to provide information on highway.
Computerized highway system, a future idea that could reduce the safe interval between vehicles (necessary for braking in emergencies) and increase highway capacity by as much as 100% while increasing travel speeds.
Parking area and advice with information systems providing strong advice to motorists about free parking.
Active vehicle managing (Critical situation) system hard area (Auto parking, bus halt) as a supplementary traffic lane, it uses CCTV and keep an eye on the traffic's use of the excess lane.
3. Other associated are,
School time (Start/End) organized to avoid occupied time traffic.
Driving behavior campaign and enforcement in addition driving practices, consistent lane such as security or college hrs etc changes can reduce a road's capacity and exacerbate jams.
Visual/Sound barriers such as horn CGR gate bell calling etc; to prevent drivers from slowing down out of attention.
Condition of swiftness reductions, showing rate limit, humps etc with lower rates of speed allowing cars to operate a vehicle closer mutually, this escalates the capacity of your road.
4. Furthermore where space-efficient vehicles, usually bike, three-wheels and automobiles trip or drive in the allocated space between vehicles, buses, and trucks specially look hrs. This is however illegal in many countries as it is regarded as a security risk.
Acceptable and accepted - only rail borne methods can in practice get people out of vehicles.
Smooth - no violent actions vertically, laterally, or backwards/forwards.
Re-assuring - tram lines (New proposal 12 months 2009 however, not been successful) give confidence that service operates.
Safe - often safer than vehicle travel.
Speedy - brief quest times can be achieve.
Compatible with pedestrians in pedestrianised areas.
Clean and renewable - enhances the environment - no emissions at road level.
Avoids traffic congestion - through segregation and priority.
5. Highways including highways with class parting generally allow traffic to go easily, with fewer interruptions, with higher overall speeds; this is why speed limits are typically higher for grade-separated roads. In addition, less turmoil between traffic actions reduces the capacity for accidents. Motorways, though having higher average rates of speed, usually have lower car accident rates per distance journeyed than roads which are not grade segregated.
6. However, grade-separated junctions are incredibly space-intensive, complicated, and costly, because of the dependence on large physical set ups such as tunnels, ramps, and bridges. Their elevation can be obtrusive, which, combined with large traffic quantities that grade-separated highways attract, can make them unpopular to near by landowners and residents. New grade-separated street plans can acquire significant opposition from local categories therefore.
7. Rail-over-rail grade separations take up less space than highway class separations, because shoulders are not needed, there are usually fewer branches and area road connections to support (just because a partial grade parting will complete more improvement than for a street), and because at-grade railway relationships often take up significant space independently. However, they require significant engineering work, and are incredibly expensive and time-consuming to construct.
8. Rail-over-road quality separations require very little additional space because no links you need to built, but require significant executive effort and are costly and time-consuming to construct above.
9. Many closures from 1990 to 2010 took place, and many people thought that it was the start of the Colombo, Galle, Kandy vehicles, however the situation transformed after 1990. Large numbers of automobiles began creating air pollution and smog. High rising of petrol & diesel in international market also thought individuals who petrol running automobile is much worse than electricity motivated road rail.
10. Under this topic highway infrastructure can be improve under this conditions,
Grade or type separation, using bridges (or, less often, tunnels) freeing movements from having to stop for other crossing activities.
congested motorway-type roadway.
(1) Providing through lanes that bypass junction on-ramp and off-ramp areas (Except highway gain access to)
(2) A grade access road, streets that limit the type and amounts of way along their measures.
11. Considering the day today, certain parts of highway operate in the contrary direction on differing times of your day or times of the week.
12. Individual lanes for specific individual groups,
Public bus ways,
Pedestrians (High occupancy vehicle lane)
13. Urban planning and city planning (UDA/NHDA planning) methods can have a huge impact on levels of future traffic congestion, though they may be of limited relevance for short-term change.
Grid type plan (Interconnect system) including highway network geometry, alternatively than tree-like system which reduce local traffic, but increase total ranges influenced and discourage walking by lowering connectivity.
Zoning laws that encourage development under mixed type, which reduces ranges between domestic, commercial, and recreational locations (and encourage bicycling and walking)
The development is home and commercial areas made to maximize access to public transportation.
14. A well-developed transport system takes on a great role for just about any country of the world to develop and it remains so for our country also. The country has developed up to a certain amount throughout the time but the travelling hasn't, to cater for the increasing demand. On our voyage for development this must be the principal area to be looked at. It isn't only a responsibility of the federal government but also will depend on the attitude of individuals. The government also offers the responsibility to set a genuine work for this other than going limited to political achievements and in so doing should give concern for the development of the area.
15. ONCE I made the interview RDA and UDA know-how they are simply said that "we've done studies and given most economical and the feasible methods to develop this area but we have no idea how it will be done credited to non option of money and facilities"
16. These economic analysis is completed considering only the volume of transport cost savings predicated on a travel time survey at each flyover location. A thorough study might have been carried out to test the situation more effectively if the respected data sources had been available.
17. However, this is an excellent strategy for removing the delay at railway crossings as a permanent consideration. Also the concrete flyovers across railways are more economical than the material bridges constructed in a very short time.
1. My Research was done in the region of Nugegoda, one of the closest cities to the Colombo city. Questionnaire was prepared and allocated among all age groups. The sample size is 40 employees and all responded with their identity.
2. My 2nd observation was made to discover how many people (from 40 employees sample) are using flyovers and how often they utilize it. According to Figure 02 it's been noticed that more than 65% people are using flyovers daily plus they feel the difference between your previous and the existing situation of that time period saving.
3. My 3rd observation was made to determine who are the majority by using this flyovers. It's been observed that there is more than 60% staff will be the users of general public transports. Pursuing details in Shape 03 were used based on the observations made.
4. My next observation shows in number 04 and Physique 5, Average portion time per a quest Vs person. Corresponding to chart it says that the genuine time period is very less looking at before situation. Matching to analyze 90% time saved. Because of this polluting of the environment, Diesel/petrol consumption, Police man electricity, Vehicle wastage etc minimize proportionally.
Finally, during the research, my hypothesis was demonstrated, because the majority stated that structure of flyovers where the traffic jammed areas will be the best remedy for the issue.
1. In order to minimize the town traffic congestion, the regulators have only couple of options. The impressive solutions practice far away the following. .
a. Controlling traffic using methodical light system,
b. Directing traffic through one way of the full carriageway.
c. Controlling traffic with the aid of authorized staff (authorities men) d. Construction of flyovers.
In Sri Lanka the respected authorities has created six flyovers at highly congested areas in Colombo suburbs. These locations were decided on corresponding the statistical studies carried out by professionals in this field. However, it is inescapable that this work has not been successful in few locations as predicted. Hence, during this research, I developed an argument to justify that the development of flyovers will be the best remedy for this issue by acquiring the opinion from the general public as my aim for group. This is the focus on group for early on surveys completed by the RDA in conjunction with College or university of Moratuwa to justify the engineering of flyovers in Colombo suburbs as well.
2. A well developed transportation system takes on a great role for just about any country of the world. The country has developed up to certain scope throughout enough time but the travelling hasn't sufficient to cater for the increasing demand of Road network. The construction of many flyovers inside our most needed area, responsibility of the government but also is determined by the frame of mind of the individuals especially all motorists and pedestrians. The also should give their fullest support to the current rules and regulations.
3. During the research, my hypothesis was proven, because the majority stated that engineering of flyovers where in fact the traffic jammed areas are the best cure for the problem.
4. After carrying out a survey and inspecting the data, the following are the details of identified benefits and summarized as follows.
Avoids traffic congestion - through segregation and priority
Speedy - shortens journey times
Smooth - no violent moves vertically, laterally, or backwards/forwards
Compatible with pedestrians in presenting pedestrianised areas
Reduces the capability for accidents
5. Furthermore in this study and analyzing the info, the few limitation and barriers discovered the following;
Complicated, and costly, due to the need for large physical set ups as well as for maintenance
Their height can be obtrusive.
c. Need a significant anatomist and time-consuming to construct.
6. It has come into the notice of the metropolitan planers that to be able to improve the transportation system a multi modal strategy should be made. Overall, the main concentration is on the introduction of more highways and more effective mass transportation. Goal should get to the commuter and his requirement of a safe problem free activity space.
7. Finally, according to collected key/secondary data. Pursuing actions can be studied to reducing traffic jammed. Without any delay some facts are presently available and not to standard.
Banning of most On-Street Parking for Vehicles in City Limits
Traffic Sign Lights
Introduction of Alternative Streets to Main Roads
Widening of roads
Restriction of Slow Moving Traffic and Heavy Vehicles During Rush Hours
Separating Pedestrians from Working Traffic Flow
Proper maintenance of streets- specially culvert and rainy period road situation required quickly fixing system
Creating driving discipline - presently available new driving a vehicle licence card going into system
Implementation of New Highways Connecting Main Metropolitan areas in the Country
Electronic Traffic Monitoring Systems for Main Metropolitan areas - specially genuine road jammed people rules violated folks capturing part
Discouraging Individual Vehicles Entering Locations (Peak hours box, tractor etc)
Bus Stands (Required up lift and move to main highway)
Construction Work (Required put together worked drive (RDA/UDA/CEB/NWS&DB)
8. During the last decades the country has developed immensely; therefore the choice methods to control traffic congestion are highly essential due to increasing of the vehicles. The government also has the responsibility to put a genuine effort because of this other than heading only for political accomplishments however much difficult it is, the value should be identified and in that way should give top priority for the development of this area. A couple of enough methods and intellectual ideas, that can be utilized to achieve this. Constructing flyovers for some intersections where the traffics are happened during the maximum hours is the best answer for this. But unfortunately this can be an area considered least during the last decades. However, amount of flyovers has been constructed during last few years and commuters are getting benefits instead of wasting time in traffic congestions. Not merely does it help reduce the time wastage but also really helps to increase the production of private and general public areas and the economy of Sri Lanka.
9. It could be figured the flyovers are good solution for traffic congestion for an intersection unless the capability of the way links are upgraded through traffic management actions. This is accepted as an efficient solution for traffic congestion in suburban areas where all links are of similar importance. However, this is a good strategy for removing the wait at railway crossings.
10. The continuation of the existing trend of making flyovers will preserve future planning and coming up with of built in networked traffic management strategies, in doing so contributing to the economy by saving billions of Rupees to the country as well.