Posted at 12.01.2018
Compare and Comparison the Five Perspective on Personality Indicating the Advantages and Weakness of every Approach
"We know very well what we are but not what we may be. " Ophelia in Hamlet
According to Guralnik (1987), personality is thought as the product quality or fact to be a person or a person. Guralnik also defines personality as distinctive individual qualities of your person, considered collectively. Personality is an account that is hard to place one explanation. Individuals each have their own description. Instead of agreeing on one specific meaning, psychologist get excited about an ongoing and perhaps never ending conversation of how to depict individuals personality and what matters belong in this particular sub field of mindset (Mayer, 2005; McAdams & Pals, 2006). Five distinct theories emerge from the various perspectives of significant psychologist. Each way seem to effectively determine and look at an important feature of individuals personality. Biological theorists thinks that personality is genetic. Behaviorists choose the theory that personality is an easy result of the influence of the individual's environment. Third, the psychodynamic theory journeys in to the unconscious head and childhood to describe personality. Humanist use free will as their affirmation of personality. Finally, the trait theory proposes that the development of personality comes from many different qualities.
Psychologists have projected various ideas of personality to try explaining similarities and offer reasons for distinctions in personalities. The following solutions - psychodynamic, biological, humanistic, behavioristic and trait theories of personality will be outlined in this article, highlighting both strengths and weaknesses for each theory. Sigmund Freud was the primary proponent of psychodynamic theory but neo-Freudians such as Jung, Adler, Erikson and Horney are also major contributors. Freud thought that every personality comes with an unconscious element and that childhood encounters, even if not consciously recollected, continue to influence people's manners. The theory says a personality has three parts - the identification, the ego, and the superego which provide to modify instinctual energies and varieties our personalities.
The strong unconscious is filled by anxiety-provoking drives ideas which were exiled from conscious awareness by subconscious defense mechanisms such as repression. Defense mechanisms are the domain name of the Ego, the part of personality preoccupied with mediating between external reality and the internal certainty. They function to avoid the experience of intense mindful anxiety the effect of a conflict between foundation drives and the moral facet of the psyche, the Superego. Freud suggested that personality is created through the first six many years of life known as the Psychosexual phases of Development. The maturing child supposedly encounters lots of discrete and biologically-motivated psychosexual stages, where their essential erotic energies (the sex drive) become endowed specifically parts of the body. So, the Identification controlled oral stage, where sensual pleasure comes from via the oral cavity, offers way to the anal level and the labor and birth of the Ego. That is followed by the phallic stage, where the Oedipus complex (children desire to be the partner of the opposite-sex parent or guardian) occurs. Image resolution of this complex ends in shaping of the superego. Unlike some other theories, the psychodynamic strategy is a downright theory and can make clear behaviour quite easily. One strength of the psychodynamic methodology is that they centered on the effects that childhood encounters have on the developing personality. This is a durability because Freud was the first psychologist to realize the importance of childhood. In addition, it resulted in other psychologists including Piaget expanding theories on childhood. An instance of this is the tiny Hans research study. Hans had a concern with castration which resulted in him creating a phobia of horses. One weakness of the psychodynamic procedure is that it's unfalsifiable. That is a weakness because the suppositions can't be scientifically measured or proved incorrect. An example of this is actually the idea of your brain being put into three parts. Additionally it is deterministic because it suggests that behavior is pre-determined and people do not have free will. An example of this is the psychosexual stages. Freud also placed an over-emphasis on intimate drive and us with an exceptionally pessimistic prospect on personality as it discount rates the idea of free will.
Hans Eysenck was an early on proponent of the biological method of personality. He reasoned that personality can be divided along three major proportions. He called these extraversion-introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. Eysenck debated that variations in personality are essentially based in inherited biological distinctions. One power of the biological conceptualization is that it's very scientific. This is a durability because the tests used are measurable, objective and can be repeated to check for trustworthiness. Also, the researcher has more control over the factors which is visible in Selye's review of rats which led to him developing the idea of General Adaptation Syndrome. It is also deterministic. This is a strength because it increases the odds of having the ability to treat people with abnormal behaviour and provides statements about the causes of behavior. This apprehension can then be used to boost people's lives. One weakness of the natural approach is that it concentrates too much on the 'mother nature' side of the nature/nurture debate. They debates that behavior is brought on by human hormones, neurotransmitters and genetics. One theory is the fact that schizophrenia is hereditary, however, twin studies show that it is not entirely genetic and the surroundings has a component to play. It is also nomothetic. That is a weakness because it creates theories about disorders and generalizes them to utilize to everyone. It does not look at the view that humans are unique. A good example of this is the fact General Adaptation Symptoms presumes that everyone responds just as to stress but will not remember that some people have significantly more support than others. The humanistic motion was led by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers and concentrates mostly on an individual's potential in conditions of development and satisfaction. Humanists have an optimistic view on real human nature. They give attention to the ability of human beings to believe consciously and rationally and attain their full potential. Within the humanistic view, people are in charge of their own lives and activities, there is also the freedom and can to improve their behaviour and behaviour. Maslow assumed a man has a hierarchy of must fulfill before learning to be a self-actualized individual. Following the basic needs such as food and shelter are achieved, humans seek safety and security and then seek love and acceptance. Only after all these things are through with can a person gratify their potential or achieve "self-actualisation". Rogers decided with most of what Maslow thought in terms of trying towards self-actualisation but through the self-concept or one's thoughts and opinions of oneself. Roger's methodology is named person-centered. He assumed that for a person to "grow", they want an environment that delivers them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), unconditional positive respect (acceptance, esteem, love), and empathy (being paid attention to and grasped). Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not evolve as they should. Another basic idea to Roger's theory is the do it yourself or self principle, i. e. what comes up oneself is the self-concept and how others see some may be the actual home. The humanistic methodology is enormously popular from a phenomenological view point: it is about a person living their life with interpretation and authenticity. It also has the potential to enrich people's lives by understanding and appreciating their own do it yourself.
Like every theory, some people find the humanistic method of be valid while others see it for the many inherent defects. The humanistic perspective does recognize individuals experience, but essentially at the trouble to be non-scientific in its methods and potential to provide information. A number of the strengths of this theory include the focus on both the positive characteristics of humankind and the free will associated with change. Unlike Freud's theory and the natural approach, which concentrate on determinism or our insufficient power over ourselves, Maslow yet others see the individual as very powerful. With the good, always comes the bad, which theory is no different. The largest criticism of humanistic thought seems to center around it's lack of concrete treatment strategies aimed at specific issues. With the basic concept behind the theory being free will, it is difficult to both develop a treatment strategy and study the effectiveness of this system. Critics also contend that the humanistic approach's focus on self-fulfillment may lead some individuals to become self-indulgent therefore assimilated with themselves that they develop a lack of matter for others. Even the concept of self-actualization poses challenges.
Behaviorism was unveiled by John B. Watson in the 1920s. It restricts psychology to the study of observable behaviors. To explain the development and maintenance of conducts, behaviorist used traditional fitness and operant conditioning. Personality is referred to as the outcome of one's history of conditioning. One strength of the behaviourist procedure is that it has successfully applied traditional and operant conditioning to its ideas. Systematic desensitization is dependant on classical fitness and is useful for treating phobias. Another power is that it uses clinical ways of research. That is a strength because the tests are objective, measurable and observable. An example of this is Bandura's bobo doll analysis of hostility. One weakness of the behaviourist approach is the fact that it focuses too much on the 'nurture' area of the nature/nurture debate. It shows that all behavior is learned but cognitive and biological elements have been proven to affect behaviour. A good example of this is the assumption that individuals learn behaviour by watching others getting compensated for certain actions. Another weakness is the ethical issues raised by using pets or animals in experiments. This is because animals can not consent to participate and are unable to withdraw. An example of a behaviourist pet analysis is Pavlov's puppies which resulted in classical conditioning concepts being developed.
The trait theory methodology is one of the major areas within personality mindset. According to the theory, personality comprises of a number of broad qualities. A trait is basically a relatively stable characteristic that causes an individual to behave in certain ways. Among the better known trait ideas include Eysenck's three-dimension theory and the five factor theory of personality.
The trait point of view or 5 Factor theory of personality includes broad, enduring dispositions that can be assessed. Regarding trait assessment, it is possible that people can fake appealing responses on self-report options of personality. Research does show however that averaging action across several situations seems to indicate that individuals do have unique personality attributes.
Genetic studies have reinforced the claim that genetic predispositions impact most personality types and that lots of qualities are biologically rooted. The empirical character of the work by Allport, Murray and other early on trait psychologists models them in addition to the founders of all personality theories. Instead of relying on intuition and subjective wisdom as does Freud and many of the neo-Freudians, these trait theorists used objective steps to look at their constructs. Cattell specifically allowed the data to look for the theory which was then at the mercy of further empirical validation. This process reduces some of the biases and subjectivity that plague other solutions. Like any other important theoretical perspective, the trait way has generated a large amount of research. Weakness of this approach concerns having less an agreed-upon platform. Although all characteristic theorists use empirical methods and are concerned with the identification of traits, no theory or underlying structure ties all of the theories together. We can see the dilemma this created by asking just how many basic qualities there are. Murray reduced personality to 27 psychogenic needs. Cattell found 16 basic components of personality. Lacking any agreed-upon construction, it is difficult to gain a cohesive overview of the approach or to see how research on one aspect of personality traits matches with research in the areas.
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