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Five major factors in organizational behavior


Our research newspaper focuses on five major factors in organizational patterns while analyzing and studying the habit of Executive Adnan Saffarini's office. The first point talked about is culture; where we mainly centered on corporate and business culture, culture creation, employees' popularity of the organization's culture, the effects of culture on employees, types of culture, recruitment of employees, change in culture, and cross cultural move. Second aspect talked about is determination; where we focused on the definition of inspiration, individual's needs and goals, theories of determination, how managers can motivate their employees, and desire and the pay back system. Third, we reviewed variety; which we focused on workplace diversity, advantages of diversity at work, challenges of variety at work, and some controlling variety tools. Forth point mentioned is groups, groups, and interpersonal issue; where we talked about group's type, group's goal/ goals, group's phases of development, group's characteristics, group maintenance roles, team's types, team's goals, team's development, team's characteristic and a short examination intergroup discord. Fifth aspect in organizational culture talked about was leadership; in which we mainly focused on what's transformational leadership, components of transformational control, transformational control vs. transactional leadership, what exactly are the characteristics of the innovator of change, where transformational control and authenticity meet, and transformational management behaviors.


An Overview of Culture:

Culture is one of those conditions that are difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. Organizational culture is the personality of the business. Culture is comprised of the assumptions, beliefs, norms and tangible signs of organization people or employees in the organization and the way they behave. Members of an organization soon come to sense this culture of a business. For example, the culture of a big, profit oriented corporation is quite different than that of a clinic and in that sense is quite unique of that of a college or university. Another way to comprehend is by realizing the agreement of furniture, what they brag about, and what people wear; it's very much related from what you may use to obtain a feeling about some people personality. Furthermore, whenever we wanted to analyze EAS we looked through these factors to get to the perfect solution.

Corroborate Culture:

When considering corporate culture; we can be recognizing it as something that involves inputs, techniques and outputs. Inputs include reviews from society, professions, laws, testimonies, heroes, and beliefs on competition or service. The procedure is dependant on our assumptions, beliefs and norms; our beliefs on money, time, facilities, space and folks. Outputs of the culture are organizational behaviors, systems, strategies, image, products, services, appearance, and reputation.

In EAS the type of their culture is the guidelines and restrictions that the company targets like being very honest with their customers as reviewed in Question 2 of the appendix as well as well as laws that the federal government of UAE varieties about them in conditions of the type of designs in different locations. The process in EAS is considered in the place they are working in, and the facilities that employees of the firms has. In connection with the outcome of EAS, it is considered in terms of the service they are producing to the clients as well as the blueprints that they produce for the kids; the product is different depending on kind of property that the customer wants and the place where it should be built. All of those factors constitute the organization culture of EAS.

Culture Creation:

Regarding how does a company creates its organizational cohesive and positive culture, managers has go through four different phases to foster that culture; a historical base, a knowledge of what is expected, being part of an organization, and encourage social and intergroup romance. In the historical foundation stage, the manager must have a feeling of history, communication, positive problem solving, and tales about founders and leaders. In the knowledge of what's expected level, the manager has to have command, role model examples, norms, anticipations and principles. In being part of a group, the manager really needs an incentive system, career management and job security, recruiting and staffing, socialization of new staff members, and training and development. In encourage interpersonal and intergroup romance stage, the director really needs a member contact, participative decision making, intergroup coordination, and personal exchange.

According to Mr. Saffarini, he said that the steps that they took in making their own culture in pretty much the same as the step mentioned above, however, he said that he concentrate more on the value, ethics and faith when making EAS's culture; he said that if anything could contradict to what he thinks in he'd try to find other alternate, even if that option sometimes will not necessitate the same effect. We could understand from his answer that from his strong values and religion his reputation has been built, and their customers are very devoted to them because of this of those believes and ethics.

Employees Acceptance of the Culture:

Moving to the way the employees in EAS perceive their culture Mr. Saffarini said that mature management activities have long been recognized as significant factors impacting worker perception and action. Particular managerial activities that badly have an effect on their employees' perceptions remain debatable because every specific has his own means of responding to situations. Furthermore, it's been examined that from worker anger frequently stemmed from their conception that managerial actions and organizational hypocrisy caused those to contain hostile attitude and compel them to handle sabotage to vent their ire and dissatisfaction. EAS office buildings offers a multicultural and a diverse workforce that's the reason their prime concern remains of practicing equality, good and humble methodology sans any bias over caste, creed, religion, nationality and color.

Moreover, they favor to keep cordial relations which includes long been recommended and opined by both management experts and practitioners as being a significant adjustable that affects employee perception and as a consequence, their reaction to management tries to influence them, and effortlessly the outcome of our adopted plans is reflected in our employees point of view, comprising of trust, opinion.

In addition to that EAS is searching for a long-term relationship with their workers. From their answer, we can easily see that EAS has a culture which allows their workers to understand their beliefs, ideals and objectives.

The Have an effect on of Culture on Employees:

Regarding the have an impact on that the culture that EAS face on their employees, EAS office culture provides and suits skills, experience, and resources with their sub consultants to efficiently complete a building job through coordination among multiple groups. Formation of groups provides many advantages for the participants, but is also put through several risks too unless or until they can be headed by the sufficiently experienced engineering professional. The quality of the managerial actions determines how well all the teams performs. In addition, it has a significant and direct effect on the organizational framework, which affects inter-company relations.

From their answer, we can analyze that EAS's culture targets the managerial functions and team work, as they said if the managers where not necessarily into controlling their products plus they were not in to the team members that they are controlling; many problems can look plus some might be not gratifying the customers needs and sometimes delivering the wrong product to them.

Types of Culture:

Moving to the type of culture an organization has, maybe it's consolidated into four major types; the Bureaucratic culture, the Clan culture, the Entrepreneurial culture, and the marketplace culture. Inside the bureaucratic culture, the organization focuses on the rules, policies, procedures, string of instructions, and centralized decision making. The Clan culture is about being truly a part of working family, following traditions and rituals, teamwork, spirit, self-management, and sociable influence. Within the Entrepreneurial culture, an progressive imagination, risk taking, and aggressively seeking opportunities demonstrate that kind of culture. Moreover, in the Market culture, the emphasis is on sales progress, increased market share, financial steadiness, and profitability.

Moreover, from EAS's answer of question 3 in the appendix, we can easily see that the most dominating culture that EAS is using is the Clan culture; because, both task and business levels, which mean that the culture of development executive consultants and contracting companies very much will depend on honest communication, admiration for folks, trust, and powerful relationships.

Recruitment of Employees:

Regarding the factor that the company has at heart when getting new employees into the culture; the business should become more aware of the business's specifications and exactly what does it exactly needs, and it will consider how does each specification help in improving the company and produce its success and its profit as a result. Moreover, employees are believed among the key successful factors in every corporation, so each can manage them effectively and also to know which employees (current or potential) are the ones that basically contribute to the business, in term of progress as well as revenue.

When considering exactly what does EAS consider when they bring new employees in their company, Mr. Saffarini said that their perfect consideration while recruiting new staff is to look out for integrity and integrity and a zest for learning and apart from academic qualifications and skills they look at the characteristics and behavioral way and gauge character levels in order to determine the power of coping under duress and pressure. From his answer it could be seen that they established very high standards in getting new employees, that could be seen that they are culture is consisting of a very high informed and well mannered employees and it is difficult to adapt to their culture in this hyper competitive environment.

Change in Culture:

Moving to influencing culture change, there's been significant amounts of literature generated within the last decade about the concept of organizational culture; particularly regarding learning how to improve organizational culture. Organizational change efforts are rumored to fail almost all the time. Usually, this failing is acknowledged to insufficient understanding about the strong role of culture and the role it performs in organizations. That's one of the reason why that many tactical organizers now place just as much emphasis on discovering strategic worth as they certainly mission and eyesight.

As Mr. Saffarini the leader of EAS said "The idea of culture is particularly important when wanting to take care of organization-wide change; we live coming to realize that, irrespective the best put in plans, organizational change must include not only changing constructions and procedures, but also changing the organization culture as well". When inspecting his answer, we can see how important is understanding the culture of the organization to be always a good head as should the leader be even more aware when an organizational change have occurred. Furthermore, even through sometimes the culture change might build a shock in the surroundings, the benefit which it encounter from then on would reduce those hazards; as it is the majority of the times necessary for the company to achieve success or even to stay jogging.

Cross cultural move:

Regarding the organizational mix cultural changeover, where we live in a global environment where cross-cultural corporation is widely propagate throughout the world and EAS is having its' offices located in several regions in the world, we asked Mr. Saffarini about the results of experiencing a cross-cultural organization. Furthermore, he said that we now have mainly five results. First, expected stressors in the abroad experience; which employees go through of nerve-racking experience in their perceptions of relationships with both other employees in the business and with people in the overseas culture. Second, means of coping; where in fact the way of coping to the combination cultural environment is different from one staff to another which creates some benefits and drawbacks. Third, sociable support; where employees don't candid about their needs for a sense of owed and a sense of competency. Fourth, international development; where in fact the staff as well as the business has the advantage to work internationally with differing people that contain different experiences and various ways of pondering. Fifth, self awareness; where employees are challenged to explore their values, assumptions, and sense of competency, which self awareness allows employees to discover their power and weaknesses.

Furthermore, we can understand from his answer that cross cultural transitions might create some cons; however when consider advantages that it generates on the employees and the firms itself the advantages will highly outweigh those dangers/weaknesses.

To Summarize:

The need for understanding organizational culture cannot be overlooked. The bottom line for managers who want to build a culture of success is to begin with making a positive environment. Generate people whose values are in line with the organization's culture, and continue steadily to acknowledge success and entail the whole company in maintaining an environment that allows visitors to enjoy spending so much time to meet the company's goals.


An Overview of motivation in organizations:

The job of an manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees. To do this the manager can motivate employees. Managers have to be excellent at dealing with the needs and goals of individual employees. You can find no person motivational methodology that works for everybody, every individual has some other attitude and personality therefore every individual should be motivated differenlty. Individuals differ in their desired rewards; they differ in the way they attempt to satisfy their needs, and how they view the fairness of what professionals try to do for the coffee lover and the task environment. Differing people are motivated by different things. For example, someone may be greatly motivated by gaining time away from his/her job to spend additional time with the family. Other might be encouraged much more by acceptance of employment well done. People are not motivated by the same things. Again, a key goal is to understand what motivates each of your employees. Managers can find out what stimulate their employees by asking them, hearing them, and watching them

The Definition of Desire:

Motivation is the mental health feature that arouses an individual to behave in a certain manner for accomplishing certain pre-defined goals. Drive is an explanatory concept that people use to seem sensible out of the behaviors we monitor. In an firm, it is very important to maintain a higher inspiration level in the employees to permit them to bring out their finest at the job. This helps in improving the output of the business. Managers in any business prefer highly determined employees because they make every effort to find a very good way to perform their jobs. Stimulated employees are considering producing high-quality products. The enthusiastic employees will be productive than are nonmotivated employees. Motivated employees are considering being part of the team and providing their best efforts to enhance the organization and its production. They can be interested in encouraging, stimulating co-workers.

Individual's needs and goals:

Managers are expected to comprehend how individual's variety specifies the sort and degree of motivation in the organization because variety results in various behavioral patterns that in some manner are related to needs and goals. A need, which is a deficiency or lack of something of value an individual experience at a particular time, promotes and motivates individuals to perform better and harder in the work to achieve the best results. These needs may be phsiological (for example; a need for food, shelter, and clothes), emotional (for example, a need for self-esteem), or sociological (for example, a dependence on social interaction). When any of those needs are present, the individual will seek to fulfill those needs and could be more vunerable to managers' motivational initiatives. Two of the very most widely accepted theories of motivation applied in organizational environments are those of Abraham Maslow and Fredrick Herzberg. Maslow's (1954) determination theory was his hierarchy of needs. The hierarchy divides real human needs into higher and lower orders. The low order needs are major, such as food, shelter, and physical security, while the higher order needs entail self-actualization. When the low order needs are absent in the life span of an individual, the satisfaction of these needs become the centre of the individual's life. In most modern societies, however, the primary needs are satisfied. Thus, a genuine motivation results from individual desires to meet their higher order needs. Person needs differ over time because of many factors that control their needs, for example, job position, technology development, marital and family position, and financial situations. By examining the change of individual's needs over time, we've asked EAS Company the following question "Just why an individual's needs and choices will change over the course of his / her work/job?" Mr. Saffarini replied that humans are greedy naturally, and the mission to have more leads those to pursue new areas to meet their growing requirements and for those who offers themselves to be totally diligent with delight in being spontaneous, communicative, having excellent social skills associated with the ability to associate effectively to a multitude of individuals on all degrees of intellect will never tend to bargain with the prevailing present and are always on the run.

Each person has some group of goals and objectives therefore a director should know something about an employee's goals and about actions that the employee has to take to achieve them. By knowing the goals of a person, manager can be able to understand how they can be encouraged towards reaching his/her goals.

Theories of Determination:

There are two categories that make clear motivation which will be the content motivation theories and the procedure motivation ideas. Content theories focus on the factors within the person that energize, direct, sustain, and stop patterns. First step in identifying how to encourage an employee is to follow the content ideas by learning the needs, wishes, and goals within each individual since each individual is unique in many ways. Some of the theories that are under the explanation of this content theories are (need hierarchy, ERG, two-factor, and discovered needs). As talked about previously need hierarchy model is Maslow's theory that assumes that people's needs rely upon what they already have. In a sense, then a satisfied need is not a motivator. Individuals needs, structured in a hierarchy worth focusing on, are physiological, safe practices, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. ERG theory of determination is theory that is developed and examined by Alderfer which categorizes needs as existence, relatedness, and growth. Herzberg's two-factor theory of determination view that job satisfaction results from the occurrence of intrinsic motivators and that job dissatisfaction is due to devoid of extrinsic factors. McClelland's discovered need theory proposes a person with a solid need will be motivated to work with appropriate behaviors to satisfy the necessity. A person's needs are discovered from the culture of any society.

How managers can motivate their workers?

Managers need to check out how to increase their resources especially in these lost and unstable economic situations. Employees are one of the top company's resources. Therefore, professionals need to be sure their employees are getting what they need for perfect work performance. Professionals should avoid unclear anticipations; employees want to utilize managers who've eye-sight and clear goals and aims. Merged views or unclear priorities mistake employees, making them feel as if they squandered their time, energy and effort only to accomplish the wrong results. Managers should establish clear goals and objectives so that employees can be encouraged properly towards achieving the company's eye-sight. Managers should evaluate what the needs are of every of their workers, think positively and understand that manager's frame of mind will be mirrored on the employees, be proactive somewhat than reactive, keeping everything in point of view, realize that in the beginning of any new attempt, risk is usually present but it is best to try and fail than to never have tried at all, and professionals should actively pay attention and communicate with the employees. As Mr. Saffarini stated about how managers can motivate their employees when we asked him the next question"Do you really believe a manager can transform the employee's frame of mind towards his job in a confident way?" he said that they strongly believe a manager can change the employee's attitude and perspective with an optimistic frame of mind by educating them and by giving them an sufficient scope to explore new avenues in their respective areas of work. Mr. Saffarini described the steps that they follow to improve their employees' performance whenever we asked him the next question "How can the company improve a person's performance?" he replied that they perform on time diagnosis; authentic evaluation and fairly reward the deserving worker to improve an individual's performance. They highly believe that they are the key factors for just about any company to handle the analysis program on 50 % yearly or every year basis to be able to give a strong sense of security and progress to the employee, that will automatically yield the mandatory zest and zeal from within. Another question about motivation was "How will you motivate your employees?" he replied that they stimulate their employees with a positive frame of mind and influence them about the power of the person to gain knowledge, assistance, and useful information from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards and attain prosperity and progress on all fronts.

Motivation and Incentive system:

Employees are encouraged by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. To work, the prize system must discover both resources of motivation. All pay back systems derive from the assumptions of attracting, retaining and motivating people. Financial rewards are an important component of the pay back system, but there are other factors that stimulate employees and affect the amount of performance. To ensure the reward system works well and motivates the desired behaviors, it is essential to consider carefully the rewards and strategies utilised and ensure the rewards are linked to or predicated on performance. Strategies for satisfying employees' performance and contributions include both non-financial and financial mechanisms. Pleasing system is techniques, rules, and expectations associated with allocation of benefits and reimbursement to employees. We review the satisfying system of EAS Company by asking Mr. Saffarini this question "What is the satisfying system that the business used to reward its employees?" he replied that the business uses appropriate increments at regular intervals, gifts, and bonus products at the successful conclusion of the allocated projects. Feeling respected by their supervisor at work is one of the key to high staff inspiration and morale. Provide staff recognition to say "thank you" for whatever effort or process done properly and encourage more of the actions and thinking administrator believe will make their business successful. Individuals who feel appreciated are usually more positive about themselves and their potential to contribute. People with positive self-esteem are potentially the best employees.


An Overview of Diversity:

Valuing the variety of our staff, customer and consumer bottom, and adding a platform in place to support our people and business strategies is very important.

We know that creating a diverse employees is the right move to make and makes good business sense. We also know that simply having diversity in our employees is insufficient; we must create an inclusive environment where everyone can contribute their finest work.

The "diversity", theorizes that in a global marketplace, an organization that uses a diverse workforce (both men and women, folks of many generations, people from ethnically and racially diverse backgrounds etc. ) is way better in a position to understand the demographics of the marketplace it serves which is thus better outfitted to thrive for the reason that marketplace than a company that has a more limited selection of worker demographics.

We have a set of values, to steer how we interact with our customers, our consumers and with each other. These values impose us to do something with integrity and show esteem, promote interest about our business, and demonstrate accountability for our personal and professional actions.

Our ideals also promote a host that values diverse backgrounds, activities and ways of thinking. Our diversity and addition strategy supports that focus with recruiting efforts dedicated to achieving all potential applicants. As soon as talented individuals become a member of EAS Office, our people programs help they build great employment opportunities.

The Executive Supervisor has developed a technique to help EAS Office regularly improve in setting up a diverse and inclusive work environment. The Variety and Addition strategy is designed to create and preserve a diverse and inclusive work place that will allow us to maintain our position among organizations. Variety enables us to make a employees that displays our consumer and customer base and an environment where everyone seems the flexibility to contribute.

We asked Mr. Saffarini some questions regarding to diversity. Among these questions was: "Why is EAS Office good at diversity?"

Depending on who's doing the measuring and which way the winds of politics correctness are blowing, the addition of everybody from white women and impaired to older employees has been upheld as proof a company's deep commitment to equal opportunity and inclusion.

Many of the firms making genuine and significant investments of money and resources toward reaching the ideal of diversity within their organizations do not know how to measure their progress--or even if they are headed in the right course.

EAS Office supports the diversity of its workforce can also improve staff satisfaction, production and retention. This part of the business case, also known as inclusion, relates to how a business utilizes its various relevant diversities. If the labor force is diverse, but the employer takes little if any advantage of that experience, then it cannot monetize whatever benefits background diversity might offer.

Regarding to the question we asked during the interview with Mr. Saffarini "How diverse is your labor force?" EAS Office responded that their office deploys multidisciplinary clubs in UAE and around the region for assignments in conceptual and preliminary engineering services essential to anatomist design, construction, environment friendly management.

Informal communities at the business offer special interest programs that aid in inclusion and variety. Multilingual workforce from different nationalities get together to work on diversity and addition of activities on a sizable scale, which strategy during execution of the allocated jobs aligns every professional's goals and performance procedures with the business's vision, mission, prices and strategic aims.

Workplace Diversity:

While diversity at work brings about many benefits to an organization, it can also lead to numerous challenges. It's the responsibility of professionals within organizations to utilize variety as an influential resource in order to improve organizational effectiveness.

In general, we have three corporation types which give attention to the development on ethnic diversity. The three organization types are: the monolithic firm, the plural company, and the multicultural firm. In the monolithic organization, the amount of structural integration (the existence of folks from different ethnical groups within a group) is very little. "In a few countries, this organization usually symbolizes white man majorities in the overall employee populace with few women and minority men in management jobs". "The plural corporation has a more heterogeneous account than the monolithic company and calls for steps to be more inclusive of individuals from ethnic backgrounds that change from the prominent group". The multicultural group not only consists of many different ethnical teams, but it prices this diversity.

Referencing to your question that we asked to Mr. Saffarini: "What exactly are the characteristics of the expatriate (non-local) supervisor in your business?" he said: "We have number of managers hailing from different countries all of them have a standard approach while dealing with subordinate staff and additionally we emphasize on coordination and cooperation among individuals and believe in team work. Our guidelines are reflected in their characteristics. "

Benefits of Variety in the Workplace:

Diversity is effective to both the corporation and the people. About the question that is referred to benefits of variety in EAS Office, the benefits associated with variety brings potential benefits such as better decision making and improved problem solving, greater creativity and invention, which causes enhanced product development, and more lucrative marketing to different types of customers. It provides our office having the ability to contend in global marketplaces.

Diverse in EAS Office and other organizations will achieve success as long as there is a sufficient amount of communication within them. Because folks from different cultures understand messages in several ways, communication is vital to the performance of an organization. Miscommunication inside a diverse office will lead to significant amounts of challenges. Diversity, the theory, isn't just prevent unfair discrimination and improve equality but also valuing dissimilarities an addition include ethnic, era, race, culture, erotic, orientation of physical disability and spiritual and opinion.

Challenges of Variety at work:

There are issues to owning a diverse work people. Managing variety is more than simply acknowledging variations in people.

Mr. Saffarini said there are many challenges which face culturally diverse workplaces, and a significant concern is miscommunication in a organization. The meanings of text messages can never be completely distributed because no two individuals experience incidents in a similar way. Even though indigenous and non-native speakers are exposed to the same messages, they may interpret the information differently. It's important for employees who are less familiar with the primary terms spoken within the business to receive special attention in get together their communication requirements. "In high framework cultures, communicators talk about an experiential foundation that can be used to assign meanings to communications. Low context civilizations, on the other hands, provide little information which to base common understandings and so communicators must be explicit". Because of this fact, it is better to see all diverse organizational surroundings as low-context ethnicities.

Cultural bias is an additional factor which challenges culturally diverse work conditions. Cultural bias includes both attitudes toward a business member predicated on his/her culture group individuality and discrimination.

Another challenge experienced by culturally diverse organizational surroundings is assimilation. "Assimilation into the prominent organizational culture is a technique that has already established serious negative effects for individuals in organizations and the organizations themselves. Those who assimilate are denied the ability to communicate their genuine selves in the workplace; they are compelled to repress significant elements of their lives in a social framework that frames a big part of their daily encounters with other folks. People who spend quite a lot of energy dealing with an alien environment have less energy remaining to do their jobs. Assimilation does not only create a situation in which individuals who are different are likely to are unsuccessful; it also reduces the efficiency of organizations".

Managing Diversity Tools:

Managing diversity should go far beyond the limits of equal career opportunity and affirmative action. In EAS Office, high executing diversity managers know that specialized skills are necessary for creating a fruitful, diverse workforce. They look for constant learning opportunities plus some go so far as acquiring certification. Managers must be ready to work towards changing the organization in order to create a culture of diversity and inclusion. Assessment skills and diversity education are fundamental elements of culture change in EAS Office.

Diversity issues change over time, depending on local historical and dynamic conditions. Overt "diversity programs" are usually limited by large employers, federal government firms and businesses facing immediate demographic changes in their local labor pool and help people work and understand one another.

An Summary of Groups, Teams, and Interpersonal Issue:

Effective, hard working and cohesive team can have a long- lasting impact on organizations culture, and the global market. Groups and groups in organizations can alter the individual's motivations or needs and can affect the behavior of the individuals in an organizational sitting. Under this portion of our paper, we will expand the difference in meaning between group and team, considering the types; the characteristics and the goal from forming teams and clubs, and haw do our company (EAS) package with this matter as well as the intergroup conflict that could arise among the list of members.



First of most, what's group mean? Group is a assortment of a number of individuals in which patterns and/or performance of one member is inspired by habit and/or performance by other associates. Also, group can be explained as a tiny group of individuals with complementary skills and capabilities who are focused on a leader's goal and methodology and are willing to be held responsible by the first choice. A group facilitates the leader's goals and the leader-dominated approach to goal attainment. A group drives specific accountability rather than distributed accountability. Authority is predominantly performed by one individual as opposed to the shared, fluid command on the team. In a group, the dominant viewpoint is displayed. Decisions in a group are created by voting or implied arrangement.


There are two types of groups:

  1. Formal groupings: which are manufactured by managerial decision to perform explained goals of the organizations and they include command line and task group.
  2. Informal categories: which can be aroused from specific initiatives and develop around common hobbies and friendship somewhat than deliberate design.

When we asked EAS about the types of organizations they have got, they said that they form the two types of teams. They form formal teams to hold an assign process or goal. They quite simply have multiple groups, each assigned for different services comprise of Idea Design, Working Drawing, Sketches, Framework, MEP, Modification, Agreements and Specifications section. Apart from the above they may have Accounts, Logistics and Miscellaneous groupings who carry out their respective given responsibilities. So these categories are being used in the benefit and success of the organization. In addition to the formal groups, EAS form casual groupings because they think that such types of teams satisfy the essential human needs and they strengthen the marriage between your employees including their market leaders or supervisors.

Purpose/ Goals:

Formal and informal groups are produced for various reasons. Some reasons involves need satisfaction, proximity and fascination, group goals and economic. Being in a group will help the employees to not feel like being alone in the business, or facing the control and education, because this may lead to a amount of insecurity. Particularly if the worker is new in the company, he/she may desire a buffer to management directions and being truly a member of an organization can help him/her. This will help in react to the management's instruction correctly. Also, building groups will fortify the social marriage between employees and professionals.

EAS main reason for forming formal organizations is to attain the assigned goals of the organization toward becoming one of the successful organizations on the market. Alternatively, the goal of forming informal teams, as stated before, is to satisfy the needs of EAS employees, which may include needs for security, knowledge acquisition, casual attempts to form organizational plan, family, social discussion etc.

Stages of Development:

Group performance rely both on specific learning and exactly how well members learn to work with each other. One style of group development that people think it is the main one the fitted to the development stages of the EAS teams is The Five -Phases Model which includes:


Group members learn about one another and the task at hand. Indications of this stage might include: Unclear targets, Uninvolvement, Uncommitted users, Misunderstanding, Low morale, Hidden thoughts, Poor listening, etc.


As group members continue to work, they will engage the other person in arguments about the composition of the group which frequently are significantly mental and illustrate challenging for position in the group. These activities recognise the storming period: Insufficient cohesion, Subjectivity, Hidden agendas, Conflicts, Confrontation, Volatility, Resentment, anger, Inconsistency, Inability.


Group members establish implicit or explicit guidelines about how they'll achieve their goal. They solve the types of communication that will or won't help with the duty. Indicators include: Questioning performance, Critiquing/clarify target, Changing/confirming roles, Beginning dangerous issues, Assertiveness, Tuning in, Testing new floor, Identifying talents and weaknesses.


Groups reach a bottom line and implement the answer to their issue. Indicators include: Creativity, Initiative, Flexibility, Open relationships, Pride, Matter for people, Learning, Self confidence, High morale, Success, etc.


As the group task ends, the group disbands in the adjournment period. This period was added when Tuckman and Jensen's kept up to date their original overview of the books in 1977.

Each of the four periods in the Forming, Storming, Norming, Executing, and Adjourning model will involve two aspects: interpersonal relationship and task behaviors.


As the group learn to work and develop, certain characteristics emerge, such as structure, status hierarchy, jobs, norms and cohesiveness.

Mr. Safarini said that the characteristics of the organizations in EAS are:

  • Members involved in frequent discussion;
  • Those involved define themselves as group people;
  • Others define members as owned by a particular group;
  • They talk about common norms and common interests;
  • They identify with each other and share prices;
  • They feel a feeling of collective responsibility;
  • They action in a unified way towards the business.

Also, Mr. safarani told us that try as you can as they can to help make the groups more appealing and interesting by making the communities small enough to allows hearing and assessing the people' judgment, assigning charismatic management and make the goals compatible and clearly given.

Group maintenance tasks:

Group maintenance assignments are focused on promoting and preserving group relationships, EAS described that they encourage group relationship by:

  • Encouraging, i. e. being friendly and attentive to others and acknowledging their
  • contributions;
  • Expressing group thoughts;
  • Harmonizing, i. e. reconciling disagreements and stimulating members to
  • explore variances;
  • Compromising, i. e. being prepared to give ground to keep group cohesion;
  • Gate keeping, i. e. facilitating the involvement of others;
  • Setting benchmarks for the group to attain and applying them in assessing
  • Group performance.


After discussing communities and EAS make use of them, now, we are going the discuss teams and their role in the organization.


A team is a little group of people with complementary skills and skills who are committed to a goal and procedure for which they hold each other accountable.

The best size for teams is 2-20 individuals. Much larger clubs need more structure and support; smaller clubs frequently have difficulty appointment when members are not able to attend. Associates have skills and capabilities that supplement the team's purpose. Not all participants have the same skills, but together they are greater than the sum of their parts. On teams, members share functions and duties and are constantly developing new skills to improve the team's performance. Teams identify and reach consensus on the common goal and way, rather than looking to a leader to define the goal and approach. Most importantly, teams maintain their members accountable. What will this mean in sensible terms? When they experience turmoil with a member, they talk with that member immediately rather than to a supervisor. Whenever a member isn't executing to the particular level required, the team addresses the performance problem.

A lot of men and women use the word group and team interchangeably although they aren't serve the same so this means. Matching to John Adair (1986) the major distinctions between group and team are:

  • A team is more than simply a group with a aim.
  • In a team all participants have emerged as complementary.
  • There is strong cooperation & strong togetherness
  • There is a strong commitment from its member & genuine support for every other.
  • The Specialty can be an Ability to are a team even if the individual members are aside. (operating from various places)

Mr. Saffarini said that Building anatomist evolve around team work, it can't be completed by an individual and the complete process is so huge that it has to be completed by a group which too with complete coordination and integrity.


Teams can be labeled in several ways predicated on their duration and objectives to: problem-solving, digital, cross-functional, skunkworks and self-directed work team.

EAS have cross-functional types of teams so when Mr. Saffarini advised us:

When a job is commenced the entire process get started with Strategy Design, Working Drawing, Sketches, 3D Office, Presentation, Structure, MEP, Modification, Contracts and Specifications section. These teams work in tandem till the completion and handing over of the job. Which imply, that the group must includes customers from different departments of the organization to handle the job or the given task.


The main goal of the clubs in EAS is to improve the productivity of the organization. Team performance leads to higher efficiency level than what would be achieved by a lot of people working individually that is because the team brings together complementary skills by different participants such as, functional expertise, problem solving and decision making and interpersonal skills. The team will establish the participants' skills, as Mr. Saffarini Said. The team members would consider what features and characteristics the clients want or need in their constructions and how they can make this happen project with a given budget and time. In addition they may develop their capacity to identify the issues which could face them, a discus the suitable and alternative alternatives and trade-off and lastly have the ability to take the best decision and assess it. When they develop the abilities of identify the problems and their solution, the members would be indirectly be based upon their personal discussion and communication with the other person that will also be developed.


When we ask Mr. Saffarini about just how they create a team, he responded that when a project is designed and the artistic illustration is approved by your client, the project supervisor prepare an agenda for execution of detail design and the job is fragmented by assigning to the subordinate staff in order to handle the execution in a stipulated timeframe.


There are some main characteristics that must definitely be achieved in each team shaped for an designated job in EAS and some of these features are:

  • Clear objectives
  • Good leadership
  • Openness and confrontation
  • Support and trust
  • Co-operation and conflict
  • Regular monitoring (review)
  • Group inter-group relations
  • In-depth knowledge of the subject
  • sense of responsibility
  • dedication towards the work

Intergroup discord:

Intergroup relations between two or more organizations and their respected members tend to be necessary to complete the task required to operate an enterprise. Many times, organizations inter-relate to accomplish the organization's goals and goals, and conflict can occur. Some issue, called functional issue, is considered positive, since it enhances performance and recognizes weaknesses. Dysfunctional discord, however, is confrontation or connections between categories that harms the business or hinders attainment of goals or goals.

Mr. Saffarini's touch upon this problem by expressing that Limited resources and encourage structures can foster intergroup turmoil by making the differences in group goals more obvious. Variances in perceptions among organizations regarding time and position, when in conjunction with different group goals, can also create conflict.

But he also said that fulfilling each individual's prospects is a Herculean job and we choose such steps with that your issues can be settled amicably.

We offer these any situation of intergroup conflict with iron side and do not entertain any sort of conflict to arise between teams, and in reality during these two decades of our existence we never practiced any sort of discrimination and we strictly taken care of equality among all, hence we never experienced such type of a thing during the past years nor in today's times.

What we might do if we face such thing is to provide full control to the departmental minds to initiate disciplinary actions against the trouble manufacturers, and keep a vigil on such elements to avoid inter-group conflicts. Assessment and evaluation of the employee shall be carried out properly sans any favoritism and the rewards shall be announced periodically that will boast the morale of the employees and motivate them to remain competitive rather than carrying out sinister designs against their respective counter parts.

Thus, we can conclude that EAS be dependent a lot on clubs and groups and since they mentioned is as essential part in their organizational framework. They offer with them carefully and in an effective manner to keep them growing in order to help in achieving the desired goals of the business.


An Summary of Leadership:

In recent years organizations have been through dramatic changes, including flatter and looser structures, downsizing, and horizontal approaches to information move. On the one hands these changes are scheduled to rapid technical developments, global competition, and the changing mother nature of the labor force. Alternatively, these organizational transformations and innovations are triggered by interventions such as total quality management and business process reengineering. Authority is undoubtedly a critical factor in the initiation and implementation of the transformations in organizations. If leadership needs to engender a good effect on individuals, groups, and organizations, both practitioners and research workers have argued that earlier control paradigms such as directive versus participative authority, thought versus initiating structure, autocratic versus democratic leadership, and task versus relations-oriented leadership should be broadened With respect to the management of change processes in organizations, there's a strong dependence on leaders who tend to be more change-centered. These leaders place value on the development of a clear vision and inspire supporters to pursue the vision. In this manner they provide a strong motivational make for change in enthusiasts. Besides, a participative authority style, a clear vision or quest is most likely to foster innovation. Leaders who enhance followers' assurance and skills to devise progressive replies, to be creative, also to take hazards, can also accomplish the changeover procedures in organizations resulting from this, a paradigm move occurred before decade with the charismatic leadership. Although the terms "charisma" and "transformational command" tend to be used interchangeably, Bass makes a differentiation between them, with charisma building a sub-dimension of transformational control. As promoters of change, transformational market leaders elicit performance beyond goals by instilling take great pride in, communicating personal esteem, facilitating creative thinking and providing ideas. Recently, the reasoning behind transformational authority has started to dissipate in to the content and design of control development programmers. In this particular area of the analysis, we are going to discuss the way the company define and put into practice "Leadership theory" in their company.

What is Transformational Management?

To commence with, we asked Mr. Saffarini to define Management and Transformational Command from his long experience and point of view, and the primary reason his company has decided on Transformational Authority as a base for his company from more than twenty years up to now. As he clarified: "Leadership 's been around for a large number of years, yet we still cannot contain it in a single definition we all acknowledge. Perhaps this is because leadership is constantly evolving, and even more than what it seems to be, depending about how you consider it. It is a complex notion, numerous applications, and the results that it creates depend highly on the context where it is being observed. Much has been written on Transformational Leadership, which we covers in a moment. There is the leadership theory, which has evolved as time passes from other leadership styles, and has applications to different contexts, whether it is in business, medical, non-profit or charity, education, spiritual or spiritual teams and even at the family level, to name a few. "

The term transformational management was first coined by J. V. Downton in Rebel Control: Dedication and Charisma in a Revolutionary Process (1973). James MacGregor Melts away first introduced the concept of transformational command in his publication Leadership (1978), during his research of political command, but this term is now found in organizational mindset as well. He defined it not as a set of specific behaviors, but rather a continuing process by which "leaders and followers raise one another to higher degrees of morality and drive. " Transformational leaders offer a purpose that transcends short-term goals and targets higher order intrinsic needs. Transformational leaders raise the club by attractive to higher ideals and principles of enthusiasts. In doing this, they could model the beliefs themselves and use charismatic solutions to attract visitors to the values also to the leader. Melts away was influenced by Abraham Maslow's Theory of Man Needs. This theory identifies that people have a variety of needs, and the extent to that they will perform effectively at work will be damaged by the level to which these needs are satisfied. Transformational Control fits in to the higher levels, as it requires a high degree of self esteem and do it yourself actualization to effectively be an real transformational leader. Melts away was main scholars to say that true control not only creates change and achieves goals within the environment, but changes people mixed up in necessary activities for the better as well: both supporters and market leaders are ennobled. Melts away became famous among alternative control scholars because his model of transformational authority included an moral/moral dimension that, prior to 1978, was not infused into any authority theory Bernard Bass, a disciple of Melts away, defined transformational control in conditions of the way the leader affects fans, who are designed to trust, admire and value the transformational leader

He identified three ways in which leaders transform enthusiasts:

  • Increasing their awareness of job importance and value.
  • Getting them to target first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own hobbies.
  • Activating their higher-order needs.

Components of Transformational Management:

Next, we were interested to really know what the main components of Transformational Authority are. He said that Transformational Leadership has advanced from possesses elements of preceding control types, such as trait and behavior theories, charismatic, situational and transactional command.

There are four the different parts of transformational leadership, that are:

Charisma or idealized influence

This is the amount to which the innovator behaves in excellent ways that cause followers to identify with the first choice. Charismatic leaders display convictions, take stands and charm to followers with an emotional level. That is about the leader getting a clear set of principles and demonstrating them atlanta divorce attorneys action, providing a role model because of their fans. Genuine trust must be built between leaders and fans. Trust for both innovator and follower is built on a solid moral and moral foundation.

Inspirational motivation

The level to which the head articulates a perspective that is pleasing and motivating to followers. Market leaders with inspirational motivation challenge fans with high specifications, communicate optimism about future goals, and provide meaning for the task at hand. Fans need to have a strong sense of goal if they are to be motivated to act. It is also important that visionary aspect of leadership be backed by communication skills that allow the innovator to articulate his / her vision with detail and electric power in a powerful and persuasive way.

Intellectual stimulation

The degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and solicits supporters' ideas. Leaders with this characteristic activate and encourage creativity in their followers. The leader's eye-sight provides the platform for enthusiasts to see how they connect to the leader, the organization, one another, and the target. Once they have this big picture view and are allowed flexibility from convention they can creatively conquer any obstacles in the way of the quest.

Individualized factor or individualized attention

The level to that your leader attends to each follower's needs, works as a mentor or mentor to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs. This also encompasses the necessity to respect and celebrate the average person contribution that all follower can make to the team (it is the diversity of the team that gives it its true durability). This approach not only educates another generation of market leaders, but also fulfils the individuals need for self-actualization, self-fulfillment, and self-worth. In addition, it naturally propels supporters to further accomplishment and development.

Transformational Authority vs. Transactional Leadership

Before we look at the differences between the two control styles, below are a few notes about Transactional authority:

Transactional leadership seeks to motivate fans by attractive to their own self-interest. Transactional market leaders use conventional praise and punishment to gain compliance from their followers. They have got continuing, often unspoken relationship that sound like forms like:"Do when i say and you'll get a increase. " and "Meet this quota or you will get fired. "

Also, Transactional leaders agree to the goals, framework and culture of the prevailing organization. They must do so because this type of authority is ineffective at taking significant change. Some experts added to Uses up original theory which is thought by many today that transactional management can encompass the following types of patterns:

1. Contingent Praise: To effect behavior, the leader clarifies the work needed to be accomplished. The leader uses rewards or bonuses to attain results when objectives are found.

2. Management by Exception:

  • Passive: To impact behavior, the leader uses correction or abuse as a response to undesirable performance or deviation from the accepted standards.
  • Active: To effect behavior, the leader actively monitors the task performed and uses corrective methods to ensure the task is completed to meet accepted specifications.

3. Laissez-Faire Control: laissez-faire market leaders avoid attempting to influence their subordinates and shirk supervisory duties. They bury themselves in paperwork and prevent situations that preclude any opportunity of confrontation. They leave too much responsibility with subordinates, set no clear goals, and don't help their group to make decisions. They tend to let things drift, since their primary goal is stick to good conditions with everyone. Regarding to Melts away, the difference between transformational and transactional leadership is what leaders and followers offer each other.

What are the characteristics of a leader of change?

What is it about certain innovator that enables these to successfully lead their Organizations through change? That was an important question to be asked to Mr. Saffarini as he's the best option one to answer

  • Be inspired in your heart and soul and mind, and show it.
  • Be linked to yourself, the earth and the folks around you. Be grounded in reality.
  • Have a eye-sight and communicate it with love and purpose. Allow your feeling to speak to others in a manner that transcends your brain, and talks to the heart and soul.
  • Pay personal attention to others in a way that engages them and produces trust and dedication. Genuinely care about them, what they want, and how you can provide them.
  • Access the awesome power of the mind. Be curious, open to new ideas and find out constantly.

Where Transformational Command and Authenticity meet:

In order to answer this question, Mr. Saffarini described that there surely is a positive relationship between the Command in general in particular transformational command and Authenticity

Being in a leadership position has many needs, some external, and other interior. Others and our very own expectations we have to live up to - needing to be considered a certain way.

For illustration, he brought up that: To be always a transformational leader according to BASS and Uses up you should be, have or provide:

  1. Charisma or Idealized influence
  2. Inspirational motivation
  3. Intellectual stimulation
  4. Individualized Awareness or Individualized Attention

Or else you aren't even participating in the right game. But he also brought up that, "You could do and be all of those 4 characteristics, but still not create the effect you want. You may ask you will want to? Good question. Well, it's also very important that you be yourself. This is called being genuine. In a world that is constantly seeking to make us not our unique and creative self, this is paramount. YOU will be the magical ingredient. Without YOU, nothing at all happens. Your unique, and traditional way to be you, creates the power, drive, interest, or whatever you want to call it, which makes all the difference. How you will engage your power, time, integrity and power makes a massive difference to the outcome. It's like having a high performance car, and not using the best fuel".

Transformational Leadership Habits:

To elaborate more, Mr. Saffarini mentioned that there are basic but essential behaviours of any transformational innovator that he/she have to have in order to keep and boost the best performance, satisfaction, and success to the business. The habits are:

  • Developing and showing an inspiring eyesight of the organization's future.
  • Behaving with techniques that draw out the best in individuals and groups.
  • Showing genuine matter and esteem for others.
  • Continuously buying the introduction of themselves among others.
  • Developing a culture of collaboration rather than command line and control where change is welcomed as an opportunity rather than a threat
  • Recognizing that command must be demonstrated sometimes by everyone in the organization
  • Authentic transformational command develops genuine trust between market leaders and supporters.
  • Transformational leaders focus on terminal principles such as integrity and fairness. They start to see the responsibility for their organization's development and effect on society.
  • They raise the awareness of what is right, good, important, and beautiful, when they help elevate enthusiasts' needs for achievements and self-actualization, when they foster in fans higher moral maturity, and when they move followers to go beyond their self-interests for the good of these group, business, or contemporary society.
  • The truly transformational innovator who's seeking the greatest good for the best number and can be involved about doing what is right and honest is
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