Posted at 11.20.2018
All three authors I will be exploring have discussed women struggling to find justice in a man dominated world; however each copy writer has different ideas on the portrayal of this. The first word I am taking a look at is "Tess of the d'Urbervilles", compiled by Thomas Hardy. Hardy creates about ladies in Victorian times being victims of male dominance, and reveals his female character Tess in a tragic light. The second text I am analysing is a collection of poems called "The World's Wife", written by 20th century copy writer, Carol Ann Duffy. Duffy creates about ladies in a confident light, making sure the audience perceives the ladies as strong and smart. This is actually the opposite to Hardy's portrayal of feminine characters. The 3rd text I will be analysing is "Cat on the Hot Tin Roof", written by Tennessee Williams. It really is set in 1950's Southern America, where male dominance is wide-spread, and Williams presents to us several different female personas each suffering dominating men. All three text messages are focussed on how women are subjected to male dominance but I am looking at how each copy writer tells of their problems differently.
Hardy's "Tess of the d'Urbervilles instructs the storyline of a young woman who is constantly put through male dominance by all the males in her life. Our company is first created to Tess at a May Day boogie, where she is described as putting on a white dress and having "large, innocent sight. " This immediately offered me the impression she was angelic and innocent, as white represents purity and innocence. Hardy also cleverly explains to the audience Tess is putting on a red ribbon in her mane. This immediately gives the reader a clue that bad things are to come as red is often associated with threat, but it is also associated with erotic desires and love so this is an indicator of what to come for Tess. We later note that the themes or templates of sexual desire are crucial in the downfall of Tess. Hardy enables the audience know Tess's personality flaw is the fact she is naive and prone. Tess is susceptible because of her low position in population, even though she keeps high morals and specifications. The male dominance in Victorian times would have managed to get impossible for Tess to boost upon her interpersonal status independently; she would experienced to marry someone in an increased social class in order to become less vulnerable. A couple of three main men in her life whom each take good thing about her personality flaw and cause her downfall. The first men to cause Tess injustice is her dad, John Durbeyfield. An occurrence occurs when Tess is required to take the family's horses to advertise after her father comes home drunk and doesn't fulfil his gender role of going to work, and the equine dies following a collision. Because of this, Tess feels closely in charge of the loss of life of the horse, "Nobody blamed Tess as she blamed herself. " Tess's mom, Joan asks Tess to go and "Claim kin" off their nearest relatives, the d'Urbervilles. Tess is persuaded on the problem and say's "Well, as I killed the horse, mother. . . I suppose I ought to do something. " Tess quickly arrives at "The Slopes", thought to be the home with their relatives, and then be intimidated by a figure called Alec. Alec d'Urbervilles description makes the reader unpleasant and the audience is aware Tess must be feeling vulnerable. He is referred to as having "Full mouth" and a "Well-groomed dark-colored moustache with curled things. " The audience can sense Alec's body gestures also makes Tess a little scared and more vulnerable, which was often the purpose of men in positions of electric power. Alec made Tess feel "uncomfortable" around him. Alec first exercises his male dominance over Tess when he makes her to consume a strawberry from his hand. Not only is he abusing his vitality over her by intimidating her into eating the strawberry; "Nonsense! He insisted", he's also being sexually dominant over Tess, as strawberry's are extensively considered to be symbolic of love and sexual wants because they are an aphrodisiac. The atmosphere set in place is filled with sexual pressure on Alec's part, with Hardy using descriptive dialect with sexual connotations underneath such as "in a slight distress she parted her lips and took it in". The word "distress" shows us that she didn't want to eat the strawberry but because he insisted and he's a male ready of electric power, she was required to obey his orders, which was what was expected of her in a Victorian modern culture. There is further evidence of Tess being submissive to Alec's requirements when he's giving her flowers to put in her bosom and on her behalf hat. Hardy creates that Tess simply "Obeyed like one in a desire. " Further on in the book, Alec's dominance is seen when he's driving a car recklessly with Tess and demands a kiss from Tess before he will slow down. Alec demands "I want to put one little kiss on those holmberry lip area Tess or even on that warmed cheek, and I'll stop. " This further facilitates my discussion that Alec needs sexual dominance over Tess because once more, by placing her in an impossible situation, Tess will have no choice but to give directly into his requirements.
The final example of the power and control Alec supports over Tess is when he rapes her along the way home from a dance. Tess sees herself in challenging with her co-workers and Alec ironically trips in on a white horse, which Tess could interpret as Alec approaching to safeguard her. However, the reader knows by this point how manipulative Alec is really and we realize he does not have any intention of safeguarding her so we have been suspicious of his activities. The rape is the ultimate way showing Tess who keeps the energy in their relationship. The audience is given clues in regards to what is going to eventually Tess when Hardy writes "He handled her with his fingertips" and "He plunged in to the webs of vapour. " These create erotic images in the viewers mind and we sense he's about to rape her, but we could remaining with an air or uncertainty. The reader is finally resulted in believe that Alec rapes Tess when Hardy creates "He knelt and bent lower, until her breath warmed his face, and in a moment, his cheek was in touch with hers. " Phrases such as "Upon her eyelashes there lingered tears" and "Where was Tess's guardian angel?" I believe each one of these phrases show that he is raping her and the tears show she is objecting to it but she cannot in physical form stop him, she can only show him her thoughts. That is complete injustice for Tess as she didn't want for the rape that occurs, however she understands that because of male dominance and ability, nobody would imagine she objected; everyone would have believed she gave her full consent to Alec. This makes the modern reader further sympathise with Tess as, being modern women we understand that it is illegitimate to rape anyone, so we could combat for justice unlike Tess.
However, the critic Raymond Chapman disagrees with the thoughts and opinions this is a rape arena, as he says the picture does not show us any formal information on what is taking place, the audience is still left in suspense and must infer a rape has happened from various signs Hardy has written, such as the red of the strawberry in chapter 5, demonstrating hazard is arriving. I disagree with this thoughts and opinions however and I think the sexual vocabulary such as "touched" and "plunged" are enough data to share with the reader a rape world is going on.
As the result of the rape, Tess comes pregnant and her baby, Sorrow, dies. Tess is manufactured a communal outcast because of this pregnancy, which once again displays the Victorian frame of mind towards having children out of wedlock. Based on the critic James Walvin, Hardy wasn't appropriate enough in his portrayal of Tess's hurting as one women who had children endured the worst of society's punishments, plus they were not accepted and they were shunned by world. I disagree with this view as Tess must deal with some of the harshest of circumstances, such as when she has to travel and focus on a potato plantation where disease is rife and the pay is poor, after being kept without financial security. The main reason Tess is outcast by modern culture is because she sticks to her morals, even after Alec will take her virginity, she still refuses to marry him as it isn't what her heart and soul wants. This would have stunned a Victorian audience as Victorian women weren't supposed to have their own free will and thoughts. Hardy received tough criticism for this and according to Ann Mickleson, "Tess is part of a class-conscious modern culture, which regards the peasant as a substandard member of contemporary society and woman as inferior compared to man. " This truth supposed Hardy received a lot of criticism for not portraying the feminine as conserved and weak in her convictions, the way she would have been around in the Victorian period. Hardy does not portray the rape as unjust as "raping" women was common amongst lower class ladies in the Victorian period. Another man who enables her down is the priest, as after her baby dies, she begs him to provide her baby a Religious burial even though Tess is completely aware that her baby was born out of wedlock. The priest refuses, which further supports my discussion that females struggled to find justice under the rulings of male dominance, as Tess believed she could depend on the priest but he disappointed her.
After the death of Tess's baby, we meet Angel Clare for the second time after a brief reaching at the May Day dance, at a dairy products farm, where Tess has now moved to get employment. Tess changed away to gain some self-reliance, even though Hardy displays to us that the desiring of freedom and strong will weren't enviable qualities in a woman in the Victorian period, as some character types such as Mr Crick seem to be shocked and astonished by her identity, "to the wonder - indeed, little contempt - of Dairyman Crick, " signifying he disliked Tess's unusual character upon their first reaching.
We later discover that Angel likes to live by pastoral practices, that was a motion that idealised rural life, but it was offering a misconception because no person realised all the effort that has to be put into employed in the countryside. This implies Angel loves to think everything in the countryside is perfect, and because of this of this he idealises Tess, by dialling her brands like "Tessy and "My Tess" as well as "Demeter". Hardy uses pastoralist ideas throughout the novel, always discussing the countryside and so that it is seem like the perfect place to live, however he also attempts to subvert the idea and show both edges to pastoralism. Hardy attempts to abolish the idea of rural life by demonstrating the severe living conditions at Flintcombe Ash, which also depicts Hardy's naturalism. Hardy shows through Angel's identity that pastoralism can be dangerous because the night time prior to the wedding he idealises himself and Tess by allowing himself to think nothing bad would have ever took place to Tess. Angel calling her "Artemis", a goddess that is associated with fertility, hills, forests, virginity and it is often seen with a bow and arrow, and is depicted as a hunter. This displays to us Angels only view of Tess, as a goddess, whereas she is no hunter, she in the "hunted". This idealistic view is harmful to their relationship as Tess consistently asks Angel to see her for who she is but he refuses to pay attention. After Tess and Angel marry, Angel confides in Tess in regards to a forty eight hour affair he previously with an older female whilst in London, so Tess seems it might be reasonable that she informed him about Alec and the loss of life of the baby. Tess seems relieved to have the ability to tell Angel, only to find that he holds double standards, which were also common in Victorian times. He exclaims to Tess that their sins aren't similar in character, and that he cannot forgive her. He says "Forgiveness does now connect with the case. You were one individual; now you are another. " The audience cannot believe that how ignorant he is being to Tess's situation, once we can see that the situations are really similar, and Angel's circumstance may even be considered to be worse than Tess's because he gave consent to the affair whereas Tess had no choice in the problem. Angel further shows his domineering role when he says "Different societies, Different manners" as well as adding further insult to Tess by declaring she actually is "Childish", "Unformed" and "Crude". This is complete unjust towards Tess as Angel is the main one person in her life that she can supposedly rely upon to love her unconditionally, but Victorian two times standards are typically visible here. Angel made a decision that he'll leave Tess and go to Brazil to perform a farm, going out of her without financial security. Tess comes in a downwards spiral of despair from this point and we are lead to believe she has given up on finding any form of justice after enabling Angel simply walk away from the situation. Tess's circumstances become so dire after trying to endure in the harsh conditions at Flintcombe Ash, throughout the winter, that she's no choice but to come back to Alec after his prolonged persuasion and almost blackmail, after he claims her he will take care of both her and her family. The reader sympathises with this decision even as we realize this is her only choice, but we could surprised when she murders Alec soon after Angels return. Due to her committing murder, she actually is hunted down my males, further showing the power they placed over women, and she is hung. Some critics think the fatality of Alec was unneeded because Tess was promoted as a pure woman, and a genuine pure girl wouldn't have devoted such a offense. However I think Tess was to murder Alec after everything he put her through, as this demonstrated the audience the little little bit of justice she gained, before justice was extracted from her after her death as she was punished on her behalf only incorrect in her life. I believe Hardy purposely eliminates Tess's life showing that women really did haven't any potential for finding justice in a male dominated world.
The second words I have analysed is "The World's Wife", written by 20th century article writer Carol Ann Duffy. The collection of poems is written from the point of the view of the wives of famous men, including Shakespeare and Charles Darwin. Duffy has written it from a woman's perspective as these women have previously been discussed by men in a poor light, and Duffy would like to find these women some justice by overturning the prior views held of them, using various techniques such as humour to gain us over. Duffy's approach is the contrary of Hardy's, as she thinks all women are strong, powerful and independent, whereas Hardy portrayed Tess as naive and vulnerable. Duffy shows women trying to overturn male dominance, whereas Hardy disallows Tess to conquer male dominance and condemns her to a cruel life.
I begins with a poem called "Little Red Cap", which is the first in the collection as this poem presents Duffy finding her creativity and becoming 3rd party of male instruction and domination in her life. Duffy assumes the role of "Little Red Operating Hood" in this non rhyming poem. The poem deals with themes of years as a child, sex and loss of innocence. The poem is approximately her first relationship with poet Adrian Henri. Henri is enjoyed out as the wolf, which is described as developing a "wolfy drawl" and a "bearded jaw" as well as "big eye". The image created by the wolf is intimidating, enabling us know that Duffy felt vulnerable, just as Tess noticed around Alec on the first getting together with. Duffy shows us her struggle against dominance through lines like "The wolf, I understood, would lead me deep into the woods, abroad, to a dark tangled thorny place. The term "I knew, would lead" shows us male dominance exists as she knew Henri would take the business lead and take her away, as if he was "In control" with their marriage, almost abusing his power as he was much more than Duffy. It is easy to assume the wolfs "Lair" as being a scary place for a gal as it is a new experience which left Duffy feeling scared and prone. The reader recognizes Duffy's lack of innocence when she creates, "Lesson the one which night, breathing of the wolf in my ear canal, was the love poem. " This demonstrates how she uncovered sex for the first time with the wolf. The reader, on first impression, considers that Duffy has no control in their romantic relationship and that all the power is situated with the men. Henri steals the limelight from her poetry, but we later discover Duffy locates justice by means of discovering her enthusiasm for poetry and she escapes the partnership with her own creativity. The last line of the poem shows us that she's found flexibility and justice; "Out of the forest I come with my flowers, singing, all alone. "
Duffy writes about women in mainly biblical and Shakespearean intervals, instead of Hardy's Victorian context, for example the poems Anne Hathaway and Mrs Lazarus. Duffy creates a strong sense of context in order for the reader to comprehend that male dominance ruled in these durations. This also let us the reader know what battles and problems the women would have was required to overcome in order to become independent.
The second poem I am taking a look at is "Anne Hathaway", which is written from the idea of view of Shakespeare's better half, Anne Hathaway. It really is written to try and give Anne some justice against all the criticism her matrimony received, as when Shakespeare still left his will, he left Anne the "second best foundation" which many people said was scheduled to an unhappy relationship. So in Duffy's poem, she subverts this view and makes visitors note that perhaps their second best foundation was the main one the couple distributed the most memory in. The poem is written as a sonnet and it is 14 lines long, which is highly ironic as a sonnet is a love poem, so that the few were said to have an unsatisfied matrimony, this is unforeseen.
In my estimation, additionally it is written by means of a sonnet to claim that Anne could write poetry equally well as Shakespeare, exhibiting her audience that ladies are just as good as men. The poem contains phrases such as "Living, laughing love" which demonstrates the utilization of alliteration to help make the reader sense a caring firmness in their romantic relationship, by using such pleasurable words. The word "Living" also suggests that his memory is still alive in her memory which their marriage was excited and filled with life. There is also a highly erotic spirits throughout the poem, with phrases such as "Dive for pearls" and "Kisses on these lips". This erotic mood is set to provide Anne some justice over male's ideas that their marriage was disappointed, as it suggests their love life was fantastic and they experienced no problems. Overall, the poem stacks up to the original coach of thought that was that Shakespeare never really loved Anne, and it demonstrates to the audience that they can find justice over male dominance by speaking their brain and overturning people's ideas. Duffy demonstrates women succeed and Hardy implies that women are unsuccessful in overcoming the struggles involved with male dominance.
A third poem from the collection is "Mrs Darwin". The poems written from the idea of view of Charles Darwin's wife, and suggests that women will be the backbone to all or any good men, and provides us the impression that it was in reality Charles's wife that came up with the theory of evolution. Therefore the poem uses humour to make it appear as though women came up with the principles. This coach of thought is the complete reverse to Hardy's, and in Victorian times, this idea that women considered good concepts could have been deemed absurd, as they received no formal education. Duffy uses humour in this poem in particular to make men feel victimized as well as for women to portray men as absurd for once, and so they can be laughed at. Some critics feel Duffy's need to embarrass men isn't needed and unfair, however I believe it is totally acceptable after all the years of male dominance. A critic, Deryn Rees Jones, says Duffy "goes beyond straightforwardly feminist poetry and shows us the down sides that patriarchy presents to men and women. " However, another critic, Martin Edwards, disagrees with this view and say's "Duffy's poetry shows nothing but contempt for males", showing that he believes Duffy is merely criticizing men throughout her poetry, which I believe that to be untrue.
The final text I will be taking a look at is a play written by Tennessee Williams, called "Cat over a Hot Tin Roof". It is set in 1950's Southern America, where male dominance was widespread. The play reveals us with several feminine personalities, all of which are different but can relate with characters within the previous two texts. You will discover 4 main females I am learning, Maggie, Mae, Big Mama and Aunt Sal. Maggie is a solid, fierce persona who recognizes what she needs, similar to the females displayed to us in Duffy's poetry like "Penelope", who benefits self-reliance after her partner leaves her. Maggie is also similar to Tess in the manner that she also offers a vulnerable side, which we don't often see.