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Fault Prognosis And Troubleshooting Information Technology Essay

Network management is nothing but the activity which is from the network, which is implemented along with the technology to support the activities. Different types of merged communications and the videos are dealt with by network. A network can be an interlinking framework which requires quite definitely attention. It should be designed cautiously. The network devices must be configured without influencing the remaining part of the network. There could be the failures in the network, so they need to be discovered and repaired. Consistency and supply are associated with the network. The role of the network director not only observes the performance and the security of the network, they also predict the problems in the network and exceed the technologies to make that everything will work well. There are present two frameworks i. e. FCAPS and ITIL that may be great for interpret and demonstrating the network management. On this paper we can see that the way they are beneficial to take into account the management tools.

Now a day's lots of the UK general public sector organizations are employing ITIL. Some companies use FCAPS which is layered with TMN, but ITIL is more beneficiary in comparison with FCAPS. The primary objective of the newspaper is to provide detailed information about FCAPS and ITIL also to provide their advantages. They may be helpful in handling the sites of medium and large organizations. And also compare FCAPS and ITIL, which would be ideal for NMRU for migrating to ITIL.



International telecommunications union is rolling out the Fcaps. They have got explained it as a model and not as a product. Along with the TMN layering, ITU-T divided the functionalities provided by the management into five areas. The operation of the FCAPS is performed at various degrees of TMN.

1. 1 Fault management

Fault management is band of businesses that performs locating the errors and fixing the defecting the problems. To be always a good mistake management it needs to acquire the challenge, leave the information to the worried person and observe the problems through trouble ticketing. The aim of this is to find the errors and show the errors which have come in the many places of network. Within the short latent time the errors must be discovered and rectified. It includes the functions given below,

Network monitoring

The main function of network monitoring is the fact to check whether the performance of the network is good, to have a look on the real condition of the network and to modify their state. The essential step of the is to learn the mistakes in the network and answer accordingly which appear in the network.

The primary goal of network monitoring is to send the efficiency of the alarms. Alarms are nothing but the messages which are delivered from the network that something has occurred unexpectedly. The unpredicted things can be of any kind i. e. it could be from a router that the brand card is not working, an abrupt change in the grade of the transmission in a wireless network plus some unauthorized user have entered into the network. An alarm for network is nothing but a fire alarm which occurs unexpectedly.

Sometimes the security alarm management synonymously operates with the fault management. Alarm management has grouped into two different functions.

The basic function of the security alarm management is that collecting the alarms, retaining the precise and ongoing set of the alarms and modifies the alarms. The main activity is to gather the alarms from network and also create in such a way that nothing is lacking which is important. This considers the alarms that are received and store it to the memory so that a human or an applicant can process it further. It also includes the persisting of the alarms, written to a disk or store in a databases so the alarms that have took place can be built as an archive.

In most circumstances, collection of alarms includes addition of alarms, the mechanisms to check that the zero alarms have lost and we can also request for the replay of alarms. Generally we will lose the alarms in different ways. For example, the travelling which is from the underground might not exactly be analyzed so we may lose the info of the alarms when it's going to the use of the management. There could be the other reason for the information to be lost i. e. the network is blocked so that alarms may fail to reach the destination. In the third case, it'll reach the vacation spot but it had not been collected to be able because the working of the application or the databases was not in the right way.

After the collection of the alarms, it is needed to maintain the list of the alarms. The list also communicates with the operator about the current point out of the entities as well as for illustration any device is having any problems. It is essential to realise the way the alarms are being published to the users. The consequence of each security alarm is entered in to the list which has the info of the alarm. The list can be reviewed, classified and it could be separated accordingly, including the alarm type, the type of the network factor modified, the time of the occurrence of the security alarm etc. The info of the alarms can be visualized in various ways, but the topology maps are the most popular one.

In the advanced alarm management, the additional functions are required to take care of the alarms. For processing of the alarms the network managers are given with the great flexibility. For example, with the performing of the alarm-forwarding the alarms might be sent to the operator to permit for the dispatch, such as the local authorities will be called automatically for the home intrusion diagnosis.

Another function would be that the acknowledgment of the alarm can be done by the network operator; this means they confirm that the alarm has occurred and they're under control. And the 3rd is clearing the alarms; to spell it out the health of the security alarm an alarm message has been delivered. And after some time the second meaning is delivered indicating that the condition of the alarm doesn't exist for the longer period.

Two techniques are dealt with the overloading of the info. An example may be filtering, could it be used to eliminate the information of the function that is unimportant, the receiver will be allowed to concentrate on the relevant event information. The other some may be the correlation, it can be used to pre-process and collect the info from the occasions and the alarms. We will discuss about both of these techniques at length.

In standard filtering is done not only on alarms but also on happenings. It is vital to hide as much as events that aren't important. Filtering can be allowed in two ways; one is allowing the providers to subscribe only the limited happenings and also the alarms that can be applied to them, as chosen in line with the criteria. Using this method the providers will have the events that complements there criteria. And the other one that is employed to filtering the alarms is deduplication of alarms. The condition of the alarm may cause so that it may send the same alarm repeatedly. Because the security alarm which comes frequently doesn't contain any new information therefore the new illustration of the alarm which is received might be removed. The procedure of removing the extra alarms is known as as deduplication.

Alarm correlation refers to alarms that must definitely be filtered and the functions that must definitely be pre-processed. All of the received alarm announcements are stopped, researched and compared with all the alarms which are most likely related with one another. For example, the alarm messages might be associated up because they could possess the similar problem. The overall idea behind the event and alarm correlation is that rather than forwarding and reporting different messages, it is better to send a few that combine and continue the same information from different fresh incidents. By doing in this manner, the alarm messages that are reported can be automatically lowered.

Fault Diagnosis and troubleshooting

Network examination doesn't variant a great deal from medical identification. The variance is only the patient. When the network consists of a fault then the ability to resolve the problem is, immediately finding out the reason behind the problem. The process of solving the challenge is meant as root cause analysis. Alarm is only going to alert us about the warning sign but not the reason for that problem.

Troubleshooting will support diagnosis. Troubleshooting can simply retrieve the data about the device. Essential support is provided for examination for testing a device or a network. Test can be used not only after occurring issues but it can be used proactively i. e. we can know the situation in before it has learned to an individual. Avoiding the faults altogether is best for problem management.

Proactive Mistake Management

In fault management almost all of the functionalities work in such way that they become energetic after developing the errors. It is only taking safeguards in the network so that any failures cannot occur. It also includes the examination of the alarms that recognizes the alarms that contain caused because of the minor mistake.

Trouble Ticketing

There might be ten thousand users who are utilizing a large network. In cases like this, you can find chance to occur a huge selection of problems in a single day. In those only few or nothing of the condition can be resolved. There might be many specific users who are experiencing problems which might be serious to them. Trouble solution doesn't result for each alarm, issuing that lots of is not possible.

1. 2 Configuration Management

In this the first rung on the ladder is to configure the network. On this the hardware and also the programming changes, considering the new programs and the machines and adding them to the previous one, existing systems should be altered and removal of the unused systems and the programs. A list should be placed so that the equipment and the programs are stored and they're regularly updated.

Configuring Managed Resources

In the beginning of the settings management, the activities and the businesses which are being supervised are configured first. It means that it's involved in mailing the orders to the network equipment for changing the adjustments of the configuration. Sometimes it will involve in isolating only a single device, such as only one software of the dock will be configured.


It can be looked at in two ways the first is considering the network as the get good at and the other you are taking into consideration the management system as the master.

In reconciliation the network is considered to be the get good at, the info which is in the management system will echo in the network. Synchronization of the info is performed from network to the management system.

In reprovisioning the Management system is known as to be the master of the management information. It flows from management system to the network, resulting the changes in the settings of the network. Until the management system will receive a record from the network device that the changes has been managed to get will maintain a flag indicating that it is out of synchronization.

In discrepancy confirming the user is being found and flagged by the discrepancies. It doesn't maintain the way of the synchronization which is usually to be taken place. That is to be performed by the user on circumstance by case basis. If he chooses that the information should be shown by the management system it'll ask the reconciliation.

Backup and Restore

The trojan can destroy the info that exists in the hard disk drive. If we've a back-up of data then in such cases we can restore the data. In the same it also applies for the network i. e. the backup and restores functionalities. The data of the users will never be in expression or excel sheet but it'll be the construction of the network. The data is vital and it requires to be protected, just as we protect the database in a company. If sadly the configurations in the network are wiped off then many people will be damaged. Then we don't possess period to reconfigure the network. The simplest way to bring the items backup is restoring the network till the finish of the configurations.

Image Management

Many network sellers concern the new editions of the program. In such cases you must be able to up grade the network. The problem is that we are coping with thousands of pcs which are connected across the same network. We must be have an idea which devices are being installed with the different software's, so that we can send the images which are to be updated and installed without troubling the services of the network. That is only the image management.

1. 3 Accounting Management

It is only the functions that will provide the organizations to obtain the income and for getting the credit for the assistance they have got provided. It needs to be extremely strong, large availability and the reliable expectations are applied.

1. 4 Performance Management

The performance metrics

Throughput, the number of communication models performed per device time. The communication models depend on the type of the covering, network and the assistance which are provided to the network. Instances,

In the network part, the total number of packets that are dispatched per second.

In the application layer the voice calls or cell phone calls which can be attempted per hour.

Delay, it is measured per unit time. Different sorts of delays can be measured depending on the coating or the network services.

In the network part, the time taken for an ip packet to attain its vacation spot.

In the application layer, the time taken to receive a dial tone directly after we lift the recipient.

Quality, it could be measured in several ways with regards to the services of the network.

In the network part, the ratio of the number of packets lost.

In the application layer, the ratio of the number of cell phone calls terminated or the telephone calls that were slipped.

1. 5 Security Management

The security aspects that are associated with securing the network from the snacks, hackers attack, worms and infections and the intrusion of the malicious attempts. It really is recognized in two ways.

Security of Management means that the management is secure. The management applications must be accessed securely. It is generally authorized based on the application form management however, not on the user basics. Without acquiring the management program there is absolutely no use of protecting the interfaces and the network of the management.

Management of security means that the network is secured. It entails only in managing network security. Nowadays we can come across many online goodies. The security snacks doesn't concentrate on on the network it will just concentrate on on the devices which are linked to the network i. e. end users.

The use of FCAPS in controlling the network:

It will manage all the sorts of systems i. e. private, general population, mobile, thin and broadband and including all area sites (WAN, MAN, LAN).

Cost of implementation is reduced.

Transmitting the digital and analog systems.

Signalling the systems and the terminals like the transfer factors of the indicators.

Performance problems can be found easily.

User is manufactured satisfied.

Schedules are implemented shortly.

The reviews on the look is very effective.

Simplified method of network operation center.

Telecommunication services are provided with the program.


Now days many organizations tend to be depending onto it because of that ITIL has been produced by the CCTA in UK. It includes provided the same framework for different kind of activities that happen to be performed by the IT section. ITIL is managed in different sets, they are thought as the related functions service support, service delivery, and the other functional instruction are managerial, software support, computer businesses, security management and environmental. ITIL has been designed to source a good platform to present a high quality. Actually it is owned by CCTA, but it is observed and improved by the Office of Government Commerce.

2. 1 Service Support

The service support targets the users. The customers and the users will be the starting point to the model. They are involved in

Asking for the changes

For communication as well as the updates

Having any troubles and queries

The delivery of the process

In most of the organizations it a Network Functions Center (NOC). It really is mainly focused on one self-control i. e. whether the users are able to usage of the applications what they are required. It focuses on finding the troubles, assisting the users and supplying the new applications that are completed on the internet. It offers the following

Incident Management

The main aim of this is to restore the service procedure as early as possible, minimizes the effects on the business businesses, and verifying that the degrees of quality of the service and the supply are preserved.

It can be explained as a meeting which is not the area of the service operation which may or may not decrease the quality of the service. The reality of this is the normal functions must be restored at the earliest opportunity without influence on the business enterprise or on the end user.

Configuration Management

It assists with representing the logical and the physical functioning of the ICT services which are given or delivered to the end end user. It is only the asset register, since it contains the information about the maintenance and problems which take place during the construction of the things.

Problem management

The primary goal of this is find out the reason why for the reason for the incidents and minimise the reason for the happenings and the problems which are triggered because of the errors. Issues is nothing but the anonymous cause for one or more situations and the known error is nothing but the challenge which is diagnosed successfully. The challenge and known errors are defined by the CCTA as listed below,

Problem is an ailment which is often motivated as the come out of the multiple incidents that contains the overall symptoms. It may also be determined from an individual incident that indicates the single error, associated with unknown.

Known error is an improvement which is determined by the personal made analysis of the key cause of the problem and the work which is developed around.

Change Management

The goal of this is to check what sort of changes are handled using by using methods and techniques. Change can be an event that the position of one or more configuring goods that are approved by the management.

The aim of this consists of:

Back- out activities are reduced.

Change in the utilization of resources.

Disruption of the services.

The terminology for the change management:

Change: the addition, alteration or deletion of CLs.

Change Demand: the form which can be used to store the facts which are to be changed which is sent in to the Change Management by using Change Requestor.

Forward Routine of Changes (FSC): it contains a list of all the changes which will come.

Service Desk

The main aim of this includes initiating the occurrences and the request, and an interface is initiated for the ITSM procedures.

Features include:

Individual point of contact.

Individual point of admittance.

Individual point of leave.

Data integrity.

The Service Table functions include:

Incident Control: service request for the life pattern management.

Communication: the progress and the advising of the workarounds must be continue informing to the clients.

The Service Workplace contains different names:

Call Middle: it consists of managaging of large amount of telephone structured transactions.

Help Desk: at main support level it will conclude the occurrences as soon as possible.

Service Workplace: it not only assists with handling the situations and solving the problems but and yes it provides an software for various activities such as changing the requests, maintaining the agreements etc.

It consists of three different types of constructions:

Central Service Desk: it'll cope with the organizations which contains in multiple locations.

Local Service Desk: it will meet up with the local business needs.

Virtual Service Table: it'll take care of the organizations which provides the locations in multiple countries.

Release management

The software migration team uses it for the intended purpose of platform-independent and the circulation of the program and hardware. The option of the licence and the accredited version of the software and the hardware ensure the proper control of the program and the hardware. The duty of this is to control the grade of the hardware and software through the execution and development.

The goals of the include:

Planning the role of the software. Creation and implementation of the process for distributing and also to mount the changes that appear in the IT. The anticipations of the customers are effectively communicated and maintained through the planning of the new editions. The changes in the IT systems must be manipulated while the circulation and the installation happen.

It concentrate on the cover of the existing environment. It contains the recent or modified software or the hardware which must use the approved changes.

It includes:

Leading software that are released and the best hardware which are updated, this contains the large amount of recent functionalities. Limited software which are released and the limited hardware which are updated, which contains the lesser improvements and fixes, where a few of them have already issued as the crisis fixes. Disaster software and hardware fixes, which contains the corrections of some known problems.

Based on the released device it is sectioned off into:

Delta Release: the changes which have occurred in the program are only released.

Full Release: the entire computer software is allocated.

Packaged Release: it releases the combination of various changes.

2. 2 Service Delivery

It mainly specializes in the services which the ICT must be delivered to supply the sufficient support to the business users. It consists of the following techniques.

Service Level Management

It provides for supervising, id and examining the stages of computer services which can be specified in the Service Level Agreements. It includes in evaluating the change of the grade of services. To control the actions of the service level management it'll become a member of with the functional processes. It's the direct user interface to the customer. It is in charge of the next:

It will check if the It services are supplied aren't.

It will maintain and produce the Service Catalog.

It will be sure the IT Service Continuity designs subsist to support the business and its requirements.

Capacity Management

It helps the best and real cost supply of IT services by providing the organizations match with their business demands. It offers:

Size of the application form.

Workload Management.

Demand Management.


Planning the Capacity.

Resource Management.

Performance Management.

IT Service Continuity Management

It Processes succeed an organisation's capacity to supply the essential aim of service followed by an interruption of service. It is not only reactive methods but also proactive measures.

It involves the next steps:

By conducting the Business Impact Analysis the actions can be prioritised.

The options are assessed for the purpose of recovery.

Contingency plan has been produced.

The plan has been tested, reviewed and modified on regular basis.

Availability Management

The ICT infrastructure functions and services are optimized, service outages are reduced insurance firms a support and give continued level of services to business requirements. The ability of IT aspect has been attended to to perform at a rate all over the time.

Reliability: the performance of the IT component at a concerned level at an determined condition.

Maintainability: the IT element has an capacity to stay or regenerate to an operating state.

Serviceability: the exterior supplier comes with an ability to save the option of the function below the 3rd party.

Resilience: the freedom has been measured from the functional failure and the way the services are kept reliable. Redundancy is about the most methods for resilience.

Security: a service may include a related data. Security is only the option of the info.

Financial Management

It is the procedure to deal the price linked to supply the organisation with the services or resources to start to see the business requirements. It may refer to

Managerial Funding: The financial approach has been concerned itself with managerial significance within the branch money.

Corporate Money: the financial decisions are handled the area of the money.

2. 3 Security Management

Since many years it has become a common network management. The external goodies are justified with the firewalls and the access prevention. The protection under the law and permissions of the configuration management have been included in the security management, so the end users are not awarded with the unauthorized access.

2. 4 Infrastructure Management

In large organizations, the systems have been designed and the troubleshoot by the clubs are different from the team that installs the equipment. Because of this Configuration management is essential for the success of IT organizations. For putting in and configuring of network devices within an corporation the infrastructure management is responsible.

2. 5 Application Management

It was created to ensure that an application has the correct construction design to apply in the environment. This may cover different facets of network management. It really is made to ensure that it's completely enabled to provide the service and delivery to get rid of users.

2. 6 Software Property Management

It is considered for managing an organization. The program products and licenses are extremely expensive. It really is designed like the configuration management, because it provides the information on each device about the software assembly. In large organizations maintaining the software and accounting for the licence is the complicated task.

Uses of ITIL in an organization

The utilization of the resources is upgraded.

Rework is reduced.

The submission of job to the client and enough time management is advanced.

The cost of the quality of the service is justified.

The central process is included.

Excess work is reduced.

The services are provided so that they meet the customers demand.

Know more from the earlier experience.

Be more competitive.

Comparision of ITIL and FCAPS:

FCAPS mainly concentrate on the technology management. ITIL give attention to the best way to run an IT group successfully, i. e. on the procedure and the workflow.

One of the limitation of FCAPS, it cannot concentrate on operational process which is required to operate something Desk. In ITIL platform we've the service desk in service support which provides the operational services to customers or end users.

FCAPS on informs about the condition but doesn't provides us the solution to the problem. But ITIL expectations provides services to solve the challenge using service delivery and service management.

The main task of the FCAPS is the fact that it will help out in controlling the goals of the network. The ITIL is prepared to supply the improved platform.

The difference between FCAPS and ITIL is the fact that, FCAPS consists of only five layers but ITIL is made up of eleven layers.

The occurrence management and the availability management in the ITIL act like the mistake management in the FCAPS. The purpose of problem management in FCAPS is learning the faults in the network and correcting them, but in ITIL if any issue occurs in the management there is no need to rework entire process.

The reason for the event management is repairing the normal businesses and the availability management is from the option of the service to the business at an executable cost.


Finally the aforementioned discussion concludes the use of FCAPS and ITIL in network management. The organizations which implements ITIL are certain to get the good results in the name of the way the services are designed and delivered. The use of any technology is not given by ITIL, but the implementation on the utilization of the tools is effective. Main target of FCAPS starts with scientific view. FCAPS has been proven as low risk and rational. For any corporation to improve its performance or even to get proper outcome both FCAPS and ITIL has to be associated mutually.

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